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Coconut oil is incredibly popular and for good reason. It offers many health benefits, has a delicate taste and is widely available. It's also an extremely versatile oil with a number of uses you may not be aware of.

Coconut oil is incredibly popular and for good reason. Photo credit: Shutterstock

Here are 31 clever uses for coconut oil.

1. Protection From Sun

Coconut oil may protect your skin from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can cause wrinkling, brown spots and raise your risk of skin cancer.

In fact, one study found that it blocks about 20 percent of the sun's UV rays (1).

However, keep in mind that it doesn't provide the same amount of protection as conventional sunscreen, which blocks about 90 percent of UV rays.

Another study estimated that coconut oil has a sun protection factor (SPF) of 7, which is still lower than the minimum recommended in some countries (2).

2. Increase Your Metabolism

Coconut oil contains medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs). These are fatty acids that are quickly absorbed and can increase the amount of calories you burn (3).

Controlled studies have shown that MCTs can significantly boost your metabolic rate, at least temporarily (4, 5).

One study found that, on average, 15–30 grams of MCTs increased calorie expenditure by around 120 calories over a 24-hour period (6).

3. Cook Safely at High Temperatures

Coconut oil has a very high saturated fat content. In fact, about 87 percent of its fat is saturated (7).

This feature makes it one of the best fats for high-heat cooking, including frying.

Saturated fats retain their structure when heated to high temperatures, unlike the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils.

Oils such as corn and safflower are converted into toxic compounds when heated. These may have harmful effects on health (8).

There is no reason to fear the saturated fats in coconut oil. New studies show that they have no link to heart disease risk.

4. Improve Your Dental Health

Coconut oil can be a powerful weapon against bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. This is the bacteria in the mouth that causes dental plaque, tooth decay and gum disease.

In one study, swishing with coconut oil for 10 minutes (known as oil pulling) reduced these bacteria as effectively as rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash (9).

In another study, swishing daily with coconut oil significantly reduced inflammation and plaque in teenagers with gingivitis (inflamed gums) (10).

5. Relieve Skin Irritation and Eczema

Research shows that coconut oil improves dermatitis and other skin disorders at least as well as mineral oil and other conventional moisturizers (11, 12, 13).

In a study of children with eczema, 47 percent of those treated with coconut oil had major improvements (13).

6. Improve Brain Function

The MCTs in coconut oil are broken down by the liver and turned into ketones, which can act as an alternative energy source for the brain (14).

Several studies have found MCTs to have impressive benefits for brain disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimer's (15, 16, 17).

Some researchers recommend using coconut oil as a source of MCTs to increase the production of ketones (14).

7. Make Healthy Mayonnaise

Commercial mayonnaise often contains soybean oil, added sugar and other unhealthy ingredients.

However, it's easy to make your own mayo with much healthier ingredients, including coconut oil or olive oil.

Recipe number two on this list uses coconut oil as one of the fats for a healthy homemade mayonnaise.

8. Moisturize Your Skin

Coconut oil makes a wonderful moisturizer for your legs, arms and elbows.

You can use it on your face as well, although this isn't recommended for those with very oily skin.

It can also help repair cracked heels. Simply apply a thin coat to your heels at bedtime, put on socks and continue on a nightly basis until your heels are smooth.

9. Fight Infections

Virgin coconut oil has strong antibacterial properties that can help treat infections.

One study found that it helped stop the growth of the intestinal bacteria Clostridium difficile, commonly known as “C. diff," which causes severe diarrhea (18).

It also appears to fight several other bacteria and yeasts—an effect generally attributed to lauric acid, the main fatty acid in coconut oil (19).

10. Increase Your HDL Cholesterol

Coconut oil has been shown to raise cholesterol levels in some people.

However, its strongest and most consistent effect is an increase in HDL cholesterol, which is known as the “good" cholesterol (20, 21, 22).

One study of women with abdominal obesity found that HDL increased in a group consuming coconut oil (22).

In contrast, women consuming soybean oil had a decrease in HDL cholesterol (22).

11. Provide Relief from Insect Bites and Stings

Coconut oil's anti-inflammatory properties can help relieve the pain or itch caused by insect bites or stings. It may also reduce swelling and decrease risk of infection.

To try this, gently rub a small amount onto the bite and cover with a bandage.

12. Make Sugar-Free Dark Chocolate

Homemade dark chocolate is a delicious way to get coconut oil's health benefits.

Just remember to store it in the refrigerator or freezer, since coconut oil melts at 76 F (24 C).

Here's a delicious recipe for sugar-free dark chocolate candy bars made with coconut oil.

13. Reduce Belly Fat

Coconut oil may help reduce belly fat, also known as visceral fat, which is linked to increased health risks such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes (21, 22, 23).

In one study, obese men lost 1 inch (2.54 cm) from their waist fat by adding 2 tablespoons (1 oz or 30 ml) of coconut oil to their diet (21).

Another study looked at women on calorie-restricted diets. Those who took 2 tablespoons of coconut oil per day had a decrease in waist size, while the soybean oil group actually had a slight increase (22).

14. Protect Your Hair from Damage

Coconut oil can help keep your hair healthy.

One study compared the effects of coconut oil, mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair.

Only coconut oil significantly reduced protein loss from hair when applied before or after shampooing. This result occurred with damaged as well as healthy hair.

The researchers concluded that the unique structure of lauric acid, the main fatty acid in coconut oil, can penetrate the hair shaft in a way that most other fats can't (24).

15. Massage Your Newborn

Massaging newborns with oil has been shown to promote normal weight gain and growth.

One study suggests that coconut oil may be the best type of oil to use for this purpose.

Premature babies who were massaged with coconut oil for 30 days gained significantly more weight than those massaged with mineral oil for the same time period (25).

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16. Decrease Hunger and Food Intake

The medium-chain triglycerides in coconut oil may help reduce hunger, leading to a spontaneous decrease in calorie intake (3, 26, 27).

In a small study, men who followed a high-MCT diet took in fewer calories and lost more weight than men who ate diets with low or medium MCT content (27).

17. Improve Wound Healing

One study found that rats whose wounds were treated with coconut oil had a reduction in inflammatory markers and increased production of collagen, a major component of skin. As a result, their wounds healed much faster (28).

To speed healing of minor cuts or scrapes, apply a little bit of coconut oil directly to the wound and cover it with a bandage.

18. Boost Bone Health

Animal research suggests that the the antioxidants in virgin coconut oil may protect bone health by neutralizing free radicals, which can damage bone cells (29, 30).

A 6-week study of rats showed that the group receiving 8 percent of their calories from coconut oil had significantly more bone volume and improved bone structure (30).

