12 Powerful Ayurvedic Herbs and Spices with Health Benefits
To do so, it employs a holistic approach that combines diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes.
Ayurvedic herbs and spices are also an important component of this approach. They're thought to protect your body from disease and offer a variety of health benefits, including improved digestion and mental health.
Here are 12 Ayurvedic herbs and spices with science-backed health benefits.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a small woody plant native to India and North Africa. Its root and berries are used to produce a very popular Ayurvedic remedy.
It's considered an adaptogen, which means that it's believed to help your body manage stress more effectively. Research has shown that it reduces levels of cortisol, a hormone that your adrenal glands produce in response to stress.
There's also evidence linking ashwagandha to lower levels of anxiety and improved sleep in people with stress and anxiety disorders.
Moreover, research shows that ashwagandha may enhance muscle growth, memory, and male fertility, as well as lower blood sugar levels. However, larger studies are needed to confirm these benefits.
Finally, there's evidence that it may help reduce inflammation and boost your immune system, though more studies are needed.
Ashwagandha is an Ayurvedic spice that may help your body manage stress more effectively. It may also lower your blood sugar levels and improve sleep, memory, muscle growth, and male fertility.
Boswellia, also known as Indian frankincense or olibanum, is made from the resin of the Boswellia serrata tree. It's known for its easily recognizable spicy, woody aroma.
Research suggests that it may be particularly effective at reducing inflammation by preventing the release of inflammation-causing compounds known as leukotrienes.
In test-tube and animal studies, boswellia appears to be as effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), yet with fewer side effects.
Human studies link boswellia to reduced pain, improved mobility, and a greater range of movement in people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It may also help prevent oral infections and fight gingivitis.
Moreover, it may improve digestion in people with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as breathing in people with chronic asthma.
Boswellia is an Ayurvedic spice with anti-inflammatory properties. It may reduce joint pain, enhance oral health, and improve digestion, as well as increase breathing capacity in people with chronic asthma.
Triphala is an Ayurvedic remedy consisting of the following three small medicinal fruits (26Trusted Source):
- amla (Emblica officinalis, or Indian gooseberry)
- bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica)
- haritaki (Terminalia chebula)
Test-tube and animal studies show that triphala may reduce inflammation caused by arthritis, as well as prevent or limit the growth of certain types of cancer.
It may also function as a natural laxative, reducing constipation, abdominal pain, and flatulence while improving the frequency and consistency of bowel movements in people with gut disorders.
In addition, a limited number of studies suggest that a mouthwash containing triphala may reduce plaque buildup, decrease gum inflammation, and prevent the growth of bacteria in the mouth.
Triphala is an Ayurvedic remedy consisting of three Ayurvedic spices — amla, bibhitaki, and haritaki. It may help reduce joint inflammation, improve digestion, and promote oral health.
Brahmi (Bacopa monieri) is a staple herb in Ayurvedic medicine.
According to test-tube and animal studies, brahmi appears to have strong anti-inflammatory properties that are as effective as common NSAIDs.
Studies also link it to improvements in learning rates, attention, memory, and information processing, as well as reduced symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as inattention, impulsivity, poor self-control, and restlessness.
Some studies further suggest that brahmi may have adaptogenic properties, which means that it may help improve your body's ability to deal with stress and anxiety. However, more research is needed before strong conclusions can be made.
Brahmi is an Ayurvedic herb believed to lower inflammation, improve brain function, and reduce symptoms of ADHD. It may also increase your body's ability to deal with stress, though more research is needed.
Cumin is a spice native to the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia. It's made from the seeds of the Cuminum cyminum plant, which are known for their distinctive earthy, nutty, and spicy flavor.
Research shows that cumin may boost the activity of digestive enzymes and facilitate the release of bile from the liver, speeding digestion and easing the digestion of fats.
Studies have also linked this Ayurvedic spice to reduced symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), such as abdominal pain and bloating.
Plus, cumin may protect against type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels and improving insulin sensitivity. It may also protect against heart disease by increasing HDL (good) cholesterol while reducing triglycerides and LDL (bad) cholesterol.
Cumin likewise appears to possess antimicrobial properties that may reduce the risk of certain foodborne infections. Still, more studies are needed to confirm this.
Cumin is an Ayurvedic spice commonly used to add flavor to meals. It may decrease symptoms of IBS, improve risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease, and perhaps even offer some protection against foodborne infection.
Turmeric, the spice that gives curry its characteristic yellow color, is another popular Ayurvedic remedy.
