California Lunchrooms May Soon Serve Up Organics
By Corey Binns
When Ángel García was little, he often awoke to the smell of breakfast burritos on the stove. His mom would wake up at 4 a.m. to cook for him and pack his lunch before dropping him off with the babysitter by 6 a.m. so she could get to work. She spent her days picking fruits and vegetables on the farmland surrounding their California home. When she returned at the end of a long day, García remembers rushing to her for a hug, but she would shoo him away. She would remind him that chemicals misted down into the fields where she worked — what kind she didn't know, but she recognized the dangers they posed to her son's health.
García knew his mom was doing her best to keep him safe. But her powers were limited: Agricultural fields blanketed in pesticides also surrounded Garcia's school, and the meals her family ate included produce grown with the same toxic chemicals.
"We live in a reality that normalizes heavy chemical use on our food," said García. He is now an organizer for Californians for Pesticide Reform in Tulare County, where many farmworkers and their families — who are predominantly Latinx — live in unincorporated communities and grapple with various health risks stemming from routine exposure to pesticides. These chemicals show up in the air they breathe, the water they drink and the dust in their homes. They include the widely used pesticide chlorpyrifos, which lurks on many of our fruits and vegetables, and which scientists have linked to developmental delays and increased risk of learning disabilities in children.
García's organization is one of more than 100 that have joined forces with NRDC and the Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF) to support the California Organic-to-School Pilot Program, introduced in AB 958. If the bill passes, the program will help schools buy more California-produced organic food and grant up to 15 cents more per meal to qualifying schools. The Office of Farm to Fork at the California Department of Food and Agriculture would distribute the pilot program funds through a competitive grant application process to at least five school districts, enabling them to purchase organic food as soon as the 2020–21 school year.
Advocates like García are encouraged thus far by the response to the bill, which received universal support by members of the Committee on Agriculture at a State Assembly hearing in April. "A policy like this sends a message to children that there is another way of growing food, that it doesn't have to depend on chemicals," García said. "Organics shouldn't be something seen as expensive, or something you can only find at certain locations, or something seen as inaccessible to them."
Allison Johnson, a sustainable food policy advocate at NRDC, agrees. "We really think everyone should have access to food that will make them healthy, food that is culturally appropriate, and food that won't hurt them in the long term — especially kids," she said. The program would particularly benefit those communities that are in close contact with agricultural pollution, and often the least able to afford healthy food options." All-organic diets have been shown to decrease levels of pesticides in people's bodies in as little as six days. "The effects of the food that we produce now will be with them for their lifetime," Johnson said.
The bill's authors noted that the first handful of grants should give priority to schools in districts that serve a high number of low-income students who receive free or reduced-price meals. It's an especially important approach given that for some children and teens, school lunch may the single reliable meal of their day, said Jennifer LeBarre, executive director of Student Nutrition Services for the San Francisco Unified School District. Despite this reality, school districts receive very limited state and federal funding to feed students, and the little they do get must also go toward food service operations and staffing. In the end, many schools spend as little as $1.25 on the food for each child's lunch — and few can afford to serve organic produce, let alone a fully organic meal.
LeBarre adds that school districts pay their food service workers higher wages and offer better benefits than the typical burger joint — part of the reason why the money spent on the ingredients themselves is so minimal. "The costs are higher when it comes to operating in the school food environment than, say, a McDonald's, and we certainly want to be bringing better food to our students than what you would receive at a fast-food restaurant," she said.
Organic strawberries and avocados are already on the menu in school lunchrooms in Encinitas, just north of San Diego. In 2012, the nonprofit Healthy Day Partners established the first certified-organic elementary school campus in the country there, and the group has influenced local farmers to grow more organic produce. The city even designated a neighboring park to go organic, too. The organization's CEO and president, Mim Michelove, said, "One of the things that I love about AB 958 is that it supports what we all know: Healthy kids are better students."
In recent years, schools have moved resources from food and kitchen budgets to technology like classroom smart boards and computer labs. When stocking the Encinitas salad bar with organic produce, Michelove learned the school was just not set up to receive fresh food. Instead, it specialized in packaged and processed goods. Healthy Day Partners teamed up with the district to set up best practices for preparing farm-fresh produce in the central kitchen and purchased some simple and affordable equipment to help clean and cut the food.
In addition to the health benefits of serving more organic meals, the new initiative will help boost the state economy. After all, as Michelove points out, "California leads the nation in the number of organic farms." Because the new items on the school lunch menu can be sourced locally, they will "reduce the carbon footprint of school lunches" and offset the need to truck in food from farther away. "The overall food system around school food can be transformed into one that promotes quality-of-life issues that go beyond healthy food and healthy kids to include things like cleaner air and water for us all," she said.