19. Make a Nontoxic Insect Repellent

Some essential oils may be a natural way to keep bugs away and avoiding bites and stings.

However, rather than applying these oils directly to your skin, they need to be combined with a carrier oil.

In one study, combining Thai essential oils with coconut oil provided more than 98 percent protection from the bites of certain mosquitoes (31).

20. Combat Candida

Candida albicans is the fungus responsible for yeast infections, which commonly occur in warm, moist areas of the body such as the mouth or vagina.

Test-tube studies suggest that coconut oil may help fight candida infections (32, 33).

Researchers found coconut oil to be as effective as fluconazole, the antifungal medication typically prescribed for candida infections (33).

21. Remove Stains

Coconut oil can be used to get rid of stains, including spills on carpets and furniture.

Combine one part coconut oil with one part baking soda and mix into a paste. Apply to the stain, wait 5 minutes and wipe away.

22. Reduce Inflammation

Several animal studies show that eating coconut oil provides strong anti-inflammatory effects (34, 35, 36).

Human studies suggest eating coconut oil may reduce markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, especially when compared to highly unsaturated oils (37, 38).

23. Natural Deodorant

Sweat itself has no smell. However, the bacteria living on your skin can produce undesirable odors.

Coconut oil's strong antibacterial properties make it a great natural deodorant that contains no chemicals.

Here is an easy recipe for an effective natural deodorant made with coconut oil and other natural ingredients.

24. Quick Energy Source

Coconut oil contains fats called medium-chain triglycerides, which are digested differently than the long-chain triglycerides found in most foods.

These fats go directly from the gut to the liver, where they can be used as a quick source of energy that won't raise blood sugar levels (3).

25. Heal Ragged Cuticles

Coconut oil can be used to improve your cuticles, including hangnails.

Simply apply a small amount of coconut oil to your cuticles and massage for a few moments. Do this several times a week for the best results.

26. Relieve Symptoms of Arthritis

Arthritis is characterized by pain and immobility of the joints due to inflammation.

Animal research suggests that antioxidants called polyphenols found in coconut oil may be able to relieve some symptoms of arthritis.

A study of arthritic rats found that treatment with polyphenols from coconut oil reduced swelling and several inflammatory markers (39).

27. Make Your Wood Furniture Shine

Coconut oil may help keep your furniture looking shiny and well-cared-for.

In addition to bringing out the beauty in natural wood, it seems to act as a dust repellent. It also has a pleasant, delicate aroma, unlike many commercial furniture polishes that contain strong fragrances.

28. Remove Eye Makeup

Coconut oil is a gentle and effective eye makeup remover. Apply with a cotton pad and wipe gently until all traces of makeup are gone.

29. Improve Liver Health

Animal research has found that the saturated fats in coconut oil can help protect the liver from damage due to alcohol or toxin exposure (40, 41).

In one study, mice treated with coconut oil after exposure to a toxic compound had a decrease in inflammatory liver markers and increased activity of beneficial liver enzymes (41).

30. Soothe Chapped Lips

Coconut oil makes an ideal natural lip balm.

It glides on smoothly, leaves your lips moist for hours and even provides some protection from the sun.

Here's an easy recipe for making your own lip balm with coconut oil.

31. Make Homemade Salad Dressing

Commercial salad dressings are often loaded with sugar and preservatives.

Here's a great recipe for a coconut oil salad dressing that tastes wonderful and is made with nourishing ingredients.

Take Home Message

Coconut oil has several health benefits, but it also has many other clever and practical uses that you may not have considered before. Make sure to always have plenty of coconut oil on hand. You never know when you might need it.

This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.

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Now, you can sip that ice cold brew without feeling guilty. The world's largest beer manufacturer, Anheuser-Busch InBev NV, has vowed to completely shift from fossil fuels by 2025, including investing in their own renewable energy sources.

The international business owns 35 titles including Budweiser, Budlight, Stella Artois, Natural Light, Busch, Michelobe Ultra, Schock Top and Goose Island. The company claims it was mere coincidence that their announcement came on the same day as President Trump's executive order to dismantle President Obama's climate policies.

"This has no political connotations at all," said CEO Carlos Alves De Brito in a statement. "We just think this is good for our business and the environment."

The shift will require uprooting 6 terawatt-hours—enough to power Spain for a month—and transferring it to wind and solar. They will begin by installing their own solar panels on their facilities worldwide. They are also making plans to power their facility in Mexico by purchasing 490 gigawatt-hours annually from Iberdrola SA, a Spanish electricity company, that is currently in the process of building a 220-megawatt wind farm in Puebla, Mexico.

AB InBev is the largest beer maker to commit to renewable energy in the world.

"Whether you're brewing beer or making cars, embracing clean and renewable energy is the smart thing to do," Jodie Van Horn, director of Sierra Club's Ready for 100 Campaign, said.

"That's why Anheuser-Busch joins a growing coalition of nearly 90 companies and 25 U.S. cities that have committed to go all-in on clean, renewable energy," Van Horn continued. "As the Trump Administration attempts to unravel protections designed to save billions of dollars and thousands of lives, businesses, cities and states throughout the U.S. and across the world will continue to step-up to lead the transition to clean, renewable energy."

President Donald Trump's executive order to wipe out President Barack Obama's climate legacy was met with widespread opposition from, well, just about anyone who cares about clean air and water.

In response to Tuesday's order, Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders tweeted, "Mr. Trump, you cannot run a government by rejecting science. Listen to the scientific community, not the CEOs of the fossil fuel industry."

Sanders—who has one of the strongest records on climate change in the Senate and is one of the new president's harshest critics—also posted a video onto social media calling Trump's "anti-environmental executive orders" a "disaster" and a "threat to the future of this country, and to the future of the world."

Trump's order has rolled back Obama-era regulations such as the Clean Power Plan that limits emissions from power plants. The Clean Power Plan was designed to reduce harmful carbon emissions and particle pollution that would benefit the climate and provide important public health protections at the same time.

Trump, however, does not seem to care about that. At yesterday's signing ceremony, the president surrounded himself with company executives and coal miners and promised that his sweeping order will create jobs.

"C'mon, fellas. You know what this is? You know what this says?" Trump said. "You're going back to work."

But as Sanders' widely viewed video shows, the president's promise to bring back coal jobs is a "flat out lie." U.S. mining jobs have been on the decline for decades whereas the renewable energy sector can create millions of jobs while protecting the climate at the same time.

Indeed, a new Sierra Club analysis of Dept. of Energy 2017 jobs data across the energy sector found that clean energy jobs overwhelm fossil fuels in nearly every state.

"What our job is, is not to expand the use of fossil fuels," Sanders said. "It is to significantly cut back on fossil fuels, move to energy efficiency and sustainable energies like wind, solar and geothermal."

