Tesla has become incredibly popular in recent years. The electric car company's revolutionary powerwall battery allows you to charge your car with energy generated from residential solar panels. It has already sold out through 2016. And Elon Musk is hoping his Model S will be the first mass-produced all-electric car. He's building a Tesla Gigafactory outside of Reno, Nevada that he is hoping will put production at 500,000 cars per year.
Musk is also working on "conquering range anxiety" with Tesla models averaging between 200 and 270 mpg. Tesla is rapidly expanding its network of supercharging stations across the country. The company even partnered with Airbnb to install charging stations at host homes, first in California and eventually around the country.
So it really comes as no surprise that celebrities can't get enough of Musk's Tesla. Two nights ago, Stephen Colbert mentioned to Musk on his new Late Show that he personally owns a Tesla. Turns out, so do a lot of other celebrities.
1. Jay Leno
2. Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz walking back to her Tesla in Hollywood. She was one of the first celebs spotted in the new Tesla Model S pic.twitter.com/PD0lzfo9d5 — Wheels&Heels (@Wheelsandheels) April 14, 2013
3. Matt Damon
Matt Damon in his 100% electric Tesla Roadster. pic.twitter.com/qPt3CeXzL2
— AutoSports Art (@AutoSportsArt) March 15, 2015
4. Steve Wozniak (Co-founder of Apple)
Steve Wozniak #Tesla 'sını şarj ediyor; işte ulaşmamız gereken kare. pic.twitter.com/VVfT9UjV2I — Cemil ÖZKEBAPÇI (@cemilozkebapci) November 26, 2014
5. Jennifer Garner
Recently spotted Jennifer Garner getting out of a brand new Tesla Model S! pic.twitter.com/CJB2D9L4
— Wheels&Heels (@Wheelsandheels) December 26, 2012
6. Sergey Brin (Google co-founder) not only owns a Tesla, it's a Model S hot pink batmobile. Could it get any better?
#suaju #share #media Sergey Brin Steps Out in Google Glass... And a Hot Pink Tesla Batmobile.. #google #internet http://t.co/4pILIn5ApR — sMedia 2 sCommerce (@Media2Commerce) September 6, 2015
7. No surprise that the perennial enivronmental activist Leonardo DiCaprio owns one.
Leonardo Dicaprio loves his Tesla! pic.twitter.com/Mq1jiQC8aX
— MBEVA (@MBEVA2) June 3, 2013
8. Alyson Hannigan (How I Met Your Mother)
At http://t.co/OsrUrcJLNe -- Alyson Hannigan plugging her Tesla. In anticipation of my arrival of my Model S ev... pic.twitter.com/c59TWzpNaA — Crazy4cars (@Crazy4cars2) May 25, 2014
— Crazy4cars (@Crazy4cars2) June 7, 2014
10. Steven Spielberg
Spotted on the Dreamworks campus: Steven Spielberg's Tesla Model S. A photo posted by James Paul (@jpfilm) on
11. Morgan Freeman
— Mark Schwietz (@MBSchwietz) April 7, 2015
Joanna Lumley in http://t.co/noE2FGjMJY's #Tesla Model S when he floors it pic.twitter.com/g8cqYldu6m — Grant Thomas (@GrantAThomas) March 28, 2014
Read page 1 13. John Stamos
John Stamos and environmentally friendly transportation .. #Tesla #electricvehicle #ElectricZoo pic.twitter.com/CTfMXEdFmr — LA Kristiansen (@LaLaKristiansen) September 7, 2015
14. Don Cheadle
Don Cheadle now parks an electric motorcycle next to his Tesla. via @HWoodElectrics @TeslaMotors @ZeroMC pic.twitter.com/Icy4TSFBeO — Calvin Klesmith (@CalvinKlesmith) December 7, 2014
15. Darren Criss (Glee)
@DarrenCriss has a new car! Darren drives a Tesla Model S Base price is $52,400. So proud of him. He deserves it. pic.twitter.com/6PnlMDcBgh — priscilla ∞ (@priscillabel96) February 24, 2013
16. When he's not skating around, Tony Hawk cruises in a Tesla.
Check out pro skater @TonyHawk's pristine @TeslaMotors Model S #MurderedOut #TeamAutoStorm #Tesla pic.twitter.com/Ubl6f75rDk — YOUR PHOTOGRAPHER (@ac_photography) April 22, 2014
There's at least one celebrity who isn't in love with Tesla though. George Clooney had a Roadster but was reportedly unhappy with it and auctioned it off a few years ago. Maybe he will opt for a Model S now.