Curcumin, its main active compound, has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Test-tube research shows that it may be equally or even more effective than some anti-inflammatory drugs — without all of their side effects.
Also, turmeric may help protect against heart disease, in part by improving blood flow as effectively as exercise or certain pharmaceutical drugs. One study further suggests that it may be as effective as Prozac, a drug commonly used to treat depression.
Moreover, compounds in turmeric may help preserve brain function by increasing brain levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Low levels of BDNF have been linked to disorders like Alzheimer's and depression.
That said, most studies have used very large amounts of curcumin, whereas turmeric comprises only around 3% of this compound. Thus, amounts larger than those found in turmeric are likely needed to attain these health benefits, and such large doses may cause stomach upset.
Turmeric is the Ayurvedic spice that gives curry its yellow color. Curcumin, its main compound, may help reduce inflammation and improve heart and brain health. However, large amounts are likely needed to attain these benefits.
9. Licorice Root
Licorice root, which is native to Europe and Asia, comes from the Glycyrrhiza glabra plant and holds a central place in Ayurvedic medicine.
Test-tube and human studies suggest that licorice root may help reduce inflammation and fight viruses and bacteria. It also appears to offer relief from a sore throat and promote oral health by protecting against dental cavities and Candida.
This Ayurvedic spice may likewise help prevent or manage heartburn, bloating, nausea, belching, and stomach ulcers. When applied to the skin, it may reduce symptoms of skin rash, including redness, itching, and swelling.
However, the only studies on this root are generally small, and more research is needed to confirm these benefits.
Licorice root is an Ayurvedic spice that may help reduce inflammation and protect against various infections. It may also treat digestive problems and relieve skin irritations.
10. Gotu Kola
Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), or "the herb of longevity," is another popular Ayurvedic remedy. It's made from a tasteless, odorless plant with fan-shaped green leaves that grows in and around water.
One small study suggests that gotu kola supplements may improve people's memory after they have had a stroke.
Moreover, in one study, people with generalized anxiety disorder reported less stress, anxiety, and depression after replacing their antidepressants with gotu kola for 60 days.
There is also some evidence that the herb may help prevent stretch marks, reduce varicose veins, help wounds heal faster, and diminish symptoms of eczema and psoriasis. However, more research is needed.
Animal studies further suggest that this Ayurvedic herb may relieve joint pain, but more studies are needed to confirm this effect.
Gotu kola is an Ayurvedic herb that may help boost memory and reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as improve a variety of skin conditions.
11. Bitter Melon
Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a tropical vine closely related to zucchini, squash, cucumber, and pumpkin. It's considered a staple in Asian cuisine and packed with nutrients and powerful antioxidants.
Research suggests that bitter melon may help lower blood sugar levels and promote the secretion of insulin, the hormone responsible for keeping blood sugar levels stable.
If you use insulin to manage your blood sugar levels, consult your healthcare before adding bitter melon to your daily routine to prevent your blood sugar levels from becoming dangerously low.
Animal studies further suggest that it may lower triglyceride and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, though human studies are needed to confirm this.
Bitter melon is an Ayurvedic spice that may help lower blood sugar levels and boost insulin secretion. It may also reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, though more research is needed before strong conclusions can be made.
Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), which is sometimes referred to as the "queen of spices," has been part of Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times.
Research suggests that cardamom powder may help reduce blood pressure in people with elevated levels. There's also evidence that inhaling cardamom essential oil may increase the uptake of oxygen into the lungs during exercise.
Moreover, test-tube and animal research suggests that cardamom may help protect against Helicobacter pylori bacteria, which is a common cause of stomach ulcers, and may reduce the size of gastric ulcers by at least 50% or even eradicate them.
Still, research in humans is needed before strong conclusions can be made.
Cardamom is an Ayurvedic spice that may lower blood pressure, improve breathing, and potentially help stomach ulcers heal. However, more research is necessary.
Ayurvedic herbs and spices are generally considered safe when consumed in amounts typically used to prepare or flavor foods. Yet, most of the studies supporting their benefits typically used supplements offering doses far exceeding that.
Supplementing with such large doses may not be suitable for children, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, people with known medical conditions, or those taking medication.
Therefore, it's necessary to consult your healthcare provider before adding any Ayurvedic supplements to your regimen.
It's also worth noting that the content and quality of Ayurvedic products are not regulated. Some Ayurvedic preparations may mix Ayurvedic herbs and spices with minerals, metals, or gems, rendering them potentially harmful.
For instance, a recent study found that 65% of Ayurvedic products studied contained lead, while 32–38% also included mercury and arsenic, some of which had concentrations that were up to several thousand times higher than the safe daily limit.
