Carl Pope: Sen. Harry Reid's Retirement a Major Loss to the Climate Movement
Harry Reid’s announcement that he will not stand for re-election to the Senate from Nevada in 2016 is a major loss to the climate movement—and yet another signal that the U.S. Senate is being transformed by today’s bifurcated, parliamentary politics into an institution almost unrecognizably different from its traditions.
But while Reid may be the last Senate traditionalist to serve as Majority leader, he was first and foremost the product of his own history, as a miner’s son who put himself through Georgetown Law School by working as a Capital Police Officer. Searchlight was a hard scrabble town—Reid had to hitch hike to high school and his house had no indoor plumbing, even in prosperous post-war America. And Reid’s political future was forged in the boxing ring, where his high school coach went on to become Nevada's governor (the mentor who pulled Reid into the Lt. Governor’s race, Mike O’Callaghan). His opponents and competitors often mistook Reid’s laconic, soft-spoken demeanor for weakness. They never saw his counter-punch coming.
But if you understood his values and his approach, there was no better partner in the political arena. Unlike most politicians Reid knew how to be silent, and cut to the chase. He respected political players who stood their ground firmly—the harshest thing I ever heard him say about a fellow Senator was “He’s a nice, smart man, but he has no backbone whatsoever.” But he worked effectively with that Senator for decades.
Early in his Senate career I made an egregiously unfair attack on the Senator for his strong defense of the mining industry against environmental reformers like myself. He made it clear that he didn't mind the disagreement, but that I had besmirched his motivation, and forgotten that he was a miner’s son from Searchlight. I apologized, corrected the record, and promised I would judge him in the future on his actions, not my assumptions.
When his Democratic Nevada Senate colleague Richard Bryan resigned in 2001, Reid took up Bryan’s long crusade to protect Nevada from becoming the U.S. nuclear industry’s dumping ground, standing often almost alone in the Senate against efforts to force the licensing of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in spite of ample evidence that its choice was based not on the merits but on Nevada’s small population and political clout, and that the site was geologically incapable of reliably storing waste for the lifetime of the risk. Since Yucca had been the major glue in the Sierra Club’s partnership with Bryan, I came into close working contact with Reid, and reliably, every two or three years there would be a threat in Congress to overturn science and jam Yucca down Nevada’s throat. Las Vegas became a regular part of my political forays, and a partnership was borne.
As Reid watched the unfolding urgency of climate science after he became Majority leader in 2005, one of his earliest policy initiatives was to state simply that he was opposed to coal fired power plants in Nevada, and that he was convinced the state would better be served by a clean energy future. He was as good as his word. Thanks in large part to his tireless efforts, Nevada utilities abandoned their 2004 plants to construct five huge new coal plants in the state, shifted their focus to renewables, and by 2015 all of the state’s legacy coal plants had either shut down or been given shuttering dates.
Reid didn't just help get Nevada off coal—he poured his energy into building the state into a renewable energy powerhouse, one which generates more clean energy per capita than any other. He began holding a series of Clean Energy Summits in Las Vegas which brought renewable energy advocates together to strategize and build their sector, and when he announced his retirement, clean energy was one of the top priorities Nevadans expected him to pursue during his last two years.
But his environmental record was not confined to energy. During the second George Bush Administration, Reid was often the environmental movement’s stopper on issues ranging from clean air to water and public lands. He created Nevada’s first National Park—Great Basin—fought for the protection of Lake Tahoe, made the restoration of Nevada’s two desert lakes, Pyramid and Walker, a personal passion, and added hundreds of thousands of acres to Nevada’s share of the national Wilderness System.
Reid was a Senate traditionalist. Ironically he was sadly forced to leave as legacy the first significant changes in the powers of a Senate majority since the 1960’s. Beginning with Senator Bob Dole’s response to Bill Clinton’s 1992 victory, Senate Republicans converted the filibuster from an occasional Senate show stopper into a regular, debilitating and unprecedented minority freeze of virtually all legislative action. This was a revolutionary change—but it didn't require changing the rules—just Minority leader behavior. When Mitch McConnell took this practice to unprecedented levels after the election of Barack Obama, paralyzing the federal government, Reid first tried to reach a gentleman’s agreement with McConnell, against the arguments of younger Senators who thought that the Senate’s traditions had to yield to political reality. Finally, in November 2013, Reid led his Democratic majority to eliminate the filibuster for most Presidential nominees—and did so using a parliamentary procedure that means that any future Majority leader who chooses could eliminate the filibuster altogether.
Reid’s climate, environmental and political legacy is thus an unexpected one—hardly predictable from his origins as a hard-rock miner’s son, or his instincts as a cautious Senate traditionalist. It’s hard to identify his most important victory: That George Bush’s environmental legacy was less damaging than his wars? That Yucca Mountain spared the U.S. the economic and safety black swans that come with a nuclear revival? The shift in America’s energy future from Dick Cheney’s "coalageddon" to a clean energy revolution? Or the beginning of a democratic, majoritarian U.S. Senate—even against Reid’s preferences?