Sanders lamented that the United States is being led by a president who thinks that climate change is a "hoax" created by the Chinese. He believes that Trump's actions threaten "not only this generation" but also "the lives of our kids and our grandchildren," Sanders added. He then vowed to fight the order "every step of the way."

The senator is not alone in his disapproval of the Trump administration's anti-environmental polices.

Jane Goodall called the administration's agenda "depressing," as it could push the United States' pledge to the 2015 Paris climate agreement out of reach.

"I find it immensely depressing because many of us—not just my institute—have been working really hard to create the Paris agreement and global effort to cut carbon emissions," Goodall told reporters before a speech at American University in Washington. "Thinking that the USA isn't going to play its part, such a major industrial country, is really very, very sad and it just means we're going to have to work harder."

The famed primatologist and conservationist went on to say that she's seen the effects of our rapidly warming planet firsthand.

"Because I'm traveling all over the world 300 days a year, I have seen the result of climate change and we know, science has shown, that global temperatures are warming and these so-called greenhouse gases are blanketing the globe," she said.

Goodall then rejected the attitudes of many politicians who actively oppose climate change policies by claiming they do not know the science behind it.

"There's no way we can say climate change isn't happening: it's happened," she said. "The argument that people give is, 'Well, we can't prove that human activities are the main cause of this,' and I just heard the other day that one of the president's people [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency head Scott Pruitt] said, 'Well, we don't think carbon monoxide is the main greenhouse gas.'"

Pruitt notoriously said in an interview with CNBC earlier this month that CO2 is not a primary contributor to global warming.

"So being not a scientist in that field, I tend to listen to scientists who do work in that field, like Nicholas Stern, and I would not dream of refuting the science that shows climate change is happening, it's happening everywhere, it's already having devastating effects in many parts of the word and the droughts are getting worse, flooding's getting worse, storms, hurricanes are getting more frequent and more violent. And the main thing is unpredictability: everywhere I go people say well it's not normally like that at this time of year," Goodall said.

Sponsored

Maryland is on track to become the third state to ban hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, for oil and natural gas, after the Senate voted 35-10 on Monday for a measure already approved by the House.

The bill is now headed to Republican Gov. Larry Hogan, who is in favor of a statewide fracking ban.

Hogan, who once said that fracking is " an economic gold mine," stunned many with his complete turnaround at a press conference earlier this month.

"We must take the next step to move from virtually banning fracking to actually banning fracking," the governor said. "The possible environmental risks of fracking simply outweigh any potential benefits."

Once signed into law, Maryland would be the first state with gas reserves to pass a ban through the legislature.

Don't Frack Maryland, a coalition of more than 140 business, public interest, community, faith, food and climate groups, has campaigned vigorously for a statewide ban through rallies, marches, petition deliveries and phone calls to legislators.

"Today's vote is a result of the work of thousands of Marylanders who came out to town halls, hearings and rallies across the state. The grassroots movement to ban fracking overcame the high-powered lobbyists and deep pockets of the oil and gas industry," said Mitch Jones, Food & Water Watch senior policy advocate. "We worked tirelessly to make sure our legislators and the governor were held accountable to the demands of voters and followed the science. Now we look forward to Governor Hogan signing this bill into law and finally knowing that our water, climate and families will be protected from the dangers of fracking."

Josh Tulkin, director of the Maryland Sierra Club, also commended the Maryland General Assembly for this "bipartisan victory."

"Congratulations go to the thousands of people across the state, particularly those in Western Maryland, who stood up for their beliefs, who organized, lobbied and rallied to get this legislation passed," Tulkin said. "This ban is a major step for Maryland's path to a clean energy economy."

Supporters of fracking say it creates jobs and provides energy security.

"Denying Maryland consumers, businesses and job-seekers the benefits that come with in-state energy production through hydraulic fracturing shuts the door on an important share of the American energy renaissance and western Maryland's future economic growth," Drew Cobbs, executive director of the Maryland Petroleum Council, told the Associated Press after the vote.

But opponents of the drilling process, which involves shooting highly pressurized water and chemicals into underground formations to release oil and gas, cite health and environmental risks such as air and water pollution and earthquakes.

Fracking does not currently take place in Maryland but a moratorium on issuing permits ends in October.

Elisabeth Hoffman of Howard County Climate Action said that alarming research about fracking's harms has emerged during the state moratorium, adding that "voices from fracked states were sounding the alarms as well."

"We are relieved and overjoyed that the state Senate has said NO to fracking," she added.

The implications of the Senate's vote are far reaching, according to Natalie Atherton of Citizen Shale.

"Western Maryland is surrounded by fracking just across our state borders. We have learned from and worked with our neighbors whose health has been compromised for years," Atherton said. "Already Citizen Shale is being approached by communities in other states, hoping to learn how they can ban fracking where they live. This has become a movement of people, and it won't stop with Maryland."

Yesterday's vote was widely applauded by environmental groups especially in light of the Trump administration's apparent assault on environmental regulations.

"Despite Trump's efforts to block climate action and roll back protections for people and the planet, communities in Maryland took matters into their own hands. This is an incredible victory that speaks to the power of grassroots organizing to take on the fossil fuel industry. Fracking is a reckless practice that threatens health and safety while intensifying the climate crisis," 350.org Fracking Campaign coordinator Linda Capato Jr. said.

Capato is urging a similar movement worldwide.

"Maryland is taking a huge step forward, but communities are continuing to suffer as fracking and extreme extraction expands worldwide. This fight is a great reminder that when communities organize, we win," she said. "As more people fight back against this dangerous and dirty industry, elected officials everywhere should follow Maryland and other state's example by banning fracking and putting the health of our communities and climate first."

By Alexandra Rosenmann

President Trump's push for "clean coal," almost makes sense, explained Stephen Colbert.

"I know clean coal sounds like an oxymoron but so does President Trump," the Late Show host noted.

"There's really clean coal," insisted Colbert. "Back in high school, I had a girlfriend in Canada who was a clean coal miner."

Apparently this ex-girlfriend told the host that Canadians "mine the clean coal and put it on that silver-bullet train and then they send it to Narnia where the Keebler Elves use it to power the pump on the fountain of youth. And when you burn clean coal it actually makes the air cleaner. So clean you can just see right through the air, like you can see through [Trump's] lie."

Colbert then pointed out how this aspect of the plan takes America's climate policy back decades, through an updated version of the iconic "Woodsy the Owl."

"Woodsy," famous for his "Give a hoot—don't pollute!" motto, is a national public service icon dating back to 1971.

Except today, Woodsy's message would be "Go Pollute! F*ck the Planet!"

Watch:

Reposted with permission from our media associate AlterNet.

