From 'Sea to Shining Sea,' Industrial Ag Fouls America's Waterways
By Katherine Paul
Residents of Devils Lake, North Dakota, along with members of the Spirit Lake Nation Tribe are battling plans to build a hog CAFO in a neighboring community. They say the operation would pollute Devils Lake and area wetlands.
In North Carolina, industrial hog operations foul the state's waterways with 10 billion gallons of feces and urine each year.
It's no better on the west coast. In 2015, a federal judge ruled that Washington's industrial dairy operations pose "a significant public health risk by contaminating water supplies."
Whether it's the animal waste and antibiotics from livestock operations, or the nitrates and pesticides from GMO corn and soy grown to feed the millions of confined animals, from sea to shining sea, industrial agribusiness, led by multi-billion dollar corporations like Tyson, is destroying our most precious natural resource—water.
State and federal regulators by and large use their power to protect corporate profits, not public health.
That leaves citizens to battle it out in the courts. But now some members of Congress want to eliminate even that last resort.
'Nature for Water'
Thursday, March 22, is World Water Day. It's been 25 years since the United Nations designated the first annual international celebration of water.
We like it. Here's why.
According to the UN, agriculture uses 70 percent of the world's available freshwater, including for crop irrigation and livestock production.
The UN also reports that farms discharge large quantities of agrochemicals, organic matter, drug residues, sediments and saline drainage into water bodies, resulting in "demonstrated risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and productive activities."
From the report:
Water pollution from agriculture has direct negative impacts on human health; for example, the well-known blue-baby syndrome in which high levels of nitrates in water can cause methaemoglobinemia—a potentially fatal illness—in infants. Pesticide accumulation in water and the food chain, with demonstrated ill effects on humans, led to the widespread banning of certain broad-spectrum and persistent pesticides (such as DDT and many organophosphates), but some such pesticides are still used in poorer countries, causing acute and likely chronic health effects. Aquatic ecosystems are also affected by agricultural pollution; for example, eutrophication caused by the accumulation of nutrients in lakes and coastal waters has impacts on biodiversity and fisheries.
The report also states that in the last 20 years, a new class of agricultural pollutants has emerged in the form of veterinary medicines (antibiotics, vaccines and growth promoters [hormones]), which move from farms through water to ecosystems and drinking-water sources.
The upshot? Agriculture is the biggest user, and one of the biggest polluters, of the world's water.
No Help From the Feds
Given agriculture's role in destroying our most precious natural resource, you'd think the U.S. Congress would do everything in its power to protect your water.
Instead, it's moving in the opposite direction.
In 2015, Congress passed the Waters of the United States (WOTUS) rule, in an attempt to bring more clarity to the Clean Water Act. Specifically, the rule was intended to protect U.S. waterways from polluters, including agricultural operations, which have historically enjoyed a high level of exemptions under the Clean Water Act.
Enter the Trump administration, which has asked the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers to "revisit" WOTUS, which according to the Washington Post, Trump described as "paving the way for the elimination of this very destructive and horrible rule."
So much for regulatory relief.
But even before Trump attacked WOTUS, some members of Congress began looking for additional ways to protect agribusiness profits—by making it impossible for citizens to sue companies that destroy their drinking water.
Last year, Rep. Dan Newhouse (R-Wash.) introduced a bill (H.R. 848, the Farm Regulatory Certainty Act), to strip citizens' ability to file lawsuits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) against factory farms that have polluted their drinking water. If passed, the bill would leave rural Americans with no recourse if their drinking water is polluted by mismanagement of livestock waste on a factory farm.
No surprise that Newhouse would lead this charge. It was in his state that citizens successfully used RCRA to go after factory farm dairies that had made their water too polluted to even bathe in, much less drink. After a 15-year struggle, the courts finally forced companies to clean up their acts, and also provide hundreds of families with drinking water until their wells could be restored.
If Newhouse and his co-sponsors in the U.S. House get their way, dairy farm manure would be exempt from any regulations, and lawsuits like the one filed by Washington state citizens would be banned.
What Can You Do?
Back to World Water Day.
We like the "nature-based" solutions for cleaning up the world's water because it leads us away from the dominant corporate agribusiness model, to the regenerative organic model—a model that works with nature to build healthy soil that retains more water, and uses practices that don't include synthetic chemicals and a host of dangerous chemicals like glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorpyrifos and others.
