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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has chosen not to ban chemicals from food packaging that have been linked to serious health impacts including breast cancer, diabetes, asthma and brain development in children. 

The FDA’s decision, announced Thursday, came in response to two petitions sent by environmental and public health groups in 2016 asking the agency to ban phthalates from use in food packaging and food production equipment. 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has chosen not to ban chemicals from food packaging that have been linked to serious health impacts including breast cancer, diabetes, asthma and brain development in children. 

The FDA’s decision, announced Thursday, came in response to two petitions sent by environmental and public health groups in 2016 asking the agency to ban phthalates from use in food packaging and food production equipment. 

“FDA’s decision recklessly green-lights ongoing contamination of our food with phthalates, putting another generation of children at risk of life-altering harm to their brain development and exacerbating health inequities experienced by Black and Latina women,” Earthjustice attorney Katherine O’Brien said in a statement.

Earthjustice was one of the groups behind the petitions, alongside Environmental Defense Fund, Center for Environmental Health, Center for Food Safety, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Clean Water Action, Consumer Federation of America, Improving Kids’ Environment, Learning Disabilities Association of America, Breast Cancer Prevention Partners and Natural Resources Defense Council. The groups are concerned about phthalates because they are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have been linked to a variety of health impacts including birth defects, infertility, miscarriage, breast cancer, diabetes, and asthma. Studies have shown that they can leach from packaging into food and drink. They can also transfer to a pregnant woman’s fetus via her blood, according to the Environmental Working Group. Childhood exposure is especially dangerous because phthalates have been associated with impaired brain development and behavioral disorders. Indeed, Congress decided that many of these chemicals were too dangerous for children’s toys more than 10 years ago, Earthjustice pointed out.

There is also an environmental justice component to the problem: people of color and low-income people are more likely to face health impacts because of phthalate exposure. This may be because marginalized communities are more likely to consume fast food, according to The Hill.

“For too long, the FDA has largely remained on the sidelines as concerns have mounted over phthalates in food, exposing all of us to unnecessary risk, especially infants, young children, and Black and Latina women,” Dr. Peter G. Lurie, president of Center for Science in the Public Interest, said in a statement. “With today’s decision, the FDA is signaling its intent to remain planted on the sidelines, prolonging an already protracted and profound environmental injustice. I fear it’s a decision the agency will come to regret as we learn even more about the adverse health impacts of these discredited chemicals on vulnerable members of our society.”

In the two petitions, The Hill reported, environmental groups had asked the FDA to: 

  1. Ban a total of 28 phthalates from food contact.
  2. Ban certain phthalates from food contact and rescind authorization for others. 

At the same time, the FDA also accepted a 2018 petition from industry group Flexible Vinyl Alliance to ban 25 phthalates that manufacturers no longer use. In its decision, the FDA said that the environmental groups had not demonstrated that the chemicals they wanted banned were unsafe. At the same time, the FDA did request more information about the safety of phthalates still in use. 

“The purpose of this request is to provide FDA with all sources of relevant information to support our review of the current use levels and safe use of these ortho-phthalates in food contact applications,” the agency wrote. 

O’Brien slammed the agency for dragging its feet on the issue.

“FDA’s announcement that it will now start reviewing new data on phthalate safety — six years after advocates sounded the alarm — is outrageous and seeks to sidestep FDA’s legal duty to address the current science in proceedings on the existing petitions,” she said in a statement. 

The FDA’s response to the petitions was already long delayed. The agency is supposed to respond to petitions within 180 days, but the environmental groups had to sue in December of 2021 to force an answer. 

“We submitted these petitions in 2016. The law required a decision several years ago. FDA’s failure to act until they were sued is consistent with its broader failings laid bare by Politico last month,” Tom Neltner, senior director of safer chemicals for the Environmental Defense Fund, said in a statement emailed to EcoWatch. “Despite the extra time, FDA has continued to ignore the widespread contamination of food by ortho-phthalates and related chemicals in our food and the cumulative effect these chemicals have on children’s health. It’s outrageous that FDA decided chemicals banned from children’s toys should remain in the food we eat. Families deserve better from FDA.”