Sponsored

Amid questions over whether the executive order would end U.S. involvement in the Paris agreement—and with no firm indication from the White House about staying in the agreement—top European Union climate official Miguel Arias Cañete expressed "regret" over Trump's policies Tuesday, promising that the European Union "will stand by Paris, we will defend Paris and we will implement Paris."

China showed it would continue to cement its global leadership on climate, as officials reaffirmed to press the country was still committed to the Paris agreement and adding "China's resolve, aims and policy moves in dealing with climate change will not change."

Former United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change leader Christiana Figueres expressed confidence in the agreement's durability, telling Fusion in an interview that the economic benefits of a global clean energy transition make the agreement "unstoppable."

"It's important to understand that no single country, no matter how large or small, can cancel the Paris Climate Agreement," explained Figueres. "The Paris Agreement is a multilateral agreement that has gone into force, and any country has the right to exit the agreement, or in fact to exit the Convention, but that doesn't mean that the multilateral structure is actually canceled."

For a deeper dive:

EU: Washington Post, AP, WSJ, The Guardian China: New York Times, Reuters

Figueres: PRI, Fusion Commentary: The Guardian, Damian Carrington analysis

For more climate change and clean energy news, you can follow Climate Nexus on Twitter and Facebook, and sign up for daily Hot News.

I led a coalition of 23 states, cities and counties in opposing President Trump's executive order today that the administration described as paving the way to eliminating the Clean Power Plan rule.

The coalition—which includes the Attorneys General of New York, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Washington and the District of Columbia, as well as the chief legal officers of the cities of Boulder, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, South Miami and Broward County, Florida—issued the following statement today:

"We strongly oppose President Trump's executive order that seeks to dismantle the Clean Power Plan.

"Addressing our country's largest source of carbon pollution—existing fossil fuel-burning power plants—is both required under the Clean Air Act and essential to mitigating climate change's growing harm to our public health, environments and economies.

"We won't hesitate to protect those we serve—including by aggressively opposing in court President Trump's actions that ignore both the law and the critical importance of confronting the very real threat of climate change."

The Clean Power Plan is the culmination of a decade-long effort by partnering states and cities to require mandatory cuts in the emissions of climate change pollution from fossil fuel-burning power plants under the Clean Air Act. The Clean Power Plan, along with the companion rule applicable to new, modified and reconstructed power plants, will control these emissions by setting limits on the amount of climate change pollution that power plants can emit. The rule for existing plants is expected to eliminate as much climate change pollution as is emitted by more than 160 million cars a year—or 70 percent of the nation's passenger cars.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency adopted the Clean Power Plan through a multi-year stakeholder process that drew heavily on the experience of states and utilities in reducing power plant greenhouse gas emissions. A number of states have already taken a leading role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by moving forward with their own programs. These states recognize that, on such a crucial issue that is already costing taxpayers billions of dollars in storm response and other costs, state action alone will not be enough and strong federal actions like the Clean Power Plan are needed.

In November 2015, a coalition of 25 states, cities and counties, which I led, intervened in defense of the Clean Power Plan against legal challenge in the DC Circuit Court of Appeals. The court heard oral argument en banc for a full day in late September; a decision is expected soon.

On Dec. 29, 2016, a broad coalition of states and localities called on President-Elect Trump to continue the federal government's defense of the Clean Power Plan in a letter, urging him to reject "misguided advice" from a group of Attorneys General led by West Virginia to discard the Clean Power Plan.

A quick overview of the Trump administration's pro-fossil fuel agenda and its roster of climate-denying oil and gas cronies in cabinet seats could lead anyone to believe that matters of energy policy are more partisan than ever. And indeed, it's clear that at the national level, the Republican Party as a whole is still largely committed to an antiquated and thoroughly dangerous plan to keep the country hooked on fossil fuels indefinitely.

Yet suddenly, the old rules do not apply. Maryland's state legislature has passed a ban on fracking, which, with the blessing of the Republican governor of the state, is expected to be signed into law any day now. This twist shows fracking is not a partisan issue and puts additional pressure on Democratic leaders to actually lead to protect our communities or air and water and our climate—and oppose fracking.

Earlier this month, Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan (R) had this to say about fracking:

"The possible environmental risks of fracking simply outweigh any potential benefits ... I've decided that we must take the next step and move from virtually banning fracking to actually banning fracking."

It's Not Just Maryland: Florida's Bi-Partisan Ban Bill Moving

Now, for the first time, a Republican governor has listened to the science and popular opinion by declaring opposition to fracking. In so doing, he has not just toppled a wall of partisanship on the issue in the state, but also made it impossible for the undecided Senate Democratic leadership to do anything but pass a ban on fracking.

But Republican support for banning fracking is not just limited to Maryland. In Florida, bills have been introduced in both houses by Republicans with a bi-partisan group of co-sponsors to ban fracking in a state. The Senate bill has already advanced through its first committee by a unanimous vote and support for both bills continue to grow.

Maryland's Ban Another Milestone for the Movement

Maryland's ban on fracking will mark the latest in a series of recent milestones for the anti-fracking movement, each pointing to steadily evolving politics on the issue:

New York

The first milestone came when Gov. Andrew Cuomo banned fracking in New York at the end of 2014. Vermont had banned fracking earlier, in what was an important but largely symbolic political statement given that the state does not have gas reserves. New York, though, with its large swath of rural land sitting above the Marcellus shale formation (which also runs under western Maryland), was very much desired by the fracking industry. In response, Food & Water Watch joined with hundreds of local groups to form a robust statewide coalition, New Yorkers Against Fracking, that coordinated an unprecedented multi-year grassroots campaign to ban fracking there.

In the end, Gov. Cuomo was compelled to ban fracking not just by a thorough examination of the science and facts on the hazardous practice—which his Department of Health dutifully undertook—but also by the overwhelming grassroots movement that had emerged around the issue. A huge corner had been turned: For the first time in America, fracking was banned in a place where it was otherwise very likely to happen. Additionally, the anti-fracking movement finally had a leader of national prominence willing to stand up to the fossil fuel industry and say "no."

The 2016 Presidential Race

Another key milestone in the fight against fracking came with the emergence of Sen. Bernie Sanders as a potent political force in the 2016 presidential campaign. Initially dismissed by pundits and party insiders as a fringe candidate, the Sanders campaign steadily rose to become a legitimate threat to Hillary Clinton's political machine. Among Sanders' most popular and potent policy planks was his call to ban fracking everywhere.

