Top 10 Single-Use Plastics Clogging European Rivers
Most of the 8 million tons of plastic that enter the world's oceans each year flows from rivers, but fewer studies have been done looking at plastic pollution in freshwater environments. The Plastic Rivers report released Monday by the EarthWatch Institute and Plastic Oceans UK Monday looks to correct that knowledge gap and help consumers understand the best actions they can take to keep plastic out of the world's waterways.
The report reviewed nine studies of pollution in European and UK rivers and lakes to find the top 10 single-use plastic items. Of the 193,238 items turned up in the studies, 37.5 percent were plastic items normally used by consumers. The rest of the litter was related to agriculture, fishing or industry.
Top 10 plastic pollutants in rivers and lakes revealed! Find out how you can have a real impact on… https://t.co/1PpqFVTane— Earthwatch Europe (@Earthwatch Europe)1554710412.0
The top 10 list accounted for 28.2 percent of all the litter in the studies. The two organizations then compared environmental evidence and the life cycle of each item to advise concerned users on how best to prevent more of them from ending up in rivers and, eventually, oceans.
The list is as follows:
1. Plastic Bottles
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 14 Percent
Recommended Action: Use Reusable Bottles
2. Food Wrappers
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 12 Percent
Recommended Action: Dispose of Them Properly
3. Cigarette Butts
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 9 Percent
Recommended Action: Dispose of Them Properly
4. To-Go Containers
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 6 Percent
Recommended Action: Use Reusable Containers for Take-Out
5. Cotton Bud Sticks
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 5 Percent
Recommended Action: Use Buds With Paper Sticks Instead
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 4 Percent
Recommended Action: Use Reusable Cups
7. Sanitary Items
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 3 Percent
Recommended Action: Do Not Flush Pads, Tampons or Wet Wipes
8. Cigarette Packaging
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 2 Percent
Recommended Action: Dispose of It Properly
9. Plastic Straws, Stirrers and Cutlery
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 1 Percent
Recommended Action: Use Reusable Silverware and Straws
10. Plastic Bags
Percentage of Total Plastic Litter Found: 1 Percent
Recommended Action: Use Reusable Bags
Our new #PlasticRivers report with @Earthwatch_Eur names plastic bottles the BIGGEST culprit clogging up our waterw… https://t.co/TlVcjMngWI— Plastic Oceans UK (@Plastic Oceans UK)1554800456.0
The low placement of plastic bags indicated that efforts in the UK and Europe to reduce their use through fees and other measures has paid off, The Guardian reported. However, the report also shows the persistence of other plastic items in daily life.
"The products we buy every day are contributing to the problem of ocean plastic," Plastic Oceans UK Chief Executive Jo Ruxton told The Guardian. "Our discarded plastic enters rivers from litter generated by our on-the-go lifestyle and items we flush down toilets. This throwaway approach is having much more serious consequences and the report shows really simple ways to avoid this problem and stop plastic pollution."The report comes a little more than a week after the EU Parliament agreed to ban the most harmful single use plastics by 2021. Some of the items on the Plastic Rivers list, like plastic cutlery, straws and cotton buds, are covered by the ban. The law also sets new targets for the collection of plastic bottles and requires cigarette companies to pay for removing butts from waterways.
#EU Agrees to Slash Single-Use #Plastics to Halt Marine #Pollution https://t.co/fbdqPX705N @PlasticPollutes @PlasticOceans— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1545249624.0
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A herdsman in the Chinese autonomous region of Inner Mongolia was diagnosed with the bubonic plague Sunday, The New York Times reported.
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By Matt Kasson, Brian Lovett and Carolee Bull
Home gardening is having a boom year across the U.S. Whether they're growing their own food in response to pandemic shortages or just looking for a diversion, numerous aspiring gardeners have constructed their first raised beds, and seeds are flying off suppliers' shelves. Now that gardens are largely planted, much of the work for the next several months revolves around keeping them healthy.