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Looking to sleep under the stars this summer? Getting out for a camping trip is easier than you might think, but you’ll want to be prepared. Here are a few guidelines for your first night in the great outdoors.

Expense can often be a deterrent to getting outdoors. Luckily, it’s possible to get outdoor gear cheaply, or even rent the big-ticket items, like tents or camp stoves. Outdoors Geek offers individual rental items, or packages for specific trips, like their Family Camping rental package, starting at $334 for 3 days’ worth of camping material for a family of four. You can even purchase the gear afterwards if you choose. Most major outdoor retailers like REI also offer gear rentals, along with many smaller, independent outdoor stores.

Looking to sleep under the stars this summer? Getting out for a camping trip is easier than you might think, but you’ll want to be prepared. Here are a few guidelines for your first night in the great outdoors.

Getting Gear

Expense can often be a deterrent to getting outdoors. Luckily, it’s possible to get outdoor gear cheaply, or even rent the big-ticket items, like tents or camp stoves. Outdoors Geek offers individual rental items, or packages for specific trips, like their Family Camping rental package, starting at $334 for 3 days’ worth of camping material for a family of four. You can even purchase the gear afterwards if you choose. Most major outdoor retailers like REI also offer gear rentals, along with many smaller, independent outdoor stores.

If you’re planning for multiple trips, it might be worth investing in new or used gear. Check out Facebook Marketplace, eBay, Craigslist, and local yard sales for great deals on tents, sleeping bags, and other outdoor essentials. Many outdoor retailers also sell lightly used gear for a fraction of the price.

Picking a Site

When picking the perfect campsite location, your choices can be boiled down into two major categories: designated camping and dispersed camping. Designated camping sites are those made specifically for camping, and often require reservations and fees. They often have certain amenities, like picnic tables, toilets, running water, trash cans, or even electricity. Many campgrounds get quite busy during the peak summer season, so make sure to book a space in advance.  

Dispersed camping can be a much more isolated, remote experience, and might require a terrain-friendly vehicle or hiking out to the site.  You’ll need to be more comfortable out in nature without amenities, but camping outside of designated campgrounds frees you from both the crowds and the fees (unless you’re inside a State or National Park with entry fees). Many National Park Service lands have restrictions on camping to protect resources and wildlife, although dispersed camping is allowed in some areas, along with National Forest and Bureau of Land Management lands. Check the park’s website or with a ranger before setting up camp.

The Dyrt has a service for a yearly fee to find good dispersed camping sites, and apps like Hipcamp and AllStays help you locate both designated and dispersed camping sites. Keep in mind that cell phone service is often spotty in these areas, so have directions to your destination saved on your phone and prepare accordingly.

Campsite Essentials

To set up a safe, comfortable sleeping arrangement, you’ll need a few basic necessities, including a tent (with a footprint, rain fly, and supplies for staking it), and sleeping bags and pads.

Before buying (or renting) a tent, decide which size is best for you: two people can sleep just fine in a two-person tent, but for more space to spread out, a three-person might be a better bet. Similarly, for a family of four, a six-person tent leaves plenty of extra room for belongings (and any furry friends that may join). Practice setting up the tent at home first, and make sure you have a correctly-sized footprint, which provides a barrier between the tent and the ground and prevents moisture from seeping through the floor. Alternatively, set up a cozy bed in the back of your car. For ventilation during the warm summer months, open up a sunroof or window and cover with a cheap piece of mesh, secured with a piece of tape. Or, bring a packable hammock to hang between two trees (although you might want to buy a mosquito net to fit it).

Warm bedding is a must on any camping excursion. Sleeping pads are crucial for comfort, and the best also prevent the loss of body heat from the cold ground beneath you. Check the temperature ratings for your chosen sleeping bag, and make sure they’ll be adequate for the weather. Bring along a camping pillow, or simply stuff your sleeping bag sack with extra clothing for a DIY pillow. Blankets are good for extra layering on especially cold nights, like these packable ones from Rumpl.

Food and Cooking

Camping doesn’t require fancy culinary skills or equipment, but it does require some planning. Make a meal plan ahead of time, and always bring at least one extra days’ worth of food just in case.