Another study reported that up to 40% of people who use Ayurvedic preparations had elevated levels of lead or mercury in their blood.
Therefore, those interested in Ayurvedic preparations should only purchase them from reputable companies that ideally have their products tested by a third party.
Ayurvedic herbs and spices are generally safe in small amounts. Supplements containing large doses of these herbs and spices, as well as Ayurvedic preparations that have mixed them with other minerals, metals, or gems may be harmful.
The Bottom Line
Ayurvedic herbs and spices have been an integral part of traditional Indian medicine for centuries
An increasing amount of scientific evidence supports their many proposed health benefits, including protection against type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Thus, adding small amounts of these herbs and spices may help both flavor your meals and boost your health.
That said, large doses may not be suitable for everyone, so make sure to seek advice from your healthcare provider before adding Ayurvedic supplements to your healthcare regimen.
And remember, Ayurveda employs a holistic approach to health that also includes physical activity, adequate sleep, stress management, and eating a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
By Melissa Gaskill
Two decades ago scientists and volunteers along the Virginia coast started tossing seagrass seeds into barren seaside lagoons. Disease and an intense hurricane had wiped out the plants in the 1930s, and no nearby meadows could serve as a naturally dispersing source of seeds to bring them back.
Restored seagrass beds in Virginia now provide habitat for hundreds of thousands of scallops. Bob Orth, Virginia Institute of Marine Science / CC BY 2.0<p>The paper is part of a growing trend of evidence suggesting seagrass meadows can be easier to restore than other coastal habitats.</p><p>Successful seagrass-restoration methods include <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304377099000078?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">transplanting shoots</a>, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1061-2971.2004.00314.x" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">mechanized planting</a> and, more recently, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17438-4" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">biodegradable mats</a>. Removing threats, proximity to donor seagrass beds, planting techniques, project size and site selection all play roles in a restoration effort's success.</p><p>Human assistance isn't always necessary, though. In areas where some beds remain, seagrass can even recover on its own when stressors are reduced or removed. For example, seagrass began to recover when Tampa Bay improved its water quality by reducing nitrogen loads from runoff by roughly 90%.</p><p>But more and more, seagrass meadows struggle to hang on.</p><p>The marine flowering plants have declined globally since the 1930s and currently disappear at a rate equivalent to a football field every 30 minutes, according to the <a href="https://www.unep.org/resources/report/out-blue-value-seagrasses-environment-and-people" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">United Nations Environment Programme</a>. And research published in 2018 found the rate of decline is <a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2018GB005941" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">accelerating</a> in many regions.</p><p>The causes of decline vary and overlap, depending on the region. They include thermal stress from climate change; human activities such as dredging, anchoring and coastal infrastructure; and intentional removal in tourist areas. In addition, increased runoff from land carries sediment that clouds the water, blocking sunlight the plants need for photosynthesis. Runoff can also carry contaminants and nutrients from fertilizer that disrupt habitats and cause algal blooms.</p><p>All that damage comes with a cost.</p>
The Value of Seagrass<p>As with ecosystems like rainforests and <a href="https://therevelator.org/mangroves-climate-change/" target="_blank">mangroves</a>, loss of seagrass increases carbon dioxide emissions. And that spells trouble not just for certain habitats but for the whole planet.</p><p>Although seagrass covers at most 0.2% of the seabed, it <a href="https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/seagrass-secret-weapon-fight-against-global-heating" target="_blank">accounts for 10%</a> of the ocean's capacity to store carbon and soils, and these meadows store carbon dioxide an estimated 30 times faster than most terrestrial forests. Slow decomposition rates in seagrass sediments contribute to their <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238506081_Assessing_the_capacity_of_seagrass_meadows_for_carbon_burial_Current_limitations_and_future_strategies" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">high carbon burial rates</a>. In Australia, according to <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.15204" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">research</a> by scientists at Edith Cowan University, loss of seagrass meadows since the 1950s has increased carbon dioxide emissions by an amount equivalent to 5 million cars a year. The United Nations Environment Programme reports that a 29% decline in seagrass in Chesapeake Bay between 1991 and 2006 resulted in an estimated loss of up to 1.8 million tons of carbon.</p>