Sanders' rise was another shot in the arm for the anti-fracking movement. His clear call to ban fracking may have seemed unusually bold to some, but in fact he was simply responding to the will of the people. By early 2016, national polling had clearly swung against fracking, with a majority of all Americans—and an even greater majority of Democrats—opposed to it. Still, despite his advocacy and the overwhelming support for a fracking ban among Democrats, the party establishment still managed to prevent the party platform from embracing a ban on fracking.

Democratic Governors That Still Support Fracking

Gov. Hogan's support of a fracking ban in Maryland draws a stark contrast with several Democratic governors who claim to have green credentials, but have been unwilling to listen to their constituents and stand up to the oil and gas industry.

California: Gov. Brown

California's Democratic Gov. Jerry Brown, for instance has attempted to claim the mantle of environmental leadership in the Trump era, yet he stubbornly defends oil fracking taking place throughout his state, even as his own constituents, county by county, are steadily rejecting the practice.

Fracking is now banned in six California counties and grassroots campaigns are currently underway to ban it in others. Most notably, in November last year, voters in Monterey County took to the polls to ban fracking and further drilling in the county, despite millions being spent by the industry against this grassroots movement. This marked the first county in the country to ban fracking where the industry was already well-established. Not only did Brown not support the community in this case, but he continues to allow dangerous practices like the use of oil wastewater to irrigate crops and the injection of wastewater in to aquifers.

Pennsylvania: Gov. Wolf

In Pennsylvania, Democrat Tom Wolf was elected governor in 2014, promising to bring an outsider reform perspective to a state that has suffered the blight of fracking for years. However, while Wolf has pledged to continue to prevent fracking from being done in the Delaware River Basin, he remains committed to allowing and potentially expanding fracking throughout the rest of state even as residents fall ill and more and more water supplies are contaminated. His current budget proposal calls for a new extraction tax on gas drilling, which would make the state's budget dependent on the continuation of this dirty practice.

And, Gov. Wolf also continues to push additional infrastructure linked to fracking. Just this month his office released a study backing four new ethane cracker plants to support fracking for natural gas liquids in Pennsylvania. The report declared that these developments would also attract "a world-class petrochemical industry" to the state, provided there were sufficient pipelines and storage facilities to enable it. This will ensure continued drilling and fracking in Pennsylvania.

Colorado: Gov. Hickenlooper

Colorado is another state where a Democratic governor has sided with the oil and gas industry over the health and safety of its communities. Gov. Hickenlooper has a long history of supporting fracking and related activities. In 2012, he appeared in industry-sponsored ads proclaiming fracking to be safe. The following year, he sued the city of Longmont after it passed its own local ballot measure banning fracking. He won and the people of Longmont lost.

Most recently, Hickenlooper was an outspoken opponent of the 2016 ballot initiative effort that would have guaranteed local municipalities like Longmont the right to enact moratoriums or bans on fracking and enact a 2,500 foot setback to protect water, health and communities.

Growing the Movement

As it becomes increasingly clear that we need to leave the vast majority of fossil fuels in the ground in order to stave off the worst impacts of climate change, the Maryland ban and positive movement in Florida proves that fracking is a bipartisan issue. But with Republicans nationally denying climate change and several leading Democrats refusing to take meaningful action to leave fossil fuels in the ground, it's critical that we continue to organize and build political power in legislative districts across the country to fight for what we really need for the future of the planet: A ban on fracking, rejection of related infrastructure and a quick transition to 100 percent renewable energy future.

Republican legislators in Florida and the governor in Maryland are far better on oil and gas policy than so called environmental leader Jerry Brown. As a movement, we need to hold all these elected officials accountable—regardless of party affiliation—and highlight those who are taking meaningful action for the survival of our planet.

President Donald Trump signed an executive order Tuesday to begin the process of repealing several Obama-era actions tackling the climate crisis and protecting clean air and water, including steps to begin the process of dismantling the Clean Power Plan, roll back Oil and Gas New Source Performance Standards, rescind National Environmental Policy Act guidance that directs agencies to account for the climate crisis and end efforts to reform the broken federal coal leasing program.

A new Sierra Club analysis of Department of Energy 2017 jobs data across the energy sector makes it clear that the sector Scott Pruitt and Trump will be attacking—clean energy—employs far more American workers than the fossil fuel industry. Coal is declining so rapidly—thanks to grassroots activism and market forces in the U.S. and abroad—and clean energy is growing at such a fast pace that the U.S. is on track to meet its Clean Power Plan goals and the U.S. has a path to meet its goals under the Paris climate agreement.

Pruitt's own agency confirmed that the Clean Power Plan will lower electricity rates while saving billions of dollars and thousands of lives every year. Meanwhile, there are legions of obstacles Trump must overcome to actually dismantle the Clean Power Plan—he can't do it with the stroke of a pen.

Donald Trump's executive order would let dirty power plants spew unlimited pollution into our air while ignoring the climate crisis, unraveling protections that are designed to save billions of dollars and thousands of lives. In fact, Trump's sweeping order is the single biggest attack on climate action in U.S. history, period.

The safeguards Trump is trying to throw out protect all families in America by curbing dangerous carbon pollution and reducing other dangerous pollutants like mercury, methane and sulfur dioxide—but unfortunately Trump would rather pad the fossil fuel industry's profits. But it's not just padding their profits with threats to our health, it's also being done with our wallets. Ending the coal leasing moratorium does nothing but sell-out our publicly-owned lands for pennies on the dollar to coal companies.

Worse, Trump's attack ignores reality—not just the reality of the climate crisis, but the reality that the clean energy economy is rapidly growing in both red and blue states, creating jobs and safeguarding our air and water. The best way to protect workers and the environment is to invest in growing the clean energy economy that is already outpacing fossil fuels and ensuring no one is left behind at a time when we can declare independence from dirty fuels by embracing clean energy, this action could only deepen our dependence on fuels that pollute our air, water and climate while making our kids sicker.

Meanwhile, grassroots advocates have helped push coal to its lowest level in history by retiring nearly 250 plants nationwide and cities ranging from Salt Lake City, Utah to Georgetown, Texas are committing to 100 percent clean energy.

Because of strong local action to replace coal and gas with clean energy we are on track to meet the Clean Power Plan's 2030 emissions targets as soon as next year and clean energy growth nationwide will continue unabated. However, the Clean Power Plan is a critical tool that helps every state benefit from the clean energy economy and plan for an orderly and effective transition away from fossil fuels. Sadly, Trump's aggressive pro-polluter action means residents living downwind of the remaining coal- and gas-powered power plants will suffer from dirtier air while missing out on many of the benefits of the fair and just clean energy economy the Clean Power Plan would help create. And kids everywhere face a deeply uncertain future, with a president content to let the climate crisis spiral out of control.

