By Emma Charlton
The effects of climate change may more far-reaching than you think.
Hotter temperatures have been linked to a rise in energy poverty, with more people struggling to meet their energy bills from their household income, according to a new study published on ScienceDirect by researchers from Italy's Ca' Foscari University.
Value of air conditioning imports in selected OECD countries. ScienceDirect
The ‘Golden Thread’<p>The <a href="https://www.endenergypoverty.org/reports" target="_blank">Global Commission to End Energy Poverty</a> calls access to energy the "golden thread" that weaves together economic growth, human development, and environmental sustainability. And one of the <a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/archive/sdg-07-affordable-and-clean-energy" target="_blank">United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals</a> is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030.</p><p>Sustainability also has a large role to play in the future of energy and failing to embed green policies in COVID-19 stimulus packages and underinvesting in green infrastructure are current risks, according to the <a href="http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_COVID_19_Risks_Outlook_Special_Edition_Pages.pdf" target="_blank">World Economic Forum</a>.</p><p>In its vision for a 'Great Reset' – building a better world after the pandemic – the Forum and the IMF jointly backed the <a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/06/end-fossil-fuel-subsidies-economy-imf-georgieva-great-reset-climate/" target="_blank">transition to a green economy</a> and called for an end to fossil fuel subsidies.</p>
Along the northern shores of the Gulf of Mexico, oysters live in coastal estuaries where saltwater and freshwater meet and mix.
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EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Martin Kuebler
With hotter summers, severe storms and prolonged dry spells in the forecast, the outlook for Europe's farmers is daunting.
<div id="7b57a" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="a3140c63ff0a97771d0ad3f85329d728"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1174945780358008833" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">❓How concerned are you about the impact of #climatechange on #farming in #Europe? #Adaptation will be crucial - fin… https://t.co/XPkbPic6DY</div> — EU EnvironmentAgency (@EU EnvironmentAgency)<a href="https://twitter.com/EUEnvironment/statuses/1174945780358008833">1568963878.0</a></blockquote></div><p>Places in northern Europe, meanwhile, could see agricultural benefits from climate change, including longer growing seasons and a shorter frost period "allowing the cultivation of new crops and varieties," said the report. Suitable cropland around the Baltic Sea could more than double by 2100, from 32% of land area today to about 76%, with certain crops now common to southern Europe taking root further north.</p>
UK, Scandinavian Wines<p>Those climatic changes have already borne fruit — quite literally. In the northern German state of Lower Saxony, where average temperatures have risen nearly 2 degrees Celsius in the last several decades, some farmers have started cultivating fruits typically found further south, such as apricots and nectarines. And wine cultivation, typically associated with more southern slopes in France, Spain and Italy, is now taking off in places like Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom.</p><p><a href="https://www.ryedalevineyards.co.uk/" target="_blank">Ryedale Vineyards</a>, in northeastern England, has been producing British wines since 2006. As one of the UK's northernmost wineries, it relies mainly on hybrid disease-resistant grape varieties more suited to northern Europe's cooler regions.</p><p>The warming trend of the past decades has seen the UK's wine industry quadruple in size since 2000, with English vineyards producing some 13.2 million bottles in 2018. But the changing climate does pose other challenges, including unusual weather patterns and increased risk of disease associated with wetter summers. which have been linked to climate change.</p><p>"Unpredictable weather events, droughts and intense summer storms are a real problem and seem to have increased in frequency," said Jon Fletcher, who runs Ryedale Vineyards with his family. In an email to DW, he listed off the challenges: late frosts, destructive hailstorms and dry spells that can last for months. "This year we have already had the sunniest May on record and no rainfall for two months, so the unpredictable weather continues."</p><p>"Climate change is posing a risk for the sustainability of vineyard management at global scale and, particularly, in Europe," said Josep Maria Sole of <a href="http://visca.eu/" target="_blank">VISCA (Vineyards Integrated Smart Climate Application)</a>, an EU-funded project that aims to help Europe's wine industry develop medium- and long-term adaption strategies. He said wine producing areas will increasingly suffer from intense heat waves and droughts and, in certain regions in Spain, more intense spring frosts, which can damage grapevine buds.</p><p>Blaz Kurnik, an expert on climate change impacts and adaptation at the EEA, said these higher temperatures, especially warmer winters, will also favor the introduction of new diseases and pests, including the olive fruit fly. Increasing swarms are threatening Europe's olive oil industry, responsible for around three-quarters of the world's supply. "In the worst-case scenario, up to 80% of [Italy's] olive trees will be affected by this every year," said Kurnik, adding that flies were also infesting Spain's olive groves.</p>