The corporate industrial ag empire will tell us it can't be done. But as consumers, concerned citizens, ethical business owners, independent farmers and countless others will ultimately prove, it can.
What can you do? To help speed the transition to an agriculture model that heals our waterways, rather than exploit and pollute them?
Here are a few concrete steps you can take.
- Get involved in the Regeneration Movement. You can start by signing up for the Regeneration International newsletter, and by learning more about how to join or build a local or regional Regeneration Alliance.
- Tell Congress to protect your water! Call your members of Congress with these two asks: 1) Ask them to protect WOTUS which would at least help hold more companies accountable for ag-related water pollution; 2) Ask them to protect citizens' right to clean drinking water by rejecting Rep. Newhouse's H.R. 848. Find your Representatives' phone numbers here.
- Ask Congress to support Rep. Earl Blumenauer's (D-Ore.) Food & Farm Act. This is the year Congress rewrites the Farm Bill. Historically, the Farm Bill has doled out millions in subsidies to corporations like Monsanto, Tyson, Cargill, Dow—big water polluters—while ignoring the farmers who produce healthy food, using practices that build healthy soil. Please use our alert to contact your members of Congress and ask them to support the Food & Farm Act.
- Buy organic and regenerative! Consumers are key to successfully shifting our country's food and farming system from one that degenerates to one that regenerates. The more we use our consumer dollars to support the farmers and producers who understand the importance of regenerating our soil and water, the more likely they will succeed.
Let's Make 2018 the Year We Rise Up and Regenerate! https://t.co/ENeJv7mmJQ @GreenpeaceUK @GreenpeaceAustP @globalactplan— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1515320409.0
Katherine Paul, former communications director for Common Dreams, is now the associate director of the Organic Consumers Association.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Common Dreams.
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By Bob Jacobs
Hanako, a female Asian elephant, lived in a tiny concrete enclosure at Japan's Inokashira Park Zoo for more than 60 years, often in chains, with no stimulation. In the wild, elephants live in herds, with close family ties. Hanako was solitary for the last decade of her life.
Hanako, an Asian elephant kept at Japan's Inokashira Park Zoo; and Kiska, an orca that lives at Marineland Canada. One image depicts Kiska's damaged teeth. Elephants in Japan (left image), Ontario Captive Animal Watch (right image), CC BY-ND
Affecting Health and Altering Behavior<p>It is easy to observe the overall health and psychological consequences of life in captivity for these animals. Many captive elephants suffer from arthritis, obesity or skin problems. Both <a href="https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2620.1826-36" target="_blank">elephants</a> and orcas often have severe dental problems. Captive orcas are plagued by <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2019.05.005" target="_blank">pneumonia, kidney disease, gastrointestinal illnesses and infections</a>.</p><p>Many animals <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.09.010" target="_blank">try to cope</a> with captivity by adopting abnormal behaviors. Some develop "<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.05.003" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">stereotypies</a>," which are repetitive, purposeless habits such as constantly bobbing their heads, swaying incessantly or chewing on the bars of their cages. Others, especially big cats, pace their enclosures. Elephants rub or break their tusks.</p>
Changing Brain Structure<p>Neuroscientific research indicates that living in an impoverished, stressful captive environment <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2019.05.005" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">physically damages the brain</a>. These changes have been documented in many <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903270108" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">species</a>, including rodents, rabbits, cats and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0917" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">humans</a>.</p><p>Although researchers have directly studied some animal brains, most of what we know comes from observing animal behavior, analyzing stress hormone levels in the blood and applying knowledge gained from a half-century of neuroscience research. Laboratory research also suggests that mammals in a zoo or aquarium have compromised brain function.</p>
This illustration shows differences in the brain's cerebral cortex in animals held in impoverished (captive) and enriched (natural) environments. Impoverishment results in thinning of the cortex, a decreased blood supply, less support for neurons and decreased connectivity among neurons. Arnold B. Scheibel, CC BY-ND<p>Subsisting in confined, barren quarters that lack intellectual stimulation or appropriate social contact seems to <a href="https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652001000200006" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">thin the cerebral cortex</a> – the part of the brain involved in voluntary movement and higher cognitive function, including memory, planning and decision-making.</p><p>There are other consequences. Capillaries shrink, depriving the brain of the oxygen-rich blood it needs to survive. Neurons become smaller, and their dendrites – the branches that form connections with other neurons – become less complex, impairing communication within the brain. As a result, the cortical neurons in captive animals <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.901230110" target="_blank">process information less efficiently</a> than those living in <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.420020208" target="_blank">enriched, more natural environments</a>.</p>