The good news is that the safeguards Trump wants to shred—like the Clean Power Plan—are on a strong legal footing and the public will have the chance to voice its objections as the Trump administration tries to roll them back. Trump can't reverse our clean energy and climate progress with the stroke of a pen and we'll fight Trump in the courts, in the streets and at the state and local level across America to protect the health of every community.

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Coconut oil is incredibly popular and for good reason. It offers many health benefits, has a delicate taste and is widely available. It's also an extremely versatile oil with a number of uses you may not be aware of.

Coconut oil is incredibly popular and for good reason. Photo credit: Shutterstock

Here are 31 clever uses for coconut oil.

1. Protection From Sun

Coconut oil may protect your skin from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can cause wrinkling, brown spots and raise your risk of skin cancer.

In fact, one study found that it blocks about 20 percent of the sun's UV rays (1).

However, keep in mind that it doesn't provide the same amount of protection as conventional sunscreen, which blocks about 90 percent of UV rays.

Another study estimated that coconut oil has a sun protection factor (SPF) of 7, which is still lower than the minimum recommended in some countries (2).

2. Increase Your Metabolism

Coconut oil contains medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs). These are fatty acids that are quickly absorbed and can increase the amount of calories you burn (3).

Controlled studies have shown that MCTs can significantly boost your metabolic rate, at least temporarily (4, 5).

One study found that, on average, 15–30 grams of MCTs increased calorie expenditure by around 120 calories over a 24-hour period (6).

3. Cook Safely at High Temperatures

Coconut oil has a very high saturated fat content. In fact, about 87 percent of its fat is saturated (7).

This feature makes it one of the best fats for high-heat cooking, including frying.

Saturated fats retain their structure when heated to high temperatures, unlike the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils.

Oils such as corn and safflower are converted into toxic compounds when heated. These may have harmful effects on health (8).

There is no reason to fear the saturated fats in coconut oil. New studies show that they have no link to heart disease risk.

4. Improve Your Dental Health

Coconut oil can be a powerful weapon against bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. This is the bacteria in the mouth that causes dental plaque, tooth decay and gum disease.

In one study, swishing with coconut oil for 10 minutes (known as oil pulling) reduced these bacteria as effectively as rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash (9).

In another study, swishing daily with coconut oil significantly reduced inflammation and plaque in teenagers with gingivitis (inflamed gums) (10).

5. Relieve Skin Irritation and Eczema

Research shows that coconut oil improves dermatitis and other skin disorders at least as well as mineral oil and other conventional moisturizers (11, 12, 13).

In a study of children with eczema, 47 percent of those treated with coconut oil had major improvements (13).

6. Improve Brain Function

The MCTs in coconut oil are broken down by the liver and turned into ketones, which can act as an alternative energy source for the brain (14).

Several studies have found MCTs to have impressive benefits for brain disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimer's (15, 16, 17).

Some researchers recommend using coconut oil as a source of MCTs to increase the production of ketones (14).

7. Make Healthy Mayonnaise

Commercial mayonnaise often contains soybean oil, added sugar and other unhealthy ingredients.

However, it's easy to make your own mayo with much healthier ingredients, including coconut oil or olive oil.

Recipe number two on this list uses coconut oil as one of the fats for a healthy homemade mayonnaise.

8. Moisturize Your Skin

Coconut oil makes a wonderful moisturizer for your legs, arms and elbows.

You can use it on your face as well, although this isn't recommended for those with very oily skin.

It can also help repair cracked heels. Simply apply a thin coat to your heels at bedtime, put on socks and continue on a nightly basis until your heels are smooth.

9. Fight Infections

Virgin coconut oil has strong antibacterial properties that can help treat infections.

One study found that it helped stop the growth of the intestinal bacteria Clostridium difficile, commonly known as “C. diff," which causes severe diarrhea (18).

It also appears to fight several other bacteria and yeasts—an effect generally attributed to lauric acid, the main fatty acid in coconut oil (19).

10. Increase Your HDL Cholesterol

Coconut oil has been shown to raise cholesterol levels in some people.

However, its strongest and most consistent effect is an increase in HDL cholesterol, which is known as the “good" cholesterol (20, 21, 22).

One study of women with abdominal obesity found that HDL increased in a group consuming coconut oil (22).

In contrast, women consuming soybean oil had a decrease in HDL cholesterol (22).

11. Provide Relief from Insect Bites and Stings

Coconut oil's anti-inflammatory properties can help relieve the pain or itch caused by insect bites or stings. It may also reduce swelling and decrease risk of infection.

To try this, gently rub a small amount onto the bite and cover with a bandage.

12. Make Sugar-Free Dark Chocolate

Homemade dark chocolate is a delicious way to get coconut oil's health benefits.

Just remember to store it in the refrigerator or freezer, since coconut oil melts at 76 F (24 C).

Here's a delicious recipe for sugar-free dark chocolate candy bars made with coconut oil.

13. Reduce Belly Fat

Coconut oil may help reduce belly fat, also known as visceral fat, which is linked to increased health risks such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes (21, 22, 23).

In one study, obese men lost 1 inch (2.54 cm) from their waist fat by adding 2 tablespoons (1 oz or 30 ml) of coconut oil to their diet (21).

Another study looked at women on calorie-restricted diets. Those who took 2 tablespoons of coconut oil per day had a decrease in waist size, while the soybean oil group actually had a slight increase (22).

14. Protect Your Hair from Damage

Coconut oil can help keep your hair healthy.

One study compared the effects of coconut oil, mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair.

Only coconut oil significantly reduced protein loss from hair when applied before or after shampooing. This result occurred with damaged as well as healthy hair.

The researchers concluded that the unique structure of lauric acid, the main fatty acid in coconut oil, can penetrate the hair shaft in a way that most other fats can't (24).

15. Massage Your Newborn

Massaging newborns with oil has been shown to promote normal weight gain and growth.

One study suggests that coconut oil may be the best type of oil to use for this purpose.

Premature babies who were massaged with coconut oil for 30 days gained significantly more weight than those massaged with mineral oil for the same time period (25).

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16. Decrease Hunger and Food Intake

The medium-chain triglycerides in coconut oil may help reduce hunger, leading to a spontaneous decrease in calorie intake (3, 26, 27).

In a small study, men who followed a high-MCT diet took in fewer calories and lost more weight than men who ate diets with low or medium MCT content (27).

17. Improve Wound Healing

One study found that rats whose wounds were treated with coconut oil had a reduction in inflammatory markers and increased production of collagen, a major component of skin. As a result, their wounds healed much faster (28).

To speed healing of minor cuts or scrapes, apply a little bit of coconut oil directly to the wound and cover it with a bandage.

18. Boost Bone Health

Animal research suggests that the the antioxidants in virgin coconut oil may protect bone health by neutralizing free radicals, which can damage bone cells (29, 30).