Automotive News - Disappointed, George Clooney Auctions Tesla Model S - http://t.co/VKQrIntozR pic.twitter.com/e7GjzLXhYf — fotohotfotoseksi (@fotohotseksi) November 13, 2013
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By Lynne Peeples
Editor's note: This story is part of a nine-month investigation of drinking water contamination across the U.S. The series is supported by funding from the Park Foundation and Water Foundation. Read the launch story, "Thirsting for Solutions," here.
In late September 2020, officials in Wrangell, Alaska, warned residents who were elderly, pregnant or had health problems to avoid drinking the city's tap water — unless they could filter it on their own.
Unintended Consequences<p>Chemists first discovered disinfection by-products in treated drinking water in the 1970s. The trihalomethanes they found, they determined, had resulted from the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter. Since then, scientists have identified more than 700 additional disinfection by-products. "And those only represent a portion. We still don't know half of them," says Richardson, whose lab has identified hundreds of disinfection by-products. </p>
What’s Regulated and What’s Not?<p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently regulates 11 disinfection by-products — including a handful of trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA). While these represent only a small fraction of all disinfection by-products, EPA aims to use their presence to indicate the presence of other disinfection by-products. "The general idea is if you control THMs and HAAs, you implicitly or by default control everything else as well," says Korshin.</p><p>EPA also requires drinking water facilities to use techniques to reduce the concentration of organic materials before applying disinfectants, and regulates the quantity of disinfectants that systems use. These rules ultimately can help control levels of disinfection by-products in drinking water.</p>
Click the image for an interactive version of this chart on the Environmental Working Group website.<p>Still, some scientists and advocates argue that current regulations do not go far enough to protect the public. Many question whether the government is regulating the right disinfection by-products, and if water systems are doing enough to reduce disinfection by-products. EPA is now seeking public input as it considers potential revisions to regulations, including the possibility of regulating additional by-products. The agency held a <a href="https://www.epa.gov/dwsixyearreview/potential-revisions-microbial-and-disinfection-byproducts-rules" target="_blank">two-day public meeting</a> in October 2020 and plans to hold additional public meetings throughout 2021.</p><p>When EPA set regulations on disinfection by-products between the 1970s and early 2000s, the agency, as well as the scientific community, was primarily focused on by-products of reactions between organics and chlorine — historically the most common drinking water disinfectant. But the science has become increasingly clear that these chlorinated chemicals represent a fraction of the by-product problem.</p><p>For example, bromide or iodide can get caught up in the reaction, too. This is common where seawater penetrates a drinking water source. By itself, bromide is innocuous, says Korshin. "But it is extremely [reactive] with organics," he says. "As bromide levels increase with normal treatment, then concentrations of brominated disinfection by-products will increase quite rapidly."</p><p><a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15487777/" target="_blank">Emerging</a> <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.7b05440" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">data</a> indicate that brominated and iodinated by-products are potentially more harmful than the regulated by-products.</p><p>Almost half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of either the Atlantic or Pacific coasts, where saltwater intrusion can be a problem for drinking water supplies. "In the U.S., the rule of thumb is the closer to the sea, the more bromide you have," says Korshin, noting there are also places where bromide naturally leaches out from the soil. Still, some coastal areas tend to be spared. For example, the city of Seattle's water comes from the mountains, never making contact with seawater and tending to pick up minimal organic matter.</p><p>Hazardous disinfection by-products can also be an issue with desalination for drinking water. "As <a href="https://ensia.com/features/can-saltwater-quench-our-growing-thirst/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">desalination</a> practices become more economical, then the issue of controlling bromide becomes quite important," adds Korshin.</p>
Other Hot Spots<p>Coastal areas represent just one type of hot spot for disinfection by-products. Agricultural regions tend to send organic matter — such as fertilizer and animal waste — into waterways. Areas with warmer climates generally have higher levels of natural organic matter. And nearly any urban area can be prone to stormwater runoff or combined sewer overflows, which can contain rainwater as well as untreated human waste, industrial wastewater, hazardous materials and organic debris. These events are especially common along the East Coast, notes Sydney Evans, a science analyst with the nonprofit Environmental Working Group (EWG, a collaborator on <a href="https://ensia.com/ensia-collections/troubled-waters/" target="_blank">this reporting project</a>).</p><p>The only drinking water sources that might be altogether free of disinfection by-products, suggests Richardson, are private wells that are not treated with disinfectants. She used to drink water from her own well. "It was always cold, coming from great depth through clay and granite," she says. "It was fabulous."</p><p>Today, Richardson gets her water from a city system that uses chloramine.</p>