Harry Reid fought the battles of his time, chose wars of necessity not choice, and fought them for the values he cherished. The Senate will be a lesser place once he is gone.
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By Jacob L. Steenwyk and Antonis Rokas
From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.
When Looking Through a Microscope Isn’t Close Enough.<p>For the last few years, <a href="http://www.rokaslab.org/" target="_blank">our team at Vanderbilt University</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/lab/Gustavo-Goldman-Lab" target="_blank">Gustavo Goldman's team at São Paulo University in Brazil</a> and many other collaborators around the world have been collecting samples of fungi from patients infected with different species of <em>Aspergillus</em> molds. One of the species we are particularly interested in is <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.0082" target="_blank"><em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>, a relatively common and generally harmless fungus</a>. Clinical laboratories typically identify the species of <em>Aspergillus</em> causing the infection by examining cultures of the fungi under the microscope. The problem with this approach is that very closely related species of <em>Aspergillus</em> tend to look very similar in their broad morphology or physical appearance when viewing them through a microscope.</p><p>Interested in examining the varying abilities of different <em>A. nidulans</em> strains to cause disease, we decided to analyze their total genetic content, or genomes. What we saw came as a total surprise. We had not collected <em>A. nidulans</em> but <em>Aspergillus latus</em>, a close relative of <em>A. nidulans</em> and, as we were to soon find out, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.071" target="_blank">a hybrid species that evolved through the fusion of the genomes</a> of two other <em>Aspergillus</em> species: <em>Aspergillus spinulosporus</em> and an unknown close relative of <em>Aspergillus quadrilineatus</em>. Thus, we realized not only that these patients harbored infections from an entirely different species than we thought they were, but also that this species was the first ever <em>Aspergillus</em> hybrid known to cause human infections.</p>
Several Different Fungal Hybrids Cause Human Disease.<p>Hybrid fungi that can cause infections in humans are well known to occur in several different lineages of single-celled fungi known as yeasts. Notable examples include multiple different species of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3242" target="_blank">yeast hybrids</a> that cause the human diseases <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6218/cryptococcosis" target="_blank">cryptococcosis</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html" target="_blank">candidiasis</a>. Although pathogenic yeast hybrids are well known, our discovery that the <em>A. latus</em> pathogen is a hybrid is a first for molds that cause disease in humans.</p>
(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
The Evolutionary Origin of an Aspergillus Hybrid.<p>Multiple evolutionary paths can lead to the emergence of hybrids. One path is through mating, just as the horse and donkey mate to create a mule. Another path is through the merging or fusion of genetic material from cells of different species.</p><p>It is this second path that appears to have been taken by our fungus. <em>A. latus</em> appears to have two of almost everything compared to its parental species: twice the genome size, twice the total number of genes and so on. But unlike other hybrids, which are often sterile like the mule, we found that <em>A. latus</em> is capable of reproducing both asexually and sexually.</p><p>But how distinct were the parents of <em>A. latus</em>? By comparing the parts contributed by each parent in the <em>A. latus</em> genome, we estimate that its parents are approximately 93% genetically similar, which is about as related as we humans are with lemurs. In other words, <em>A. latus</em>, an agent of infectious disease, is the fungal equivalent of a human-lemur hybrid.</p>
How A. Latus Differs From its Parents.<p>Elucidating the identity of closely related fungal pathogens and how they differ from each other in infection-relevant characteristics is a key step toward reducing the burden of fungal disease. For example, we found that <em>A. latus</em> was three times more resistant than <em>A. nidulans</em>, the species it was originally identified as using microscopy-based methods, to one of the most common antifungal drugs, <a href="https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00520" target="_blank">caspofungin</a>. This result provides a clear example of the potential importance of accurate identification of the <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogen causing an infection.</p><p>We also examined how <em>A. latus</em> and <em>A. nidulans</em> interact with cells from our immune system. We found that immune cells were less efficient at combating <em>A. latus</em> compared to <em>A. nidulans</em>, suggesting the hybrid fungus may be trickier for our immune systems to identify and destroy.</p><p>In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, our quest to understand <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogens is becoming more urgent. Growing evidence suggests that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13096" target="_blank">a fraction of COVID-19 patients are also infected with <em>Aspergillus</em>.</a> More worrying is that these <a href="https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.201603" target="_blank">secondary <em>Aspergillus</em> infections</a> can worsen the clinical outcomes for those infected with the novel coronavirus. That being said, we stress that little is known about <em>Aspergillus</em> infections in COVID-19 patients due to a lack of systematic testing, and none of the infections identified so far appear to have been caused by hybrids.</p><p>So, when it comes to hybrids, some are fantastic (the minotaur), some are helpful (the mule) and some are dangerous (<em>Aspergillus latus</em>). Understanding more about the biology of <em>Aspergillus latus</em> may help in our understanding of how microbial pathogens arise and how to best prevent and combat their infections.</p>
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