Oil and gas drilling and fracking pose extraordinary threats to Colorado's Denver metro and Front Range cities including to air quality, water quality in streams and groundwater, wildlife habitat, private property rights and landscape health. These impacts are generally similar wherever drilling and fracking occurs across the U.S.
But what makes drilling and fracking unique in Colorado—and especially across Colorado's Front Range from Fort Collins to Pueblo—is its threat to Colorado's rivers.
Why? Drilling and fracking use a lot of water, and water is already in short supply along the Front Range. In fact, many fast-growing Colorado cities predict they will have a shortage of water in the next decade and are already proposing new water supply projects that will further drain Colorado's already severely degraded rivers. And, the very same cities that are proposing new water projects are also selling increasing amounts of water for fracking.
First, the Windy Gap Firming Project proposes to drain up to an additional 30,000 acre feet (nearly 10 billion gallons) of water out of the severely degraded Upper Colorado River every year and pipe and pump that water to northern Front Range Colorado cities including Loveland, Longmont and Greeley. At the very same time, those same three cities have recently started selling water for fracking, and Greeley has started selling large quantities for fracking—over 1,500 acre feet (500 million gallons) in 2011 and climbing. The Upper Colorado already has 60 percent of its water drained out and has severe problems with water quality and water temperature such that fish and aquatic insects are on the brink of survival.
Second, the Northern Integrated Supply Project proposes to drain an additional 40,000 acre feet (13 billion gallons) per year out of the Cache la Poudre River northwest of Fort Collins. Several towns and cities participating in this project are already selling water for fracking including Windsor, Fort Lupton, Eaton, Firestone and the Central Weld County Water District. Unfortunately, the Cache la Poudre is one of the most endangered rivers in America, already has over 60 percent of its water drained out before the river reaches downtown Fort Collins, and is sometimes drained completely dry.
Third, the Seaman Reservoir Project by the City of Greeley on the North Fork of the Cache la Poudre River proposes to drain several thousand acre feet of water out of the North Fork and the mainstem of the Cache la Poudre. Greeley's water sales for fracking, noted above, are escalating.
Fourth, one of the biggest proposed projects in Colorado is the Flaming Gorge Pipeline which could take a massive amount of water—up to 250,000 acre feet (81 billion gallons)—out of the Green and Colorado River systems every year and pipe and pump that water to the Front Range. One of the proponents for that project was quoted in the Denver Post as saying, "If this new water supply helps with the fracking issues, then, without question, we would consider delivering water for the industry." Downstream from this proposed diversion, the Colorado River's health and endangered fish species are already struggling to survive.
Fifth are several to-be-determined water sales for fracking. The City of Denver has opened up drilling and fracking on its property at Denver International Airport. It is unclear at this time who is selling water to those drilling and fracking operations, but the City of Denver is also pushing forward with the Moffat Collection System Project, a proposal to drain even more water out of the Upper Colorado River and pipe it to Denver. Also, the City of Aurora has drilling and fracking moving into its east Denver suburbs, including at the former Lowry Bombing Range surrounding Aurora Reservoir—it is unclear where those drillers and frackers will get water but they will need a lot of it. In addition, the City of Thornton is planning to grow to the northeast across E-470 into drilling/fracking territory and is at the same time planning to divert tens-of-thousands of acre feet of water out of the Cache la Poudre watershed which is 50 miles to the north to slake the thirst of that growth.
And the list goes on and on, from Pueblo to Colorado Springs to the Southern suburbs of Denver as drilling and fracking move into suburban Front Range Colorado near homes and families, but also near city-owned fire hydrants that provide quick, cheap, clean water that has and will be diverted out of Colorado's endangered rivers.
So, how much water will fracking take? Like all things with fracking, there are differences of opinion. The industry-funded Colorado Oil and Gas Association estimates that water used for fracking could be 20,000 acre feet (6.5 billion gallons) per year as wells are sunk in the suburban Front Range. But some environmentalists believe that number would be higher as tens-of-thousands of new wells are drilled and fracked, as old wells are re-fracked, and as that water is never returned to the hydrologic cycle because it is too poisoned and polluted for other uses. In addition, efforts in the 2012 Colorado State Legislature to require drillers and frackers to publicly disclose the amount of water they have used have not yet been successful.
Unfortunately, the federal government does not appear to be taking the issue seriously. Recently, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation released its "Final Environmental Impact Statement" (FEIS) for the Windy Gap Firming Project (noted above) and although several of the project's participating cities are selling water for fracking, the FEIS does not analyze nor mention this use of water even after environmentalists have repeatedly requested it. Environmentalists have requested similar analyses for the other projects listed above—federal agencies have not yet responded to those requests.
It is true that the state of Colorado contains millions of acre feet of water, and that fracking may only need a small percentage of it. But more importantly and to the point, it is also true that fracking is a brand new use of water, and that the brand new amount of water needed for fracking is coming from many of the same cities that are proposing brand new water projects that will further dam, drain and divert the last streamflows out of Colorado's rivers.
Some people say that fracking may be a small drop in the bucket of Colorado's overall water supplies, but if these water projects go forward, fracking would certainly contribute to being the last drop in the bucket of Colorado's rivers.
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The Washington Redskins will retire their controversial name and logo, the National Football League (NFL) team announced Monday.
By Alyssa Murdoch, Chrystal Mantyka-Pringle and Sapna Sharma
Summer has finally arrived in the northern reaches of Canada and Alaska, liberating hundreds of thousands of northern stream fish from their wintering habitats.
