EcoWatch is a community of experts publishing quality, science-based content on environmental issues, causes, and solutions for a healthier planet and life.
EcoWatch writer Tiffany Duong holds up discarded fishing line removed from a coral reef head during a Dive Against Debris. Sara Nilsson / Ocean Rebels

PADI (Professional Association of Scuba Divers) is inviting you to dive in (literally) to make positive changes for our ocean. The scuba diving behemoth and PADI AWARE, a non-profit public charity driving change for our ocean at the local level, are celebrating the fourth annual AWARE Week from Sept. 18 - 26 this year.

Read More Show Less
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
A solar panel production line in China on Sept. 8, 2021. Ruan Xuefeng / VCG via Getty Images

U.S. officials are blocking the import of solar panels from China they believe may have been produced using forced labor. Experts warn the move may slow President Biden's push for more renewable energy projects.

Read More Show Less
MAXSHOT / iStock / Getty Images

Solar panels allow you to harness the sun's clean, renewable energy, potentially cutting your electric bills as well as your environmental footprint. But do solar panels work on cloudy days, or during seasons of less-than-optimal sun exposure? For homeowners who live outside of the Sun Belt, this is a critical question to consider before moving ahead with solar panel installation.

In this article, we'll go over how solar panels work on cloudy days, whether solar panels work at night, and how to ensure you always have accessible power — even when your panels aren't producing solar energy.

How Solar Panels Work on Cloudy Days

Photovoltaic (PV) solar panels can use both direct and indirect sunlight to generate electrical power. This means they can still be productive even when there is cloud coverage. With that said, solar panels are most efficient and productive when they are soaking up direct sunlight on sunny days.

While solar panels still work even when the light is reflected or partially obstructed by clouds, their energy production capacity will be diminished. On average, solar panels will generate 10 to 25% of their normal power output on days with heavy cloud coverage.

With clouds usually comes rain, and here's a fact that might surprise you: Rain actually helps solar panels work more effectively. That's because rain washes away any dirt or dust that has gathered on your panels so that they can more efficiently absorb sunlight.

Do Solar Panels Work at Night?

While solar panels can still function on cloudy days, they cannot work at night. The reason for this is simple: Solar panels work because of a scientific principle called the photovoltaic effect, wherein solar cells are activated by sunlight, generating electrical current. Without light, the photovoltaic effect cannot be triggered, and no electric power can be generated.

One way to tell if your panels are still producing energy is to look at public lights. As a general rule of thumb, if street lamps or other lights are turned off — whether on cloudy days or in the evening — your solar panels will be producing energy. If they're illuminated, it's likely too dark out for your solar panel system to work.

Storing Solar Energy to Use on Cloudy Days and at Night

During hours of peak sunlight, your solar panels may actually generate more power than you need. This surplus power can be used to provide extra electricity on cloudy days or at night.

But how do you store this energy for future use? There are a couple of options to consider:

You can store surplus energy in a solar battery.

When you add a solar battery to your residential solar installation, any excess electricity can be collected and used during hours of suboptimal sun exposure, including nighttime hours and during exceptionally cloudy weather.

Batteries may allow you to run your solar PV system all day long, though there are some drawbacks of battery storage to be aware of:

  • It's one more thing you need to install.
  • It adds to the total cost of your solar system.
  • Batteries will take up a bit of space.
  • You will likely need multiple batteries if you want electricity for more than a handful of hours. For example, Tesla solar installations require two Powerwall batteries if your system is over 13 kilowatts.

You can use a net metering program.

Net metering programs enable you to transmit any excess power your system produces into your municipal electric grid, receiving credits from your utility company. Those credits can be cashed in to offset any electrical costs you incur on overcast days or at night when you cannot power your home with solar energy alone.

Net metering can ultimately be a cost-effective option and can significantly lower your electricity bills, but there are a few drawbacks to consider, including:

  • You may not always break even.
  • In some cases, you may still owe some money to your utility provider.
  • Net metering programs are not offered in all areas and by all utility companies.

Is Residential Solar Right for You?

Now that you know solar panels can work even when the sun isn't directly shining and that there are ways to store your energy for times your panels aren't producing electricity, you may be more interested in installing your own system.

