9 Health Benefits of Maca Root, the Ancient Incan Superfood
By Hrefna Palsdottir
The maca plant has exploded in popularity in recent years.
It's actually a plant native to Peru and is commonly available in powder form or as a supplement.
Maca root has traditionally been used to enhance fertility and sex drive.iStock
Maca root has traditionally been used to enhance fertility and sex drive.
It's also claimed to improve energy and stamina.
What Is Maca?
The maca plant, known scientifically as Lepidium meyenii, is sometimes referred to as Peruvian ginseng.
It mainly grows in the Andes of central Peru, in harsh conditions and at very high altitudes—above 13,000 feet (4,000 meters).
The main edible part of the plant is the root, which grows underground. It exists in several colors, ranging from white to black.
Maca root is generally dried and consumed in powder form, but it's also available in capsules and as a liquid extract.
This is what maca root and root powder typically look like:
The taste of maca root powder, which some people dislike, has been described as earthy and nutty. Many people add it to their smoothies, oatmeal and sweet treats.
It's worth noting that research on maca is still in its early stages.
Many of the studies are small, done in animals and/or sponsored by companies that produce or sell maca.
Bottom Line: Maca is a medicinal plant that mainly grows high up in the mountains of Peru in harsh conditions.
1. It's Highly Nutritious
Maca root powder is very nutritious and is a great source of several important vitamins and minerals (2).
One ounce (28 grams) of maca root powder contains:
- Calories: 91
- Carbs: 20 grams
- Protein: 4 grams
- Fiber: 2 grams
- Fat: 1 gram
- Vitamin C: 133 percent of the RDI
- Copper: 85 percent of the RDI
- Iron: 23 percent of the RDI
- Potassium: 16 percent of the RDI
- Vitamin B6: 15 percent of the RDI
- Manganese: 10 percent of the RDI
Maca root is a good source of carbs and protein, is low in fat and contains a fair amount of fiber. It's also high in some essential vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, copper and iron.
Bottom Line: Maca root powder is high in protein and carbs and rich in a number of nutrients, including vitamin C, copper and iron. It also contains many bioactive plant compounds.
2. It Increases Libido in Men and Women
Reduced sexual desire is a common problem among adults.
Consequently, interest in herbs and plants that naturally boost libido is great.
Maca has been heavily marketed as being effective at improving sexual desire and this claim is backed by research (5).
A review from 2010 that included four randomized clinical studies with a total of 131 participants found evidence that maca improves sexual desire after at least six weeks of ingestion (6).
Bottom Line: Maca increases sex drive in both men and women.
3. It May Increase Fertility in Men
When it comes to male fertility, sperm quality and quantity is very important.
A recent review summarized the findings of five small studies. It showed that maca improved semen quality in both infertile and healthy men (9).
One of the studies reviewed included nine healthy men. After consuming maca for four months, researchers detected an increase in the volume, count and motility of sperm (8).
Bottom Line: Maca can increase sperm production and improve sperm quality, thereby enhancing fertility in men.
4. It May Help Relieve Symptoms of Menopause
Menopause is defined as the time in a woman's life when her menstrual periods stop permanently.
The natural decline in estrogen that occurs during this time can cause a range of unpleasant symptoms.
These include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood swings, sleep problems and irritability.
Bottom Line: Maca can improve symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes and disrupted sleep at night.
5. Maca Can Improve Your Mood
Several studies have shown that maca can enhance your mood.
Bottom Line: Maca may improve your mental well-being and mood by reducing depression and anxiety, especially in menopausal women.
6. It May Boost Sports Performance and Energy
Maca root powder is a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes.
It has been claimed to help you gain muscle, increase strength, boost energy and improve exercise performance.
Moreover, one small study in eight male cyclists found that they improved the time it took them to complete a nearly 25-mile (40-km) bike ride after 14 days of supplementing with maca extract (20).
Currently, there is no scientific evidence to confirm any benefits for muscle mass or strength.
Bottom Line: Supplementing with maca may improve exercise performance, particularly during endurance events. However, its effects on muscle mass and strength have yet to be studied.
7. When Applied to the Skin, Maca May Help Protect It From the Sun
Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun may burn and damage unprotected, exposed skin.
Over time, UV radiation can cause wrinkles and increase your risk of skin cancer (21).
One study found that maca extract applied to the skin of five rats over a three-week period prevented skin damage from UV exposure (23).
The protective effect was attributed to the polyphenol antioxidants and glucosinolates found in maca (24).
Keep in mind that maca extract cannot replace a conventional sunscreen. Also, it only protects the skin when applied to the skin, not when eaten.
Bottom Line: When applied to the skin, maca extract may help protect it from the sun's UV rays.
8. It May Improve Learning and Memory
Maca may improve brain function (25).
In this regard, black maca appears to be more effective than other varieties (29).
Bottom Line: Some evidence indicates that maca, in particular the black variety, can improve learning and memory.
9. It May Reduce Prostate Size
The prostate is a gland only found in men.
A larger prostate can cause various problems with passing urine, as it surrounds the tube through which urine is removed from the body.
It has been proposed that the effect of red maca on the prostate is linked to its high amount of glucosinolates. These substances are also associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (36).
Bottom Line: A large prostate is common among older men and can cause issues with urination. Animal studies suggest that red maca can reduce prostate size.
How to Use Maca
Maca is easy to incorporate into your diet.
It can be taken as a supplement or added to smoothies, oatmeal, baked goods, energy bars and more.
The optimal dose for medicinal use has not been established. However, the dosage of maca root powder used in studies generally ranges from 1.5–5 grams per day.
You can find maca in some supermarkets, at health food stores and from various online retailers. It is available in powder form, 500-mg capsules or as a liquid extract.
Bottom Line: Maca root powder is easy to incorporate into your diet and is widely available.