A Good News Story?<p>On the surface, the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13569" target="_blank">results from our study</a> appear to provide a "good news" story. Warming temperatures were linked to higher numbers of fish, more species overall and, therefore, potentially more fishing opportunities for northerners.</p><p>Initially, we were surprised to learn that warming was increasing the distribution of cold-adapted fish. We reasoned that modest amounts of warming could lead to benefits such as increased food and winter habitat availability without reaching stressful levels for many species.</p>
Photo of Arctic grayling (left) and Dolly Varden trout (right). Alyssa Murdoch / Lilian Tran / Nunavik Research Centre and Tracey Loewen / Fisheries and Oceans Canada<p>Yet, not all fish species fared equally well. Ecologically unique northern species — those that have evolved in colder, more nutrient-poor environments, such as Arctic grayling and Dolly Varden trout — were showing declines with warming.</p>
Fish Strandings and Buried Eggs<p>Recent news headlines run the gamut for Pacific salmon — from their increased escapades <a href="https://nunatsiaq.com/stories/article/more-pacific-salmon-showing-up-in-western-arctic-waters/" target="_blank">into the Arctic</a> to <a href="https://www.juneauempire.com/news/warm-waters-across-alaska-cause-salmon-die-offs/" target="_blank">massive pre-spawning die-offs</a> in central Alaska. Similarly, results from our study revealed different outcomes for fish depending on local climatic conditions, including Pacific salmon.</p><p>We found that warmer spring and fall temperatures may be helping juvenile salmon by providing a longer and more plentiful growing season, and by supporting early egg development in northern regions that were previously too cold for survival.</p><p>In contrast, salmon declined in regions that were experiencing wetter fall conditions, pointing to an increased risk of flooding and sedimentation that could bury or dislodge incubating eggs.</p>
Headwaters of the Wind River within the largely intact Peel River watershed in northern Canada. Don Reid / Wildlife Conservation Society Canada / Author provided<p>Interestingly, we found that certain climatic combinations, such as warmer summer water temperatures with decreased summer rainfall, were important in determining where Pacific salmon could survive. Summer warming in drier watersheds led to declines, suggesting that lowered streamflows may have increased the risk of fish becoming stranded in subpar habitats that were too warm and crowded.</p>
The Fate of Northern Fisheries<p>The promise of a warmer and more accessible Arctic has attracted mounting interest in new economic opportunities, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103637" target="_blank">including fisheries</a>. As warming rates at higher latitudes are already <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/" target="_blank">two to three times global levels</a>, it seems probable that northern biodiversity will experience dramatic shifts in the coming decades.</p><p>Despite the many unknowns surrounding the future of Pacific salmon, many fisheries are currently <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/03632415.2017.1374251" target="_blank">thriving following warmer and more productive northern oceans</a>, and some <a href="https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic68876" target="_blank">Arctic Indigenous communities are developing new salmon fisheries</a>.</p><p>As warming continues, the commercial salmon fishing industry is poised to expand northwards, but its success will largely depend on extenuating factors such as <a href="https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060023067" target="_blank">changes to marine habitat and food sources</a> and <a href="https://www.yukon-news.com/news/promising-chinook-salmon-run-failed-to-materialize-in-the-yukon-river-panel-hears/" target="_blank">how many fish are caught during the freshwater stages of their journey</a>.</p><p>Even with the potential for increased northern biodiversity, it is important to recognize that some northern communities may be unable to adapt or may <a href="https://thenarwhal.ca/searching-for-the-yukon-rivers-missing-chinook/" target="_blank">lose individual species that are associated with important cultural values</a>.</p>
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If you get a call from a number you don't recognize, don't hit decline — it might be a contact tracer calling to let you know that someone you've been near has tested positive for the coronavirus.
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“You’ve Been Exposed”<p>After the case interview, contact tracers will get to work calling the folks who may have been exposed to the coronavirus by the person who tested positive.</p><p>"We give them recommendations about quarantining or isolating, getting tested, and what to do if they become sick. If they're not already sick, we still want them to self-quarantine so that they don't spread the disease to anyone else if they were to become sick," said Labus.</p><p>Generally, the contact tracer won't ask for additional contacts unless they happen to call someone who is sick or has a confirmed case of the virus. They will help ensure the contact has the resources they need to isolate themselves, if necessary. The contact tracer may continue to stay in touch with that person over the next 14 days.</p><p>"We follow the percentage of people that were contacts, then converted into being actual cases of the virus. It's an important marker to help us understand what kind of transmission happens in our community and how to control the virus," said Gullett.</p>
Why You Should Participate (and What Happens If You Don’t)<p>A <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30457-6/fulltext" target="_blank">Lancet study</a> from June 16, which looked at data from more than 40,000 people, found that COVID-19 transmission could be reduced by 64 percent through isolating those who have the coronavirus, quarantining their household, and contacting the people they may have exposed.</p><p>The combination strategy was significantly more effective than mass random testing or just isolating the sick person and members of their household.</p><p>However, contact tracing is only as effective as people's willingness to participate, and a small number of people who've contracted the coronavirus or were potentially exposed are reluctant to talk.</p><p>"Contact tracers have all been hung up on, cussed at, yelled at," said Gullet.</p><p>The hesitation to talk to contact tracers often stems from concerns over privacy — a serious issue in healthcare.</p>
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