A 6-week study of rats showed that the group receiving 8 percent of their calories from coconut oil had significantly more bone volume and improved bone structure (30).

19. Make a Nontoxic Insect Repellent

Some essential oils may be a natural way to keep bugs away and avoiding bites and stings.

However, rather than applying these oils directly to your skin, they need to be combined with a carrier oil.

In one study, combining Thai essential oils with coconut oil provided more than 98 percent protection from the bites of certain mosquitoes (31).

20. Combat Candida

Candida albicans is the fungus responsible for yeast infections, which commonly occur in warm, moist areas of the body such as the mouth or vagina.

Test-tube studies suggest that coconut oil may help fight candida infections (32, 33).

Researchers found coconut oil to be as effective as fluconazole, the antifungal medication typically prescribed for candida infections (33).

21. Remove Stains

Coconut oil can be used to get rid of stains, including spills on carpets and furniture.

Combine one part coconut oil with one part baking soda and mix into a paste. Apply to the stain, wait 5 minutes and wipe away.

22. Reduce Inflammation

Several animal studies show that eating coconut oil provides strong anti-inflammatory effects (34, 35, 36).

Human studies suggest eating coconut oil may reduce markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, especially when compared to highly unsaturated oils (37, 38).

23. Natural Deodorant

Sweat itself has no smell. However, the bacteria living on your skin can produce undesirable odors.

Coconut oil's strong antibacterial properties make it a great natural deodorant that contains no chemicals.

Here is an easy recipe for an effective natural deodorant made with coconut oil and other natural ingredients.

24. Quick Energy Source

Coconut oil contains fats called medium-chain triglycerides, which are digested differently than the long-chain triglycerides found in most foods.

These fats go directly from the gut to the liver, where they can be used as a quick source of energy that won't raise blood sugar levels (3).

25. Heal Ragged Cuticles

Coconut oil can be used to improve your cuticles, including hangnails.

Simply apply a small amount of coconut oil to your cuticles and massage for a few moments. Do this several times a week for the best results.

26. Relieve Symptoms of Arthritis

Arthritis is characterized by pain and immobility of the joints due to inflammation.

Animal research suggests that antioxidants called polyphenols found in coconut oil may be able to relieve some symptoms of arthritis.

A study of arthritic rats found that treatment with polyphenols from coconut oil reduced swelling and several inflammatory markers (39).

27. Make Your Wood Furniture Shine

Coconut oil may help keep your furniture looking shiny and well-cared-for.

In addition to bringing out the beauty in natural wood, it seems to act as a dust repellent. It also has a pleasant, delicate aroma, unlike many commercial furniture polishes that contain strong fragrances.

28. Remove Eye Makeup

Coconut oil is a gentle and effective eye makeup remover. Apply with a cotton pad and wipe gently until all traces of makeup are gone.

29. Improve Liver Health

Animal research has found that the saturated fats in coconut oil can help protect the liver from damage due to alcohol or toxin exposure (40, 41).

In one study, mice treated with coconut oil after exposure to a toxic compound had a decrease in inflammatory liver markers and increased activity of beneficial liver enzymes (41).

30. Soothe Chapped Lips

Coconut oil makes an ideal natural lip balm.

It glides on smoothly, leaves your lips moist for hours and even provides some protection from the sun.

Here's an easy recipe for making your own lip balm with coconut oil.

31. Make Homemade Salad Dressing

Commercial salad dressings are often loaded with sugar and preservatives.

Here's a great recipe for a coconut oil salad dressing that tastes wonderful and is made with nourishing ingredients.

Take Home Message

Coconut oil has several health benefits, but it also has many other clever and practical uses that you may not have considered before. Make sure to always have plenty of coconut oil on hand. You never know when you might need it.

This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.

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The majority of European Union governments voted against a proposal to authorize two new strains of genetically modified (GMO) maize today.

The two varieties of maize, DuPont Pioneer's 1507 and Syngenta's Bt11, kill insects by producing its own pesticide and is also resistant Bayer's glufosinate herbicide.

If approved, the varieties would be the first new GMO crops authorized for cultivation in the EU since 1998.

However, as Reuters noted, the votes against authorization did not decisively block their entry to the EU because the opposition did not represent a "qualified majority."

A qualified majority is achieved when at least 16 countries, representing at least 65 percent of the European population, vote in favor or against. (Scroll down for the vote breakdown)

The majority of EU governments also voted against renewing the license for another maize, Monsanto's MON810, the only GMO crop currently grown in the EU. The votes against its renewal was not considered decisive either.

MON810 is banned in 17 EU countries and is grown on less than 1 percent of agricultural land, mainly in Spain and Portugal, according to Friends of the Earth Europe.

The Brussels-based environmental advocacy group says the fates of the three crops now rests with the European Commission and is calling on Jean-Claude Juncker, president of the European Commission, to reject the new GMO crops.

"Whether he likes it or not, the buck now stops at Jean-Claude Juncker," said Mute Schimpf, food campaigner for Friends of the Earth Europe, in a statement. "He can put himself on the side of the majority of countries, citizens and farmers who do not want genetically-modified crops, or he can back the mega-corporations behind the industrialization of our countryside."

Greenpeace EU explained that if the three authorizations are approved, they would only be valid in nine out of 28 EU countries, as well as in three regions (England in the UK, Flanders and the Brussels region in Belgium). The remaining 19 EU countries and regions in the UK and Belgium have used the EU's opt-out mechanism to prevent GMO crops from being grown in their territories.

Although GMO crops are grown in many parts of the world, the topic is fraught with contention in Europe. While many scientific reviews have concluded that the crops are safe for human consumption and the environment, there are many others that conclude the opposite. Many EU countries have strict laws against GMOs due to public health and environmental concerns. All 28 EU member countries require GMO labeling.

Friends of the Earth Europe has expressed safety concerns of these GMO crops, "especially whether they unintentionally kill butterflies and moths."

"There is no political or public support for genetically-modified crops; farmers don't even want them. It's time for President Juncker to pull the plug on this failed technology once and for all, and to focus on how we make farming resilient to climate change, save family farms and stop the destruction of nature. It's time to close our countryside to genetically-modified crops and move on," Schimpf added.

Similarly, Greenpeace EU food policy director Franziska Achterberg commented that the European Commission should back away from supporting "risky" products.

"When he was elected, Commission President Juncker promised more democratic decision-making. This vote leaves no doubt that approving these GMO crops would break that promise," Achterberg said in a statement. "A majority of governments, parliamentarians and Europeans oppose them, and two thirds of European countries ban GMO cultivation on their lands. Instead of backing risky products peddled by multinational corporations, the commission should support ecological farming and the solutions it provides for rural areas, farmers and the environment."