Mango, Avocado and Lychee: Europe's Future Cash Crops?<p>Italy, which ranks second in the world for olive oil production, saw a disastrous harvest in 2018. Bad weather and frost caused production to drop by 57%, representing a loss of nearly €1 billion ($1.13 billion).</p><p>Sicily is one of Italy's top olive oil-producing regions, along with Calabria and Puglia. But some farmers there have begun focusing their attention on crops native to tropical regions, including mangoes, avocado and lychee fruit. </p><p>Tropical crops were first introduced to Sicily back in the 1970s, but recent years have seen an exponential growth of these crops and the introduction of new species such as papaya, replacing citrus fruits which "are no longer remunerative," said Vittorio Farina, an associate professor in agriculture at the University of Palermo.</p><p>"The favorable climate of many areas in the Mediterranean basin is promoting tropical fruit cultivations," he said in an email to DW. "In fact, the predominant mango and avocado production is concentrated in tropical countries, but recently its cultivation has spread outside the traditional geographical regions to the Mediterranean basin and in particular in Egypt, Israel, South Africa, Europe, mainly Spain and Italy."</p><p>Farina said a succession of milder winters has favored the expansion of mango, avocado and papaya orchards destined for export markets further north, though the corresponding drier summers and extreme weather events remain a challenge.</p><p><span></span>"The problem of the scarcity of water resources for agriculture will increasingly impose the introduction of species with low water requirements," said Farina, suggesting the possible introduction of fruit like the cactus pear. "For most other tropical species, irrigation in the warm months in the dry areas is an essential condition for obtaining a quality product." Farina said they were testing precision irrigation strategies to limit the water footprint of the tropical crops.</p>
Finding the Right Solution<p>Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, an associate professor at the Polytechnic University of Madrid, told DW that new crops were also being tested in Spain, including pistachios. However, she stressed that the priority now was experimenting with different varieties of existing crops that could withstand new growing conditions — such as types of fruit that don't rely as heavily on winter chill to produce spring blossoms.</p><p>"There already is the possibility to adapt the variety without changing the [main] crop in the short to medium term," she said, pointing out that some crops could also shift to other more suitable areas within the same country.</p><p>As part of her work at the <a href="http://ceigram.upm.es/" target="_blank">Research Center for the Management of Agricultural and Environmental Risks</a>, Ruiz-Ramos analyzes crop varieties, planting schedules, soil conditions, irrigation options and many other variables to find the optimum strategy for farmers and "design locally tailored adaptations." The most promising solutions are then tested in the field.</p><p>"It's a compromise between different needs. And that's why it's not so obvious as to just bring in some African crops," she said. However, she didn't rule out the fact that dramatic temperature changes could one day lead growers to take a chance on non-native crops.</p><p>Yves Madre, a co-founder of <a href="https://www.farm-europe.eu/" target="_blank">Brussels-based think tank Farm Europe</a>, said the EU's farming sector needs to be more open to new breeding techniques that would introduce drought and disease-tolerance genes to existing crops, which can include genome editing.</p><p>With more innovation and investment, he said the EU would be able to meet its goals in terms of food security and growth, especially in rural areas.</p>
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By Peter Beech
Using waste food to farm insects as fish food and high-tech real-time water quality monitoring: innovations that could help change global aquaculture, were showcased at the World Economic Forum's Virtual Ocean Dialogues 2020.
Fly fishing. nextProtein
BiOceanOr's AquaREAL system. BiOceanOr
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The big three broadcast channels failed to cover the disproportionate impacts of extreme weather on low-income communities or communities of color during their primetime coverage of seven hurricanes and one tropical storm over three years, a Media Matters for America analysis revealed.
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During summer in central New York, residents often enjoy a refreshing dip in the region's peaceful lakes.
But sometimes swimming is off-limits because of algae blooms that can make people sick.
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fotograzia / Getty Images
By Sara Peach
When your body gets too hot, you may experience a heat-related illness such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Such illnesses can be dangerous. In fact, on average, there are more heat-related deaths in the U.S. each year than hurricane- or flood-related fatalities combined.