You might be perfectly happy with just packaged snacks and easy items – veggies and hummus, chips and salsa, granola bars, pre-made sandwiches, etc. – that can be kept in a cooler, but if you’re planning a longer camping trip, you’ll likely need to do some cooking. Try to plan meals that are easy and require minimal work, and do whatever prep work you can beforehand. Dehydrated foods – which you can make yourself or purchase as pre-made meals – are usually the easiest option, requiring only boiled water to prepare.

To enjoy a hot meal, you’ll need to come prepared with a way to cook it. Standard propane camp stoves are reliable, large, and great for big groups of people. They’re rather bulky, a you’ll need to attach a propane tank, so they’re better for trips that don’t require hiking far from the car. Canister stoves are very small and light, which makes them ideal for backpacking and camping alike, like the popular JetBoil stove systems. The pressurized isobutane and propane gas in their small canisters is easy to transport, but they’re harder to use when cooking for a large group, or balancing more than a small pan (they’re really meant for boiling water). Liquid fuel backpacking stoves are a little bulkier than canister stoves, and the fuel is harder to store long-term between trips, but they’re still good for cold-weather camping.

Think about the other items you’ll need as well: dishware and silverware, spatulas, potholders, kitchen towels, cutting boards and knives, soap and sponges for cleaning up (non-toxic soap is ideal), can openers, and folding chairs for enjoying your meal.

Other Essentials

Water

An adequate water supply is vital to any camping trip. Two gallons per person per day is a good rule of thumb, including water for drinking, cooking, and cleaning. Bring large water canisters or individual, refillable jugs for each person, always airing on the side of too much rather than too little. A simple water filtration system is also good to have on hand for emergencies.

Clothing

Pack an outfit for every day with extra layers, including a few extra pairs of socks. Choose lightweight but warm items, and rain gear in the event of bad weather. Bring good shoes for hiking or other outdoor activities, as well as a casual pair to wear around the campsite.

Lighting

It’s dark out there in the wild! Bring lanterns and flashlights to light up the campsite, as well as extra batteries. Some solar-powered lights are great as well, but bring a battery-powered alternative as a backup.

Toiletries and Medical Supplies

You might not be able to do your entire skincare routine in the wilderness, but bring the essentials, including toothbrushes and toothpaste, hand sanitizer and soap, and prescription medications.  Always bring a well-stocked first aid kit too, and make sure you’re prepared to use its contents. Don’t forget toilet paper and a trowel if there are no bathrooms (and all used toilet paper needs to be carried out with you or thrown away at the camp site).

Fire Safety

Climate change has made many areas of the United States – particularly the West and Southwest – hotter and drier, including in many National Parks, heightening the risk of wildfires. Make sure you read up on the fire regulations where you are staying, and determine whether campfires are allowed. Only make campfires if you are confident in your ability to keep it contained and can completely extinguish it before you leave. Before packing out, douse the fire with water, then stir the ashes, breaking apart the embers, and douse again. Repeat until there are no remaining embers and the fire is completely extinguished. Stay away from overhanging branches and don’t use any extra stimulants or inputs, like gasoline.

Wildlife Safety

Before heading to a campsite, look up wildlife concerns in the area and things that visitors should be aware of.

Proper food storage is crucial to preventing bear encounters in the wild. Bears are attracted to anything with a scent, which includes toothpaste, soap, and even scented lip balm. Some campsites have bear-proof boxes for visitors to store their food, but at a dispersed campsite, you’ll need to bring adequate equipment. Check what the area rangers require/recommend for bear safety, which will usually include bear bags or canisters. Keep food packed away in the car during the day – even if you’re only stepping away for a few minutes – and at night, store all food and smelly items in bear bags or bear canisters at least 100 yards from your campsite. Put pans or other items on top that will clang when knocked over to alert you to the presence bears. Hanging food on high, sturdy tree limbs out of reach of bears is also an option, but is more labor-intensive.

Leave No Trace

Otherwise known as LNT, apply Leave No Trance principals to any outdoor adventure. When camping, hiking, or otherwise enjoying the great outdoors, we are entering delicate – and often protected – ecosystems. Always leave campsites in the same condition (or better) than when you arrived, carrying out everything you came in with, including food scraps, toilet paper, and trash.  