Toxic Treadmill<p>Most community water systems in the U.S. use chlorine for disinfection in their treatment plant. Because disinfectants are needed to prevent bacteria growth as the water travels to the homes at the ends of the distribution lines, sometimes a second round of disinfection is also added in the pipes.</p><p>Here, systems usually opt for either chlorine or chloramine. "Chloramination is more long-lasting and does not form as many disinfection by-products through the system," says Steve Via, director of federal relations at the American Water Works Association. "Some studies show that chloramination may be more protective against organisms that inhabit biofilms such as Legionella."</p>
Alternative Approaches<p>When he moved to the U.S. from Germany, Prasse says he immediately noticed the bad taste of the water. "You can taste the chlorine here. That's not the case in Germany," he says.</p><p>In his home country, water systems use chlorine — if at all — at lower concentrations and at the very end of treatment. In the Netherlands, <a href="https://dwes.copernicus.org/articles/2/1/2009/dwes-2-1-2009.pdf" target="_blank">chlorine isn't used at all</a> as the risks are considered to outweigh the benefits, says Prasse. He notes the challenge in making a convincing connection between exposure to low concentrations of disinfection by-products and health effects, such as cancer, that can occur decades later. In contrast, exposure to a pathogen can make someone sick very quickly.</p><p>But many countries in Europe have not waited for proof and have taken a precautionary approach to reduce potential risk. The emphasis there is on alternative approaches for primary disinfection such as ozone or <a href="https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/eco-friendly-way-disinfect-water-using-light/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">ultraviolet light</a>. Reverse osmosis is among the "high-end" options, used to remove organic and inorganics from the water. While expensive, says Prasse, the method of forcing water through a semipermeable membrane is growing in popularity for systems that want to reuse wastewater for drinking water purposes.</p><p>Remucal notes that some treatment technologies may be good at removing a particular type of contaminant while being ineffective at removing another. "We need to think about the whole soup when we think about treatment," she says. What's more, Remucal explains, the mixture of contaminants may impact the body differently than any one chemical on its own. </p><p>Richardson's preferred treatment method is filtering the water with granulated activated carbon, followed by a low dose of chlorine.</p><p>Granulated activated carbon is essentially the same stuff that's in a household filter. (EWG recommends that consumers use a <a href="https://www.ewg.org/tapwater/reviewed-disinfection-byproducts.php#:~:text=EWG%20recommends%20using%20a%20home,as%20trihalomethanes%20and%20haloacetic%20acids." target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">countertop carbon filter</a> to reduce levels of disinfection by-products.) While such a filter "would remove disinfection by-products after they're formed, in the plant they remove precursors before they form by-products," explains Richardson. She coauthored a <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.9b00023" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2019 paper</a> that concluded the treatment method is effective in reducing a wide range of regulated and unregulated disinfection by-products.</p><br>
Greater Cincinnati Water Works installed a granulated activated carbon system in 1992, and is still one of relatively few full-scale plants that uses the technology. Courtesy of Greater Cincinnati Water Works.<p>Despite the technology and its benefits being known for decades, relatively few full-scale plants use granulated active carbon. They often cite its high cost, Richardson says. "They say that, but the city of Cincinnati [Ohio] has not gone bankrupt using it," she says. "So, I'm not buying that argument anymore."</p><p>Greater Cincinnati Water Works installed a granulated activated carbon system in 1992. On a video call in December, Jeff Swertfeger, the superintendent of Greater Cincinnati Water Works, poured grains of what looks like black sand out of a glass tube and into his hand. It was actually crushed coal that has been baked in a furnace. Under a microscope, each grain looks like a sponge, said Swertfeger. When water passes over the carbon grains, he explained, open tunnels and pores provide extensive surface area to absorb contaminants.</p><p>While the granulated activated carbon initially was installed to address chemical spills and other industrial contamination concerns in the Ohio River, Cincinnati's main drinking water source, Swertfeger notes that the substance has turned out to "remove a lot of other stuff, too," including <a href="https://ensia.com/features/drinking-water-contamination-pfas-health/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">PFAS</a> and disinfection by-product precursors.</p><p>"We use about one-third the amount of chlorine as we did before. It smells and tastes a lot better," he says. "The use of granulated activated carbon has resulted in lower disinfection by-products across the board."</p><p>Richardson is optimistic about being able to reduce risks from disinfection by-products in the future. "If we're smart, we can still kill those pathogens and lower our chemical disinfection by-product exposure at the same time," she says.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://ensia.com/features/drinking-water-disinfection-byproducts-pathogens/" target="_blank">Ensia</a>. </em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649953730#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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