Start With Prevention<p>Just as preventive steps like maintaining a balanced diet help keep humans healthy, home growers can take many actions to help their gardens thrive.</p><p>One key step is assessing soil fertility – the ability of soil to sustain plant growth – which can vary widely depending on your location and soil type. Low soil fertility limits food production and predisposes plants to disease and pests. University extension <a href="https://soiltesting.wvu.edu/" target="_blank">soil testing labs</a> can help evaluate the quality of garden soil and identify nutrient deficiencies and acidic soils, often at no charge.</p>
Using weed barrier landscape cloth for planting rows and mulching between rows is an effective way to suppress weeds. Matt Kasson, CC BY-ND
Diagnosing Problems<p>Common plant pathogens include <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/viral/introduction/Pages/PlantViruses.aspx" target="_blank">viruses</a>, <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/prokaryote/intro/Pages/Bacteria.aspx" target="_blank">bacteria</a>, <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/nematode/intro/Pages/IntroNematodes.aspx" target="_blank">nematodes</a>, <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/oomycete/introduction/Pages/IntroOomycetes.aspx#:%7E:text=The%20oomycetes%2C%20also%20known%20as,foliar%20blights%20and%20downy%20mildews." target="_blank">oomycetes</a> and <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/fungalasco/intro/Pages/IntroFungi.aspx" target="_blank">fungi</a>. All of these microorganisms, especially at an early stage of infection, are too small to see. But when they proliferate, they cause changes in plants that we can recognize.</p><p>Unlike insects, which move around on six legs or on wings through the air, pathogens can move unseen and unchecked from leaf to leaf on the wind, through the soil or in droplets of water. Some microbes have even formed intimate relationships with insects and use them as vehicles to move from plant to plant, which makes these pathogens even more challenging to manage. Unfortunately, by the time some pathogens make their presence known, the damage is already done.</p><p>We recently conducted a <a href="https://twitter.com/kasson_wvu/status/1265989041725624323" target="_blank">Twitter poll</a> of gardeners nationwide to find out which culprits plagued their gardens. People named <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/aphids" target="_blank">aphids</a>, <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/squash-vine-borer" target="_blank">squash vine borers</a>, <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/squash-bug" target="_blank">squash bugs</a> and <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/flea-beetle" target="_blank">flea beetles</a> as the most problematic insect pests. Their most troublesome pathogens included <a href="https://extension.wvu.edu/lawn-gardening-pests/plant-disease/fruit-vegetable-diseases/powdery-mildew" target="_blank">powdery mildew</a>, <a href="https://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/rsol/Trainingmodules/BWTomato_Module.html" target="_blank">tomato bacterial wilt</a> and <a href="https://extension.wvu.edu/lawn-gardening-pests/plant-disease/fruit-vegetable-diseases/downy-mildew" target="_blank">cucurbit downy mildew</a>.</p><p>To manage such perennial challenges, the first step is to spend time closely looking at your plants. Do you notice any insects consistently hanging around, or molds colonizing leaves or other plant parts? How about symptoms such as blight, stunting, or leaves that are yellowing, browning or wilting?</p>
This white fungal growth is an early sign of powdery mildew on a leaf of susceptible summer squash. Matt Kasson, CC BY-ND
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By Emma Charlton
The effects of climate change may more far-reaching than you think.
Hotter temperatures have been linked to a rise in energy poverty, with more people struggling to meet their energy bills from their household income, according to a new study published on ScienceDirect by researchers from Italy's Ca' Foscari University.
Value of air conditioning imports in selected OECD countries. ScienceDirect
The ‘Golden Thread’<p>The <a href="https://www.endenergypoverty.org/reports" target="_blank">Global Commission to End Energy Poverty</a> calls access to energy the "golden thread" that weaves together economic growth, human development, and environmental sustainability. And one of the <a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/archive/sdg-07-affordable-and-clean-energy" target="_blank">United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals</a> is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030.</p><p>Sustainability also has a large role to play in the future of energy and failing to embed green policies in COVID-19 stimulus packages and underinvesting in green infrastructure are current risks, according to the <a href="http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_COVID_19_Risks_Outlook_Special_Edition_Pages.pdf" target="_blank">World Economic Forum</a>.</p><p>In its vision for a 'Great Reset' – building a better world after the pandemic – the Forum and the IMF jointly backed the <a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/06/end-fossil-fuel-subsidies-economy-imf-georgieva-great-reset-climate/" target="_blank">transition to a green economy</a> and called for an end to fossil fuel subsidies.</p>
As if the surging cases of coronavirus weren't enough for Floridians to handle, now the state's Department of Health (DOH) has confirmed that a person in the Tampa area tested positive for a rare brain-eating amoeba, according to CBS News. The Florida DOH posted a warning to residents to remind them of the dangers of the rare single-celled amoeba that attacks brain tissue.
Scientists are urging the WHO to revisit their coronavirus guidance to focus more on airborne transmission and less on hand sanitizer and hygiene. John Lund / Photodisc / Getty Images
The World Health Organization (WHO) is holding the line on its stance that the respiratory droplets of the coronavirus fall quickly to the floor and are not infectious. Now, a group of 239 scientists is challenging that assertion, arguing that the virus is lingering in the air of indoor environments, infecting people nearby, as The New York Times reported.
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Scores of people remained stranded in southern Japan on Sunday after heavy rain the day before caused deep flooding and mudslides that left at least 34 people confirmed or presumed dead.
Care Home Inundated<p>Altogether 16 residents at an elderly care home in Kuma Village are presumed dead after the facility was flooded by water and mud.</p><p>Fifty-one other residents have been rescued by boats and taken to hospitals for treatment, officials said.</p><p>Eighteen other people elsewhere have been confirmed dead, while more than a dozen others were still missing as of Sunday afternoon.</p><p>The Fire and Disaster Management Agency said many others were still waiting to be rescued from other inundated areas.</p><p>Hitoyoshi City was also badly affected by flooding, as rains in the prefecture exceeded 100 millimeters (4 inches) per hour at their height.</p>
More Rain Forecast<p>The disaster in the Kumamoto prefecture on Kyushu island is the worst natural catastrophe since Typhoon Hagibis in October last year, which cost the lives of 90 people.</p><p>Although residents in Kumamoto prefecture were advised to evacuate their homes following the downpours on Friday evening into Saturday, many people chose not to leave for fear of contracting the coronavirus.</p><p>Officials say, however, that measures are in place at shelters to prevent the transmission of the disease.</p><p>More rain is predicted in the region, and the Japan Meteorological Agency has warned of the danger of further mudslides.</p>
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