Growers will also reap benefits. Organic food is often more expensive than conventional food, in part because many organic farmers lack stable markets for their produce and must take on economic risks and technical challenges associated with growing crops without pesticides, not to mention additional labor costs. But the bill would help public schools, which purchase huge amounts of food, provide stable markets for organic growers. "We can use policy tools like this bill to ensure that farmers and workers are paid fairly for producing organic food and that the food remains affordable for everyone," Johnson said. "Organic farming can also offer a way for farms to stay in business — more than half of farms in the United States lose money, and fairer prices for organic food can help farms stay afloat."
While the economic upsides of the bill may excite many people, LeBarre is most thrilled by the prospect of getting more pesticide-free food onto the plates of California's kids. "I want organic food for our students because it's the best for them, and it's the best for the environment, and they're the ones who are going to be living on this planet long after I'm gone," she said. "It's my responsibility to do everything I can for them now, but also be forward thinking as well."
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By Victoria Masterson
Using one of the world's problems to solve another is the philosophy behind a Norwegian start-up's mission to develop affordable housing from 100% recycled plastic.
Sustainable Homes<p>UN-Habitat says an <a href="https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-aims-to-use-plastic-waste-to-support-housing-for-all" target="_blank">estimated 60% of people living in urban areas of Africa are in informal settlements</a>. At the same time, between 1990 and 2017, African countries imported around 230 metric tonnes of plastic, "which mostly ended up in dump sites creating a massive environmental challenge," the agency adds.</p><p>UN-Habitat deputy executive director, Victor Kisob, said the aim of the partnership with Othalo was to "promote adequate, sustainable and affordable housing for all."</p>
Artist's impression of an Othalo community, imagined by architect Julien De Smedt. Othalo<p>Othalo's process involves shredding plastic waste and mixing it with other elements, including non-flammable materials. Components are used to build up to four floors, with a home of 60 square metres using eight tons of recycled plastic. A factory with one production line can produce 2,800 housing units annually.</p><p>Following successful laboratory tests, Othalo's factory in Estonia has started producing components to build three demonstration homes for Kenya's capital, Nairobi; Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon and Dakar, the capital of Senegal.</p><p>Othalo founder Frank Cato Lahti has been developing and testing the technology since 2016 in partnership with <a href="https://www.sintef.no/en/" target="_blank">SINTEF</a>, a 70-year-old independent research organization in Trondheim, Norway, and experts at Norway's <a href="https://en.uit.no/startsida" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">University of Tromsø</a>.</p>
Othalo founder Frank Cato Lahti. Othalo<p>Almost <a href="https://www.un.org/development/desa/publications/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html" target="_blank">seven out of every 10 people in the world are expected to live in urban areas by 2050</a>. More than 90% of this growth will take place in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.</p><p>"In the absence of effective urban planning, the consequences of this rapid urbanization will be dramatic," UN-Habitat warns.</p><p>Lack of proper housing and growth of slums, inadequate and outdated infrastructure, escalating poverty and unemployment, and pollution and health issues, are just some of the effects.</p><p>Mindsets, policies, and approaches towards urbanization need to change for the growth of cities and urban areas to be turned into opportunities that will leave nobody behind, UN-Habitat says.</p>
Pioneers of Change<p>Reimagining cities and communities for greater resilience and sustainability was a key topic at the<a href="https://www.weforum.org/events/pioneers-of-change-summit-2020" target="_blank"> World Economic Forum's Pioneers of Change Summit 2020</a>.</p><p>The digital event brought together innovators and stakeholders from around the world to explore solutions to the challenges facing enterprises, governments and society.</p><p>Opening the summit, <a href="https://www.weforum.org/events/pioneers-of-change-summit-2020/sessions/opening-plenary-8f731cbc65" target="_blank">Stephan Mergenthaler, the Forum's Head of Strategic Intelligence and a member of the Executive Committee</a>, said: "We need to change the way we produce, the way we live and interact in our cities to make this transition to net-zero emissions a reality…</p><p>"And as this year has illustrated so dramatically, we need to make every effort that we keep populations healthy, if we want to avoid jeopardizing all this progress."</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/11/un-africa-recycled-plastic-housing/" target="_blank">World Economic Forum</a>.</em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649069252#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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By Dolf Gielen and Morgan Bazilian
John Kerry helped bring the world into the Paris climate agreement and expanded America's reputation as a climate leader. That reputation is now in tatters, and President-elect Joe Biden is asking Kerry to rebuild it again – this time as U.S. climate envoy.