Eelgrass in the river delta at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Alaska ShoreZone Program NOAA / NMFS / AKFSC; Courtesy of Mandy Lindeberg / NOAA / NMFS / AKFSC<p>Seagrasses also protect costal habitats. A healthy meadow slows wave energy, reduces erosion and lowers the risk of flooding. In Morro Bay, California, a 90% decline in the seagrass species known as eelgrass caused extensive erosion, according to a <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272771420303528?via%3Dihub" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">paper</a> from researchers at California Polytechnic State University.</p><p>"Right away, we noticed big patterns in sediment loss or erosion," said lead author Ryan Walter. "Many studies have shown this on individual eelgrass beds, but very few studies looked at it on a systemwide scale."</p><p>In the tropics, seagrass's natural protection can reduce the need for expensive and often-environmentally unfriendly <a href="https://www.nioz.nl/en/news/zeegras-spaart-stranden-en-geld" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">beach nourishments</a> regularly conducted in tourism areas.</p><p>Seagrass ecosystems improve water quality and clarity, filtering particles out of the water column and preventing resuspension of sediment. This role could be even more important in the future. By producing oxygen through photosynthesis, meadows could help offset decreased oxygen levels caused by warmer water temperatures (oxygen is less soluble in warm than in cold water).</p><p>The meadows also provide vital habitat for a wide variety of marine life, including fish, sea turtles, birds, marine mammals such as manatees, invertebrates and algae. They provide nursery habitat for <a href="https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/32636/seagrass.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">roughly 20%</a> of the world's largest fisheries — an <a href="https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/science/seagrass-meadows-harbor-wildlife-for-centuries/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">estimated 70%</a> of fish habitats in Florida alone.</p><p>Conversely, their disappearance can contribute to die-offs of marine life. The loss of more than 20 square miles of seagrass in Florida's Biscayne Bay may have helped set the stage for a widespread <a href="https://www.wlrn.org/2020-08-14/the-seagrass-died-that-may-have-triggered-a-widespread-fish-kill-in-biscayne-bay" target="_blank">fish kill</a> in summer 2020. Lack of grasses to produce oxygen left the basin more vulnerable when temperatures rose and oxygen levels dropped as a result, says Florida International University professor Piero Gardinali.</p>
Damaged Systems, a Changing Climate<p>Governments and conservationists around the world have already put a lot of effort into coastal restoration efforts. And that's helped some seagrass populations.</p><p>Where stressors remain, though, restoration grows more complicated. <a href="https://www.rug.nl/research/portal/en/publications/the-future-of-seagrass-ecosystem-services-in-a-changing-world(3a8c56db-7bed-4c9e-ac7f-c72453e2a102).html" target="_blank">Research</a> published this September found that only 37% of seagrass restorations have survived. Newly restored meadows remain vulnerable to the original stressors that depleted them, as well as to storms — and <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/climate-crisis">climate change</a>.</p>
Seagrass in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida. Alicia Wellman / Florida Fish and Wildlife / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0<p>In Chesapeake Bay a cold-water species of seagrass is currently hitting its heat limit, especially in summer, according to Alexander Challen Hyman of University of Florida's School of Natural Resources and Environment. As waters continue to warm due to climate change, the species likely will disappear there.</p><p>Climate-driven sea-level rise complicates the problem as well. Seagrasses thrive at specific depths — too shallow and they dry out or are eaten, too deep and there isn't enough light for photosynthesis.</p>
But There’s Good News, Too<p>Luckily, left to its own devices, a seagrass meadow can flourish for hundreds of years, according to a <a href="https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1861" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">paper</a> published last year by Hyman and other researchers from the University of Florida. The researchers arrived at their conclusion by looking at shells of living mollusks and fossil shells to estimate the ages of meadows in Florida's Big Bend region on the Gulf Coast.</p><p>That area has extensive, relatively pristine seagrass meadows. "Our motivation was to understand the past history of these systems, and shells store a lot of history," said co-author Michal Kowalewski.</p><p>A high degree of similarity between living and dead shells indicates a stable area, while a mismatch suggests an area shifted from seagrass to barren sand. The researchers found that long-term accumulations of shells resembled living ones, suggesting that the seagrass habitats have been stable over time.</p><p>That stability allows biodiversity to thrive, creating conditions where specialist species can survive and flourish, according to Hyman.</p><p>Discovering the long-term stability of seagrass meadows has implications for choosing restoration sites, Kowalewski notes.</p><p>"There must be reasons they thrive in one place, while a mile away they don't and fossil data says they probably never did," he said. "If we remove a seagrass patch, we cannot hope to plant it somewhere else. It's not just the seagrass that is special. The location at which it's found is special, too."</p><p>A better approach is conserving these habitats in the first place, but we're not doing enough of that right now. The UN reports that marine protected areas safeguard just 26% of recorded seagrass meadows, compared with 40% of coral reefs and 43% of mangroves.</p>
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