26% of the World Will Run on Renewables by 2020, Says IEA
The International Energy Agency (IEA) on Friday released a report, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015, which found that by 2020, 26 percent of the world’s energy will be generated by renewable sources. The agency notes this is “a remarkable shift in a very limited period of time.”
Today we're launching our #RenewableEnergy Medium-Term Market Report 2015 http://t.co/Cf67y6Gzkb http://t.co/Nj0kZXvsu1— IEA (@IEA)1443775590.0
"Renewable electricity expanded at its fastest rate to date, 130 GW (gigawatts), in 2014 and accounted for more than 45 percent of net additions to world capacity in the power sector," says the report. Costs for renewable energy just keep going down and will continue to do so. "Even in a lower fossil fuel price environment, the policy drivers for renewable electricity—energy diversification, local pollution and decarbonization aims—remain robust."
The world's energy coming from clean sources (mostly hydro, wind and solar) is expected to rise from 22 percent in 2013 to 26 in 2020. "By 2020, the amount of global electricity generation coming from renewable energy will be higher than today’s combined electricity demand of China, India and Brazil."
"Onshore wind leads the global renewable growth, accounting for over one-third of the renewable capacity and generation increase," says the IEA. "Solar PV is the second-largest source of new capacity, another third of deployment. Hydropower accounts for one-fifth of new renewable additions, and over a quarter of generation growth. Meanwhile, other renewable technologies grow slower on an absolute basis, but still scale up significantly. "
And in the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), renewables account for virtually all net additions to power capacity. But these countries only make up one-third of renewable growth. "China, India and Brazil and other developing countries account for two-thirds of the renewable expansion over the medium term," according to the IEA.
And the prospects look good. In the U.S. alone, 40 percent of the nation’s coal plants, that were running just five years ago, have been shut down. Developing countries—namely India and China—are still adding fossil fuel plants, but installment is slowing and expected to peak soon.
“Renewables are poised to seize the crucial top spot in global power supply growth, but this is hardly time for complacency,” the IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol said at a press conference held in Istanbul, at the G20 Energy Ministers Meeting, to announce the report’s release. “Governments must remove the question marks over renewables if these technologies are to achieve their full potential, and put our energy system on a more secure, sustainable path.”
The agency finds that the biggest issue remains policies that subsidize dirty energy rather than expedite renewable energy. “But while variability of renewables is a challenge that energy systems can learn to adapt to, variability of policies poses a far greater risk,” says Birol.
Greenpeace and researchers at Stanford and UC Berkeley have already laid out plans for the U.S. and the world to reach 100 percent renewable energy in the coming decades. Now, it seems, we just need the political will.
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By Aaron W Hunter
A chance discovery of a beautifully preserved fossil in the desert landscape of Morocco has solved one of the great mysteries of biology and paleontology: how starfish evolved their arms.
The Pompeii of palaeontology. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<h2></h2><p>Although starfish might appear very robust animals, they are typically made up of lots of hard parts attached by ligaments and soft tissue which, upon death, quickly degrade. This means we rely on places like the Fezouata formations to provide snapshots of their evolution.</p><p>The starfish fossil record is patchy, especially at the critical time when many of these animal groups first appeared. Sorting out how each of the various types of ancient starfish relate to each other is like putting a puzzle together when many of the parts are missing.</p><h2>The Oldest Starfish</h2><p><em><a href="https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/216101v1.full.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Cantabrigiaster</a></em> is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. It was discovered in 2003, but it has taken over 17 years to work out its true significance.</p><p>What makes <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> unique is that it lacks almost all the characteristics we find in brittle stars and starfish.</p><p>Starfish and brittle stars belong to the family Asterozoa. Their ancestors, the Somasteroids were especially fragile - before <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> we only had a handful of specimens. The celebrated Moroccan paleontologist Mohamed <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.041" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Ben Moula</a> and his local team was instrumental in discovering <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031018216302334?via%3Dihub" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">these amazing fossils</a> near the town of Zagora, in Morocco.</p><h2>The Breakthrough</h2><p>Our breakthrough moment came when I compared the arms of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> with those of modern sea lilles, filter feeders with long feathery arms that tend to be attached to the sea floor by a stem or stalk.</p><p>The striking similarity between these modern filter feeders and the ancient starfish led our team from the University of Cambridge and Harvard University to create a new analysis. We applied a biological model to the features of all the current early Asterozoa fossils in existence, along with a sample of their closest relatives.</p>
Cantabrigiaster is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<p>Our results demonstrate <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> is the most primitive of all the Asterozoa, and most likely evolved from ancient animals called crinoids that lived 250 million years before dinosaurs. The five arms of starfish are a relic left over from these ancestors. In the case of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em>, and its starfish descendants, it evolved by flipping upside-down so its arms are face down on the sediment to feed.</p><p>Although we sampled a relatively small numbers of those ancestors, one of the unexpected outcomes was it provided an idea of how they could be related to each other. Paleontologists studying echinoderms are often lost in detail as all the different groups are so radically different from each other, so it is hard to tell which evolved first.</p>
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