China's Biggest 74 Cities All Dirtier Than L.A.
Los Angeles has always been held up as the U.S.'s most polluted city. But, the Los Angeles Times reports, all of China's largest cities make L.A.'s air look crystalline.
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Los Angeles became famous for its ozone pollution, and it is still the most ozone-polluted city in the country, says the 2014 State of the Air report published by the American Lung Association. It ranks fourth in the even more dangerous particle pollution, which comes from sources like exhaust smoke and coal, and has serious negative effects on the cardio-vascular system.
With an average particulate reading of 12 considered "good," the average Los Angeles reading last year was 18. But China's cleanest city, Haikou, had an average annual reading of 26. Beijing's was 90. The L.A. Times cited a tracking of China's 74 largest metropolitan areas by the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection for the figures.
"From February 2009 to December 2013, Beijing's worst one-day average reading was 569 on Jan. 12, 2013; L.A.'s was 79 on Dec. 9, 2012," reported the L.A. Times. "In the same period, Beijing had 48 days with an average daily reading in excess of 300, considered by both China and the U.S. to be 'hazardous'."
Of course, with tougher environmental standards, L.A.'s air now is cleaner than it was decades ago. And since particulate matters wasn't being measured back then, it's hard to say if L.A. back then was more polluted than major Chinese cities now. But experts cited by the L.A. Times didn't think so.
"Comparing California 30 years ago to China today is apples and oranges," Eugene Leong, an air pollution expert who teaches at Peking University, told the paper. "How bad was PM2.5 in California in the '60s, '70s and '80s? We don't know. … Was it as bad as what China is experiencing now? My educated guess is probably not as bad."
Photo credit: Shutterstock
If you'd like to follow how polluted the air is in a Chinese city right now, you can do so on this real-time map. It tracks pollution in cities around the world, assigning each a total air pollution score which can be further broken down by types of pollution. It rates L.A.'s current pollution as a "moderate" 78, with Beijing rated "unhealthy" at 187. At the time we accessed the map, two Chinese cities were rated "hazardous" with readings over 500. Shanghai, however, measured only 42, or "good." The Yosemite Visitor Center in Mariposa, California, had the highest pollution rating in the U.S. at 177.
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The ghoulishly named ogre-faced spider can "hear" with its legs and use that ability to catch insects flying behind it, the study published in Current Biology Thursday concluded.
"Spiders are sensitive to airborne sound," Cornell professor emeritus Dr. Charles Walcott, who was not involved with the study, told the Cornell Chronicle. "That's the big message really."
The net-casting, ogre-faced spider (Deinopis spinosa) has a unique hunting strategy, as study coauthor Cornell University postdoctoral researcher Jay Stafstrom explained in a video.
They hunt only at night using a special kind of web: an A-shaped frame made from non-sticky silk that supports a fuzzy rectangle that they hold with their front forelegs and use to trap prey.
They do this in two ways. In a maneuver called a "forward strike," they pounce down on prey moving beneath them on the ground. This is enabled by their large eyes — the biggest of any spider. These eyes give them 2,000 times the night vision that we have, Science explained.
But the spiders can also perform a move called the "backward strike," Stafstrom explained, in which they reach their legs behind them and catch insects flying through the air.
"So here comes a flying bug and somehow the spider gets information on the sound direction and its distance. The spiders time the 200-millisecond leap if the fly is within its capture zone – much like an over-the-shoulder catch. The spider gets its prey. They're accurate," coauthor Ronald Hoy, the D & D Joslovitz Merksamer Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior in the College of Arts and Sciences, told the Cornell Chronicle.
What the researchers wanted to understand was how the spiders could tell what was moving behind them when they have no ears.
It isn't a question of peripheral vision. In a 2016 study, the same team blindfolded the spiders and sent them out to hunt, Science explained. This prevented the spiders from making their forward strikes, but they were still able to catch prey using the backwards strike. The researchers thought the spiders were "hearing" their prey with the sensors on the tips of their legs. All spiders have these sensors, but scientists had previously thought they were only able to detect vibrations through surfaces, not sounds in the air.
To test how well the ogre-faced spiders could actually hear, the researchers conducted a two-part experiment.
First, they inserted electrodes into removed spider legs and into the brains of intact spiders. They put the spiders and the legs into a vibration-proof booth and played sounds from two meters (approximately 6.5 feet) away. The spiders and the legs responded to sounds from 100 hertz to 10,000 hertz.
Next, they played the five sounds that had triggered the biggest response to 25 spiders in the wild and 51 spiders in the lab. More than half the spiders did the "backward strike" move when they heard sounds that have a lower frequency similar to insect wing beats. When the higher frequency sounds were played, the spiders did not move. This suggests the higher frequencies may mimic the sounds of predators like birds.
University of Cincinnati spider behavioral ecologist George Uetz told Science that the results were a "surprise" that indicated science has much to learn about spiders as a whole. Because all spiders have these receptors on their legs, it is possible that all spiders can hear. This theory was first put forward by Walcott 60 years ago, but was dismissed at the time, according to the Cornell Chronicle. But studies of other spiders have turned up further evidence since. A 2016 study found that a kind of jumping spider can pick up sonic vibrations in the air.
"We don't know diddly about spiders," Uetz told Science. "They are much more complex than people ever thought they were."
Learning more provides scientists with an opportunity to study their sensory abilities in order to improve technology like bio-sensors, directional microphones and visual processing algorithms, Stafstrom told CNN.
"The point is any understudied, underappreciated group has fascinating lives, even a yucky spider, and we can learn something from it," he told CNN.
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