Safety and Side Effects
However, Peruvian natives believe that consuming fresh maca root may have adverse health effects and recommend boiling it first.
Additionally, if you have thyroid problems, you may want to be careful with maca.
That's because it contains goitrogens, substances that may interfere with the normal function of the thyroid gland. These compounds are more likely to affect you if you already have impaired thyroid function.
Lastly, pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult with their doctors before taking maca.
Bottom Line: Maca is considered safe for most people, although those with thyroid issues need to be careful.
Take Home Message
Supplementing with maca may provide several health benefits, such as increased libido and better mood.
However, most of the studies are small and many of them were done in animals.
Although maca shows a lot of promise, it needs to be studied more extensively.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
Environmental officials and members of the U.S. Coast Guard are racing to clean up a mysterious oil spill that has spread to 11 miles of Delaware coastline.
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By Dr. Kate Raynes-Goldie
Of all the plastic we've ever produced, only 9% has been recycled. So what happened to all that plastic you've put in the recycling bin over the years?
Triangle of Mistruths<p>The myth created around plastic recycling has been one of simplicity. We look for the familiar triangle arrows, then pop the waste in the recycling bin so it can be reused.</p><p>But the true purpose of those triangles has been misunderstood by the general public ever since their invention in the 1980s.</p><p>These triangles were actually created by the plastics industry and, according to a report provided to them in July 1993, <a href="https://www.npr.org/transcripts/912150085" target="_blank">were creating "unrealistic expectations"</a> about what could be recycled. But they decided to keep using the codes.</p><p>Which is why many people still believe that these triangular symbols (also known as a <a href="https://sustainablepackaging.org/101-resin-identification-codes/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">resin identifier code</a> or RIC) means something is recyclable.</p><p>But according to the American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) – which controls the RIC system – the numbered triangles "<a href="https://www.astm.org/Standards/D7611.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">are not recycle codes</a>." In fact, they weren't created for the general public at all. They were made for the post-consumer plastic industry.</p><p>In other words, the symbols make it easier to sort the different types of plastics, some of which cannot be recycled – <a href="https://www.ecobin.com.au/understand-recycling-codes/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">depending on the recycling facility</a>.</p><p>"Unfortunately, just placing your plastic into the recycling bin doesn't mean it will get recycled," says Lara Camilla Pinho. She is an architect and lecturer at the UWA School of Design who is researching novel uses of plastic waste.</p><p>"The recycling system is complicated and often dictated by market demand. Not all plastic is recyclable. We cannot recycle plastic bags or straws for example."</p>
Behind the Scenes<p>So, what makes recycling plastics so difficult?</p><p>"Essentially, there are two types of plastics – thermoplastics and thermosets. While thermoplastics can be re-melted and re-molded, thermosets contain cross-linked polymers that cannot be separated meaning they cannot be recycled," says Lara.</p><p>"Even thermoplastics have a limit to the amount of times we can recycle them, as each time they are recycled they downgrade in quality."</p><p>Even when plastics are recyclable, it is <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/13/war-on-plastic-waste-faces-setback-as-cost-of-recycled-material-soars" target="_blank">often more costly</a> than simply making new plastics.</p>
Sugar, Seaweed and Mushrooms<p>If the conventional recycling system isn't working, what else can we do with all the plastic we've created?</p><p>Lara is looking for ways to add value to recycled plastics such as using it in the design and development of architectural products. She hopes to use these architectural products to help underserved communities that are disproportionately affected by plastic waste.</p><p>In addition to recycling, we also need to find ways to reduce our use of virgin petroleum-based plastics.</p><p>Bioplastic is one such product that has been getting a lot of hype over the last few years. And although they're better than petroleum-based plastics, bioplastics also come with their own <a href="https://phys.org/news/2017-12-truth-bioplastics.html" target="_blank">set of challenges</a>.</p><p>"There are already a lot of bio-based alternatives to plastic, such as bagasse – a byproduct of sugar cane processing," says Lara.</p><p><a href="https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-mycelium-revolution-is-upon-us/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Mycelium</a>, a type of fungi we most often associate with mushrooms, are also providing an interesting plastic alternative.</p><p>"In the field of architecture, mycelium is starting to be used as an alternative to plastic insulation, but also as compostable packaging and bricks," says Lara.</p><p>"The bricks take around five days to make and are strong, durable, water resistant and compostable at the end of their use."</p><p><a href="https://www.arup.com/news-and-events/hyfi-reinvents-the-brick" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Hy-Fi Tower</a>, created by <a href="http://www.thelivingnewyork.com/living_about.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Living</a>, is an example of a building made from these bricks.</p><p>And finally, there's seaweed.</p><p>"[Seaweed is] cheap and can reproduce itself quickly without fertilizers. In architecture, there is use for seaweed as an alternative to plastic insulation but also as cladding," says Lara.</p>
More Money, More Problems<p>While all these alternatives are great, the main cause of our plastic dilemma is not scientific or technological, but economic.</p><p>As long as it remains <a href="https://engineering.mit.edu/engage/ask-an-engineer/why-is-it-cheaper-to-make-new-plastic-bottles-than-to-recycle-old-ones/" target="_blank">cheaper to create new plastics</a> from fossil fuels rather than from bioplastics or from recycling, we're going to be stuck with plastic garbage islands floating in our oceans.</p><p>The true cost to our health and our environment has yet to be included in the equation. But once it is, maybe that is when the real shift will happen.</p>
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By Zheng Chen and Darren H. S. Tan
As concern mounts over the impacts of climate change, many experts are calling for greater use of electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels. Powered by advancements in battery technology, the number of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles on U.S. roads is increasing. And utilities are generating a growing share of their power from renewable fuels, supported by large-scale battery storage systems.