Trump Taps Exxon's Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State, Confirms 'Support of Big Oil and Putin'
On the president-elect's favorite mode of communication, Trump tweeted that Tillerson is "one of the truly great business leaders of the world" and likes his "vast experience at dealing successfully with all types of foreign governments."
The thing I like best about Rex Tillerson is that he has vast experience at dealing successfully with all types of foreign governments.— Donald J. Trump (@Donald J. Trump)1481633046.0
The confirmation of Tillerson as the nation's top diplomat, however, will face intense scrutiny not only because the Exxon chairman and CEO has no governmental or diplomatic experience, but also due to his two-decade relationship with Russian President Vladimir V. Putin, who awarded Tillerson with the Order of Friendship in 2013, one of the highest honors Russia awards to foreigners. As the New York Times reported, Exxon has a partnership with Rosneft, the Russian state oil company. Drilling deals worth tens of billions of dollars in Russia's Arctic can only move forward if American sanctions are lifted.
#TrumpWatch: Trump Picks Exxon CEO for Secretary of State Despite Close Ties to Putin https://t.co/801iX2gKEu @greenpeaceusa @foe_us— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1481412903.0
Tillerson has been critical of sanctions. "We do not support sanctions, generally, because we don't find them to be effective unless they are very well implemented comprehensibly, and that's a very hard thing to do," he said at Exxon's annual meeting in 2014. "So we always encourage the people who are making those decisions to consider the very broad collateral damage of who are they really harming."
Trump's latest controversial cabinet choice comes amid news of CIA officials saying they have intelligence showing Russian email hacking to tip the balance of the presidential election in favor of Trump.
According Politico, some of Tillerson's biggest backers have a financial stake a successful confirmation, including James Baker, the George H.W. Bush secretary of state, who is a partner at a law firm that has represented Exxon as well as Rosneft. Former Sec. of State Condoleezza Rice and Defense Sec. Robert Gates, who reportedly recommended Tillerson, work for Exxon through their international consulting firm, Rice Hadley Gates.
Incidentally, with the choice of the Exxon boss, Trump has picked someone who, unlike himself, actually believes in climate change. Exxon's own website clearly acknowledges climate change and announced its support of the Paris climate agreement. Even Tillerson himself said this past October that its risks "are real and require serious action."
But there is no denying that Tillerson's company sells a product that fuels climate change and has spent years and millions of dollars funding climate change denial, even though Exxon corporate documents from the late 1970 stated "there is no doubt" that carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels was a growing "problem." Attorneys general across several states are pursuing a high-profile investigations into what Exxon knew about climate change.
The outcry against Tillerson is unprecedented. Environmental organizations and even Republican senators Marco Rubio and John McCain have voiced concern over Trump's latest controversial nomination.
"I don't know what Mr. Tillerson's relationship with Vladimir Putin was, but I'll tell you it is a matter of concern to me," McCain told Fox News.
Being a "friend of Vladimir" is not an attribute I am hoping for from a #SecretaryOfState - MR— Marco Rubio (@Marco Rubio)1481468321.0
Trump's cabinet members and top staff choices have been a circus parade of climate change deniers with clear ties to fossil fuel interests who plan on dismantling the very agencies they will be heading, such as Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt to head the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
#TrumpWatch: Trump Picks Scott Pruitt, 'Puppet of the Fossil Fuel Industry,' to Head EPA https://t.co/ADubM0DjDU @Ethical_Corp @CleanTec— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1481248206.0
Former Texas Gov. Rick Perry is officially Trump's pick for secretary of energy, a federal agency Perry infamously wanted to eliminate but could not name during a Republican presidential primary debate in November 2011.
Perry happens to sit on the corporate board for Energy Transfer Partners which operates the contested Dakota Access Pipeline, which Friends of the Earth Climate and Energy Director Benjamin Schreiber called a "serious conflict of interest that should disqualify him from the job."
#TrumpWatch: Trump Formally Announces Support for the Dakota Access Pipeline https://t.co/xIxHwf7QMD @foe_us @EnvAm— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1480726209.0
Rhea Suh, the president of the Natural Resources Defense Council, also said "the cabinet choices become more absurd every day."
"By nominating Perry, President-elect Trump is continuing to pack his cabinet with allies of big polluters who put profits over people," Suh said. "The American people didn't vote to return to the dirty old days when smog choked our cities. And we didn't vote to turn a blind eye to the dangers of climate change. We oppose Perry and this entire special interest take-over of the American government."
Sierra Club Executive Director Michael Brune similarly expressed dismay over Tillerson and Trump's incoming administration.
"Trump's cabinet represents a who's who of climate-deniers and fossil fuel hacks, so we're shocked but not surprised that he chose the head of one of the world's largest and most environmentally disastrous oil companies to be his ambassador to the world. Tillerson's nomination cements the fact that clean air, clean water, and our climate are public enemy number one in Trump's America," he said.
"ExxonMobil not only deliberately concealed its knowledge of climate change for decades but is responsible for one of the costliest environmental disasters in history," Brune continued. "At a time when the climate crisis is deepening, both the United States and the world deserve much better than having one of the planet's top fossil fuel tycoons run U.S. foreign policy. We urge Senators, who are elected to represent and protect the American people, to stand up for families across the country and the world and oppose this nomination."
Annie Leonard, Greenpeace executive director, said the appointment of Tillerson to be our chief diplomat "is an affront to global progress and will place the US economy, our security, and our standing in the world in the same failing predicament Exxon is in right now. The global community continues to send a strong, collective message that it is ditching fossil fuels for clean energy. Rex Tillerson hid climate science so he could cash in on disaster, instead of transitioning his company to a position of true leadership. This appointment is a desperate grab for power by a failing industry that is perfectly fine bringing the American people down with it.