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Rashes are irritating for humans, as well as other animals, especially when they itch. When a dolphin gets a rash, they can’t just run down to the pharmacy and pick up some ointment for it, but they may have a treatment method. Scientists have observed Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in the Northern Red Sea getting in line to rub themselves against corals, purportedly to treat skin conditions, reported Phys.org.

The first time wildlife biologist at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, and co-lead author of the study Angela Ziltener saw dolphins rubbing themselves against coral off the Egyptian Coast in the Northern Red Sea was in 2009. After observing that the dolphins chose certain corals to rub against, she and her research team wanted to understand the meaning behind the behavior. 

Rashes are irritating for humans, as well as other animals, especially when they itch. When a dolphin gets a rash, they can’t just run down to the pharmacy and pick up some ointment for it, but they may have a treatment method. Scientists have observed Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in the Northern Red Sea getting in line to rub themselves against corals, purportedly to treat skin conditions, reported Phys.org.

The first time wildlife biologist at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, and co-lead author of the study Angela Ziltener saw dolphins rubbing themselves against coral off the Egyptian Coast in the Northern Red Sea was in 2009. After observing that the dolphins chose certain corals to rub against, she and her research team wanted to understand the meaning behind the behavior. 

In a new paper, Ziltener and her team demonstrated that the corals the dolphins chose to rub against have medicinal properties, which led the scientists to believe that the dolphins are using them to self-medicate skin conditions.

“I hadn’t seen this coral rubbing behavior described before, and it was clear that the dolphins knew exactly which coral they wanted to use,” said Ziltener, as Phys.org reported. “I thought, ‘There must be a reason.’”

The study, “Evidence that Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins self-medicate with invertebrates in coral reefs,” was published in the journal iScience.

According to the study, Ziltener and her team have been studying about 360 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in the Northern Red Sea around El Gouna and Hurghada and have observed dolphins rubbing their skin against specific marine species: gorgonian coral (Rumphella aggregata), leather coral (Sarcophyton) and the sponge species Ircinia.

“It’s very intensive,” Ziltener said of how dolphins act with certain corals, as reported by The Guardian. “They don’t just go through [the coral] – they go up, they come back down again and they rub their belly, their ventral area and the back.”

Ziltener dived down to observe the dolphins, and it took a while to get them to trust her, Phys.org reported. Once she and her team were able to get close to the dolphins on a regular basis, they observed that when the dolphins rubbed against the small polyps of the corals, mucus was released. 

The team gathered coral samples, and, upon analysis by lead author and analytical chemist at Justus Liebig University Giessen in Germany Gertrud Morlock and her team, it was discovered that the gorgonian coral, leather coral and sponge species contained “17 active metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidative, hormonal, and toxic activities,” reported Phys.org.

The presence of the substances led the researchers to conclude that the mucus was being used to medicate the dolphins’ skin.

“Repeated rubbing allows the active metabolites to come into contact with the skin of the dolphins,” Morlock said, as Phys.org reported. “These metabolites could help them achieve skin homeostasis and be useful for prophylaxis or auxiliary treatment against microbial infections.”

The reefs containing these medicinal corals are recreational places where dolphins congregate to take naps and refresh themselves, like something akin to dolphin spas.

“Many people don’t realize that these coral reefs are bedrooms for the dolphins, and playgrounds as well,” Ziltener said, as reported by Phys.org. “It’s almost like they are showering, cleaning themselves before they go to sleep or get up for the day.”

Out of concern for the dolphins and their habitat, Ziltener started the conservation group Dolphin Watch Alliance to educate tourists, tour guides and the public on how to conduct themselves in a way that won’t harm the dolphins.

“The tourism industry makes a lot of money now out of dolphin swimming. People are dreaming of swimming with the dolphins, so they are figuring out which reefs they use and disturbing the dolphins if they don’t follow the guidelines for how to approach them in a responsible way,” Ziltener said, as Phys.org reported.

Ziltener and her team hope to one day pinpoint which corals and sponges the dolphins use to medicate particular parts of their bodies.

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