Energy Is at the Center of the Climate Challenge<p>The <a href="https://science2017.globalchange.gov/chapter/1/" target="_blank">effects of climate change</a> are already evident across the globe, from <a href="https://theconversation.com/100-degrees-in-siberia-5-ways-the-extreme-arctic-heat-wave-follows-a-disturbing-pattern-141442" target="_blank">extreme heat waves</a> to <a href="https://science2017.globalchange.gov/chapter/12/" target="_blank">sea level rise</a>. But while the challenge is daunting, there is hope. Solar and wind power have become the <a href="https://www.irena.org/publications/2020/Jun/Renewable-Power-Costs-in-2019" target="_blank">cheapest forms of power generation globally</a>, and technology progress and innovation continue apace to support a transition to clean energy.</p><p>In the U.S. under a Biden administration, long-term national climate legislation will depend on who controls the Senate, and that won't be clear until after two run-off elections in Georgia in January.</p><p>But there is no shortage of <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2020-biden-climate-change-advice/" target="_blank">ideas for ways Biden</a> could still take action even if his proposals are blocked in Congress. For example, he could use executive orders and direct government agencies to tighten regulations on greenhouse gas emissions; increase research and development in clean energy technologies; and empower states to exceed national standards, <a href="https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-emissions-california/defying-trump-california-locks-in-vehicle-emission-deals-with-major-automakers-idUSKCN25D2CH" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">as California did in the past with auto emission standards</a>. A focus on a just and equitable transition for communities and people affected by the decline of fossil fuels will also be key to creating a sustainable transition.</p><p>The U.S. position as the world's largest oil and gas producer and consumer creates political challenges for any administration. U.S. forays into European energy security are often treated with suspicion. Recently, France blocked <a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/frances-engie-backs-out-of-u-s-lng-deal-11604435609" target="_blank">a multi-billion dollar contract</a> to buy U.S. liquefied natural gas because of concerns about limited emissions regulations in Texas.</p><p>Strengthening cooperation and partnerships with like-minded countries will be critical to bring about a transition to cleaner energy as well as sustainability in agriculture, forestry, water and other sectors of the global economy.</p>
Creating a Global Sustainable Transition<p>How the world recovers from COVID-19's economic damage could help drive a lasting shift in the global energy mix.</p><p>Nearly one-third of Europe's US$2 trillion economic relief package <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-21/eu-approves-biggest-green-stimulus-in-history-with-572-billion-plan" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">involves investments that are also good for the climate</a>. The European Union is also strengthening its 2030 climate targets, though each country's energy and climate plans will be critical for successfully implementing them. The <a href="https://joebiden.com/clean-energy/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Biden plan</a> – including a $2 trillion commitment to developing sustainable energy and infrastructure – is aligned with a global energy transition, but its implementation is also uncertain.</p><p>Once Biden takes office, Kerry will be joining ongoing <a href="https://www.un.org/en/conferences/energy2021/about#:%7E:text=The%20overarching%20goal%20of%20the,2030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development.&text=Accelerate%20delivery%20of%20United%20Nations,related%20issues%20at%20all%20levels." target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">high-level discussions on the energy transition</a> at the U.N. General Assembly and other gatherings of international leaders. With the U.S. no longer obstructing work on climate issues, the G-7 and G-20 have more potential for progress on energy and climate.</p><p>Lots of technical details still need to be worked out, including international trade frameworks and standards that can help countries lower greenhouse gas emissions enough to keep global warming in check. <a href="https://www.carbonpricingleadership.org/what" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Carbon pricing</a> and <a href="https://www.csis.org/analysis/how-can-europe-get-carbon-border-adjustment-right" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">carbon border adjustment taxes</a>, which create incentive for companies to reduce emissions, may be part of it. A consistent and comprehensive set of national energy transition plans will also be needed.</p><p>The global shift to <a href="https://www.irena.org/publications/2019/Jan/A-New-World-The-Geopolitics-of-the-Energy-Transformation" target="_blank">clean energy will also have geopolitical implications for countries and regions</a>, and this will have a profound impact on wider international relations. Kerry, with his experience as secretary of state in the Obama administration, and Biden's plan to make the climate envoy position part of the National Security Council, may help mend these relations. In doing so, the U.S. may again join the wider community of countries willing to lead.</p>
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By Maria Caffrey
As we approach the holidays I, like most people, have been reflecting on everything 2020 has given us (or taken away) while starting to look ahead to 2021.