You can get started with a free, no-obligation quote from a top solar company in your area by filling out the 30-second form below.

FAQ: Do Solar Panels Work on Cloudy Days?

How efficient are solar panels on cloudy days?

It depends on the panels, but as a rule of thumb, you can expect your solar panels to work at 10 to 25% efficiency on cloudy days.

How do solar panels work when there is no sun?

If there is literally no sunlight (e.g., at night), then solar panels do not work. This is because the photovoltaic effect, which is the process through which panels convert sunlight into energy, requires there to be some light available to convert.

However, you can potentially use surplus solar power that you've stored in a battery. Also note that solar panels can work with indirect light, meaning they can function even when the sun is obscured by cloud coverage.

Do solar panels work on snowy days?

If there is cloud coverage and diminished sunlight, then solar panels will not work at their maximum efficiency level on snowy days. With that said, the snow itself is usually not a problem, particularly because a dusting of snow is easily whisked away by the wind.

Snow will only impede your solar panels if the snowfall is so extreme that the panels become completely buried, or if the weight of the snow compromises the integrity of your solar panel structures.

Will my solar panels generate electricity during cloudy, rainy or snowy days?

Cloudy days may limit your solar panel's efficiency, but you'll still be able to generate some electricity. Rainy days can actually help clean your panels, making them even more effective. And snowy days are only a problem if the snow is so extreme that the panels are totally submerged, without any part of them exposed to the sun.

A Komodo dragon uses its long tongue to smell as it explores. David Clode / Unsplash

Komodo dragons seem like the stuff of fairy tales and myths.

Read More Show Less
Motorists in morning rush-hour traffic in south London, England on June 15, 2021. Richard Baker / In Pictures via Getty Images
Air pollution is an underrated problem in the world, with many dangerous health consequences.
Read More Show Less
A solitary tuna swimming in the Socorro Islands in the Pacific. Tiffany Duong / Ocean Rebels

The climate crisis and warming waters may cause tuna to redistribute, threatening tuna-dependent economies in the Pacific, a new study concludes.

Read More Show Less
The creole wrasse (Clepticus parrae) and corals in Bajos del Norte. Rodrigo Friscionne

In a remote part of the Gulf of Mexico, the ocean still teems with life. The under-explored reefs there are still rich, something that many other coral reefs around the globe can no longer say. Now, Oceana is working to protect these biodiversity hotspots before it's too late.

Read More Show Less
Rock climber Alex Honnold joins Ando in advocating for sustainable banking. Ando
World-renowned rock climber Alex Honnold, famous for his free ascent of Yosemite's El Capitan's 3,000-foot sheer rock face in Free Solo, has found his next "mountainous" challenge: the climate crisis.
Read More Show Less
L: Owner Robert Kraft of the New England Patriots at Gillette Stadium on November 15, 2020 in Foxborough, Massachusetts. Billie Weiss /Getty Images R: The New-Indy Containerboard paper mill in Catawba, South Carolina. WFAE / Google Maps
In less than a year, a South Carolina paper mill has become one of the dirtiest polluters in the United States.
Read More Show Less
A Recyclops recycling route pickup. Recyclops

The recycling industry in America is broken, but some companies are trying to make it better.

Read More Show Less
Seagrass beds serve a variety of planetary functions, including habitat and food. Should a location become unbearably noisy, such plants could be harmed more than other creatures because they cannot simply leave. Jeff Hester / Ocean Image Bank

Human-created noise pollution is altering seagrass beds on a cellular level and causing them to uproot themselves. This could have dire effects on marine ecosystem health, water quality, shoreline stabilization and the climate crisis.

Read More Show Less
A green sea turtle awaiting workup and measurements as part of the Florida Keys Sea Turtle Health Study. Inwater Research Group

Something strange is happening to sea turtles in the Florida Keys, and scientists and conservationists are working together to understand why.

Read More Show Less
Marine Protected Areas are designed to relieve fishing pressures in highly productive and biodiverse areas. Cinzia Osele Bismarck / Ocean Image Bank

Are Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) effective? Yes, but not as well as we thought, a new study finds.

Read More Show Less