"Tillerson is beloved by Russian oligarchs and oil magnates. He has used legal action to harass civil society daring enough to attempt to protect itself from existential harm. He has led his company and his industry to double down on an energy source that is literally poisoning the world and making it harder for humans to survive on it. At this moment in time, choosing a man who knows the world through the single frame of the oil and gas industry may actually be more dangerous than picking somebody with no understanding of the world at all," Leonard concluded.
2 New Blows to #Exxon https://t.co/tqLQDXjgr0 @billmckibben @350 @greenpeaceusa @sierraclub @foe_us #ExxonKnew— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1481640007.0
Earthjustice President Trip Van Noppen said that the choice of Tillerson is grim news for essential U.S. leadership in tackling climate change.
"Rex Tillerson and his company are disproportionately responsible for unconscionable backsliding and delay on climate action. A lifelong employee of Exxon, Tillerson has overseen the company's aggressive attack on state Attorneys General who are investigating Exxon's deception regarding climate science. His company is a main sponsor of the false debate that climate change-denying EPA appointee Scott Pruitt and others are using to slow crucial progress," Van Noppen said.
"The sad irony is that by acknowledging the existence of man-made climate change and paying lip service to the Paris global climate agreement, Rex Tillerson may actually appear somewhat responsible in comparison to the rest of the incoming Trump administration—a sign of just how abysmally low the bar has been set by the President-elect and his cabinet," Van Noppen continued.
"By appointing Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State, Donald Trump is showing Americans and the world that he quite literally intends the interests of large powerful corporations to dominate our country's decision-making—making it all the more important for Americans to fiercely resist the big corporate takeover of our democracy. Earthjustice will be playing its role in the courts and we are proud to stand with strong allies who will be organizing and mobilizing on all fronts."
Stephen Kretzmann, the executive director of Oil Change International, also criticized the nomination.
"Donald Trump made it clear during the campaign that he wants to 'take the oil'—and in Rex Tillerson, he's found his man. Trump has spotlighted what most of the world already knows: U.S. foreign policy is governed by the myopic, perceived need to access and control oil. The honesty and naked truth of the revealed petrostate is actually quite refreshing," Kretzmann said.
"To everyone keeping score at home, you can mark this up as Putin's payback for election intervention. The nomination of Rex Tillerson has revealed with startling clarity that our government is being set up to support the interests of Big Oil and Putin, not the American people or the planet. Now more than ever, we demand a Separation of Oil and State."
Dr. Andrew Steer, the president and CEO of World Resources Institute added, "as the leader of U.S. diplomatic efforts, Rex Tillerson would carry a serious obligation to look out for the interests of all Americans. Climate change is one of the greatest risks facing humanity—and for the sake of our health, economy and security, America must continue to lead on this issue."
"ExxonMobil has long opposed action to slow climate change. While the company has recently acknowledged the human role in climate change and declared support for the Paris Agreement, Tillerson would need to go much further," Steer said. "One of the critical tests at his confirmation hearings must be his demonstration of a true commitment to America's leadership on climate action, including fully supporting the Paris Agreement and honoring the country's international climate commitments. Anything short of that would be unacceptable to the majority of Americans—more than 70 percent of whom support the nation's participation in the Agreement."
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Where Does the Deficiency Begin?<p>Nobody knows exactly how much vitamin D a person actually needs. The question of when a deficiency starts is correspondingly controversial. However, vitamin D is becoming increasingly popular.Not only is the pseudo-scientific literature on the "sun vitamin" experiencing an upswing, but the number of published studies has also increased enormously in recent years. For example, in 2019 <a href="https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/40/4/1109/5126915" target="_blank">a study found that</a> Vitamin D is responsible for keeping the skeleton functional and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and various types of cancer. <br></p>
An All-Rounder<p>Vitamin D levels in the body rise and fall according to sun exposure. If sufficient UV rays reach the skin, the body is able to produce the vitamin itself. However, the human body only derives an estimated 10 to 20 percent of its daily requirement from food.</p><p>The vitamin D that we synthesize from sunlight or food is not biologically active at first. Before the kidneys can produce the biologically active form of the vitamin, known as calcitriol, and release it into the blood, some metabolic processes must take place beforehand.</p><p>In addition, many organs have receptors to which the precursor of calcitriol binds. Further, this substance is also present in blood.</p><p>From this precursor, the organs then produce calcitriol themselves, which the body then uses for countless other processes in the body. This form of vitamin D thus regulates insulin secretion, inhibits tumor growth, and promotes the formation of red blood cells as well as the survival and activity of macrophages, which are important for the <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2502/htm" target="_blank">immune system.</a></p>
Low Vitamin D, Severe COVID-19 Disease?<p>A research study carried out <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352364620300067?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">at the University of Hohenheim</a> has now established a link between vitamin D deficiency, certain previous diseases, and severe cases of COVID-19.</p><p>According to the study, "there is a lot of evidence that several non-communicable diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome) are associated with low vitamin D plasma levels. These comorbidities, together with the often accompanying vitamin D deficiency, increase the risk of severe COVID-19 events."</p><p>"This statement is completely correct," said Martin Fassnacht, head of endocrinology at the University Hospital of Würzburg. However, he qualifies that it is a pure association, "i.e. a mere observation that these events occur together.</p><p>Dr. Fassnacht is very critical of the hype surrounding vitamin D, but not because he denies the vitamin serves important functions. However, studies on humans have not been able to show that vitamin D has the healing powers many often propagate.</p><p>Fassnacht says, "If you take a closer look, the hopes that the administration of vitamin D has a healing effect have not been confirmed so far."</p>
Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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