An actual cortical neuron in a wild African elephant living in its natural habitat compared with a hypothesized cortical neuron from a captive elephant. Bob Jacobs, CC BY-ND<p>Brain health is also affected by living in small quarters that <a href="https://doi.org/10.3233/BPL-160040" target="_blank">don't allow for needed exercise</a>. Physical activity increases the flow of blood to the brain, which requires large amounts of oxygen. Exercise increases the production of new connections and <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw2622" target="_blank">enhances cognitive abilities</a>.</p><p>In their native habits these animals must move to survive, covering great distances to forage or find a mate. Elephants typically travel anywhere from <a href="https://www.elephantsforafrica.org/elephant-facts/#:%7E:text=How%20far%20do%20elephants%20walk,km%20on%20a%20daily%20basis." target="_blank">15 to 120 miles per day</a>. In a zoo, they average <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150331" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">three miles daily</a>, often walking back and forth in small enclosures. One free orca studied in Canada swam <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-010-0958-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">up to 156 miles a day</a>; meanwhile, an average orca tank is about 10,000 times smaller than its <a href="https://www.cascadiaresearch.org/projects/killer-whales/using-dtags-study-acoustics-and-behavior-southern" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">natural home range</a>.</p>
Disrupting Brain Chemistry and Killing Cells<p>Living in enclosures that restrict or prevent normal behavior creates chronic frustration and boredom. In the wild, an animal's stress-response system helps it escape from danger. But captivity traps animals with <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1215502109" target="_blank">almost no control</a> over their environment.</p><p>These situations foster <a href="https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000033" target="_blank">learned helplessness</a>, negatively impacting the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6391686" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">hippocampus</a>, which handles memory functions, and the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.02.024" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">amygdala</a>, which processes emotions. Prolonged stress <a href="https://doi.org/10.3109/10253899609001092" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elevates stress hormones</a> and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.10-09-02897.1990" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">damages or even kills neurons</a> in both brain regions. It also disrupts the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.03.021" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">delicate balance of serotonin</a>, a neurotransmitter that stabilizes mood, among other functions.</p><p>In humans, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0917" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">deprivation</a> can trigger <a href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00367" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">psychiatric issues</a>, including depression, anxiety, <a href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00367" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">mood disorders</a> or <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858409333072" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">post-traumatic stress disorder</a>. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-010-0288-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Elephants</a>, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050139" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">orcas</a> and other animals with large brains are likely to react in similar ways to life in a severely stressful environment.</p>
Damaged Wiring<p>Captivity can damage the brain's complex circuitry, including the basal ganglia. This group of neurons communicates with the cerebral cortex along two networks: a direct pathway that enhances movement and behavior, and an indirect pathway that inhibits them.</p><p>The repetitive, <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.057" target="_blank">stereotypic behaviors</a> that many animals adopt in captivity are caused by an imbalance of two neurotransmitters, dopamine and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.02.004" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">serotonin</a>. This impairs the indirect pathway's ability to modulate movement, a condition documented in species from chickens, cows, sheep and horses to primates and big cats.</p>
The cerebral cortex, hippocampus and amygdala are physically altered by captivity, along with brain circuitry that involves the basal ganglia. Bob Jacobs, CC BY-ND<p>Evolution has constructed animal brains to be exquisitely responsive to their environment. Those reactions can affect neural function by <a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/311787/behave-by-robert-m-sapolsky/" target="_blank">turning different genes on or off</a>. Living in inappropriate or abusive circumstance alters biochemical processes: It disrupts the synthesis of proteins that build connections between brain cells and the neurotransmitters that facilitate communication among them.</p><p>There is strong evidence that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0577-11.2011" target="_blank">enrichment</a>, social contact and appropriate space in more natural habitats are <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.2003.tb02071.x" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">necessary</a> for long-lived animals with large brains such as <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152490" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elephants</a> and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/13880292.2017.1309858" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">cetaceans</a>. Better conditions <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543669/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">reduce disturbing sterotypical behaviors</a>, improve connections in the brain, and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2009.193" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">trigger neurochemical changes</a> that enhance learning and memory.</p>