Katherine Paul, associate director of Organic Consumers Association agrees. "President Juncker has an opportunity to do the right thing, by siding with the majority of EU countries that oppose the introduction of these new GMO crops," she told EcoWatch.

"To do anything less, would send EU leaders and citizens the wrong message—that corporations can buy the approval of crops that farmers and citizens don't want, crops that must be grown using chemicals that are toxic to humans and the environment. We hope Mr. Juncker will stand up to corporate pressure, and instead come down in favor of health, safety and organic, regenerative alternatives to chemical agriculture."

Ken Roseboro of the Organic & Non-GMO Report shared the same sentiment. "The European Union has remained steadfast in rejecting GM crops in their member states for nearly 20 years, and these votes reflect that anti-GMO stand," he said. "The European people don't want to eat GM foods, there is not market for them there, and yet the biotech companies continue to try to push their GMOs. Hopefully,Commission President Juncker will side with the wishes of the majority of the European people and reject approval of these GM crops."

Here is Monday's vote breakdown, according to Friends of the Earth Europe:

On renewal of GMO maize MON 810

8 Member States voted in favor, representing 34.45% of the EU population: CZ, EE, ES, NL, RO, FI, SV, UK.

6 Member States abstained, representing 22.26% of the EU population: BE, DE, HR, MT, PT, SK

14 Member states voted to reject, representing 43.29% of the EU population: BG, DK, IE, EL, FR, CY, LV, LU, HU, AT, PL, SL, IT, LT 14

On authorisation of GMO maize 1507

6 Member States voted in favor, representing 30.45% of the EU population: EE, ES, NL, RO, FI, UK

6 Member States abstained, representing 22.28% of the EU population: BE, CZ, DE, HR, MT, SK

16 Member states voted to reject, representing 47.27% of the EU population: BG, DK, IE, EL, FR, CY, LV, LU, HU, AT, PL, SL, SV, IT, LT, PT

On authorisation of GMO maize Bt 11

6 Member States voted in favor, representing 30.45% of the EU population: EE, ES, NL, RO, FI, UK

6 Member States abstained, representing 22.28% of the EU population: BE, CZ, DE, HR, MT, SK

16 Member states voted to reject, representing 47.27% of the EU population: BG, DK, IE, EL, FR, CY, LV, LU, HU, AT, PL, SL, SV, IT, LT, PT 47,27%

By Fossil Free Penn

At 9 a.m. today, 33 students at the University of Pennsylvania entered College Hall, sleeping bags in tow, to sit in with two demands. These demands were:

1. The immediate divestment of the University's endowment from all companies involved with the extraction of coal and tar sands.

2. The establishment and commencement of a plan for full divestment from all fossil fuel corporations within six months.

The students plan to stay until these demands are met and are prepared to risk potential university disciplinary action.

"The fossil fuel industry is directly responsible for the continued exacerbation of climate change, a crisis that disproportionately harms marginalized people and groups," Wharton freshman Megan Kyne said. "The University of Pennsylvania's investment in this financially, logically and morally unsound industry perpetuates practices that endanger all and contradict its own claims of dedication to sustainability and equality."

After more than two years of Fossil Free Penn's campaigning, students sit in out of necessity. In response to a 48-page research document detailing the merits of divestment from the top 200 fossil fuel companies, the board of trustees rejected the proposal with a mere 19-word rebuttal in September 2016. Most recently, in response to an open invitation to engage in a public discussion about divestment, the board of trustees refused.

"We have exhausted every other avenue for appealing to reason and logic, but the administration has been uncooperative. They leave us no choice but to sit in," college senior Peter Thacher said.

Students and faculty support Fossil Free Penn's demands, 87.8 percent of undergraduate students voted in favor of fossil fuel divestment in a February 2015 referendum and a faculty letter of support released in April 2016 has amassed 129 signatures. Thus, Fossil Free Penn demands a plan for full fossil fuel divestment. Immediately, however, Fossil Free Penn calls for divestment from coal and tar sands, an imperative step that peer institutions have already made.

Fossil Free Penn and its allies are prepared to maintain their presence in College Hall indefinitely in hopes of ensuring climate justice.

Climate change is amplifying a jet stream pattern responsible for driving many extreme weather events, new research has found.

The study, published Monday in the journal Scientific Reports, found that climate change has enhanced a planetary airstream that has influenced many recent extreme, persistent weather events, including the 2010 Russian heat wave and wildfires, the 2011 Texas heat wave and drought and the 2013 European floods. The study is the first of its kind to make such a robust connection.

"Human activity has been suspected of contributing to this pattern before, but now we uncover a clear fingerprint of human activity," climate scientist Michael Mann, author of the study, told The Guardian.

For a deeper dive:

The Guardian, The Independent, Phys.org

For more climate change and clean energy news, you can follow Climate Nexus on Twitter and Facebook, and sign up for daily Hot News.

By Pam Eaton

The Trump administration is desperate to give another gift to the fossil fuel industry—and using every trick in the book to do it.

Last week, the administration asked a court to stop a rule designed to ensure taxpayers get a fair return from oil, gas and coal sold from mines and wells on public lands by asking for a "stay." The "Valuation Rule" was designed to prevent coal companies from pocketing millions of dollars that rightly should go to the American taxpayers. The Wilderness Society had filed court papers to intervene in the court case to defend the rule when the administration asked the court to put the rule on hold.

The new court filing came on the heels of an earlier action last month to shortchange the public to benefit the fossil fuel industry. At the end of February, the Office of Natural Resource Revenue, the agency that is charged with making sure the public gets what it owed for oil, gas and coal on public lands, unilaterally and unlawfully told companies they didn't have to comply with the rule.

"This is an attack on one of our bedrock minerals and environmental laws, the Mineral Leasing Act, which requires the government to get fair market value when federal fossil fuels like coal are developed," said Nada Culver, senior counsel and director of The Wilderness Society's Bureau of Land Management Action Center. "In abandoning the rule, the Trump administration [was] trying to cloak itself in legal terms like 'stay,'—but the action is still not legal," Culver said.

Having given the fossil fuel companies a break from having to pay, the Trump administration intends to make it permanent by rescinding the rule altogether.

The Valuation Rule is also under attack in both the House and the Senate where bills have been introduced to strike down the rule using the Congressional Review Act. Only used once before this year due to its extreme nature, the Congressional Review Act circumvents normal federal procedures and empowers Congress to pursue its own agenda and undo commonsense agency rules.

The administration is using similar tactics to undo other important safeguards on our public lands. On March 15, the Trump administration asked another court to stop legal proceeding challenging the Hydraulic Fracking Rule so it can get started on rescinding that rule too.

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