But heat exhaustion and heat stroke are preventable. Read on for some do's and don'ts.
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It will be warmer in Fairbanks, Alaska, than it will be in New York City, Philadelphia, Cleveland and even Atlanta this weekend, AccuWeather predicted Wednesday.
Flooding is the most common and most expensive natural disaster in the U.S., according to FEMA. And the risk of catastrophic floods in the U.S. is only rising as climate change intensifies downpours in areas like the Northeast and Midwest. In the West, flooding risks rise following major wildfires that denude hills of trees and undergrowth.
DO: Take Steps Now to Protect Your Home From Future Flooding.<ul><li>Assess your level of risk. Search for your address in <a href="https://msc.fema.gov/portal/search" target="_blank">FEMA's map</a> to see how high the risk for flooding is in your area. Don't be lulled into a false sense of security simply because you live in an area with low or moderate risk. Even in these lower-risk areas, your home is still five times more likely to experience a flood than a fire during the next 30 years.<br></li><li>Seriously consider getting flood insurance. Most homeowner insurance does not cover damages from floods. Waiting until the last minute to get flood insurance doesn't work: It typically takes <a href="https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2018/05/01/dont-wait-buy-flood-insurance-today" target="_blank">about 30 days</a> to take effect. (There are some exceptions to this waiting period.)<br></li><li>Document and store important files and keepsakes in a safe location. Keep photographs of especially valuable property. Keep a digital copy of important documents and photos in a safe off-site location.</li></ul>
DO: Take Swift Action When a Flood Watch or Warning Is Announced.<ul><li>Listen to <a href="https://www.weather.gov/nwr&ln_desc=NOAA+Weather+Radio/" target="_blank">NOAA Weather Radio</a> for important updates.<br></li><li>Confirm that your emergency kit and evacuation plan are up to date and accessible.<br></li><li>Clear gutters and use sandbags if needed to divert water away from the foundation of your home.<br></li><li>Move valuables to a higher or otherwise safer room.<br></li><li>Prioritize personal safety, and don't walk, swim, or drive through floodwater.</li></ul>
DO: Address Flood Damage After the Fact.<ul><li>Avoid contact with floodwater, which may contain sewage or other contaminants or materials such as timber or solid wastes.<br></li><li>Call your insurance provider as soon as possible. If you're renting, call your landlord instead.<br></li><li>When the weather dries, open windows to improve ventilation and help your home air out.<br></li><li>Immediately discard anything that may pose a health risk, including food, clothes, rugs, and other belongings. (For insurance purposes, you'll need to take pictures of some items first, including serial numbers on major appliances.)</li></ul>
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Greenland's kilometers-long ice sheet underwent near-record imbalance last year, scientists have reported on Wednesday.
The ice sheet suffered a net loss of 600 billion tons, which was enough to raise the global watermark 1.5 millimeters, accounting for approximately 40% of total sea-level rise in 2019.
The alarming development was reported in "The Cryosphere," a peer-reviewed journal published by the European Geosciences Union.
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By Ellen Wright Clayton
Will SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, fade away on its own this summer?
Are Heat and Humidity Reason for Hope?<p>Although the U.S. is early in the course of the pandemic, there is evidence from other countries that SARS-CoV-2 spreads more rapidly in cold, dry weather.</p><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.30.20044099" target="_blank">One preprint study of 30 Chinese provinces</a> showed that the number of COVID-19 cases went down by between 36% and 57% for every 1.8 degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature. When temperatures held steady in the low 40s F, the number of cases went down between 11% and 22% with each 1% increase in relative humidity (how much water is in the air).</p><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.27.20045658" target="_blank">A larger preprint study looking at 310 regions in 116 countries</a> found that 11% more cases were reported when the temperature went down 9 degrees, the relative humidity went down 10% and when the wind speed went up.</p><p>Laboratory research also suggest that the virus survives longer in cold conditions. One study showed that SARS-CoV-2 lasts for 14 days at 40 F in lab media but <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30003-3" target="_blank">is gone after one day at 98.6 F</a>.</p><p>These and other studies suggest that warm, humid weather may slow the spread of this virus, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.12.20022467" target="_blank">although not all</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.29.20046706" target="_blank">commentators agree</a>.</p><p>New research on this topic appears almost daily, and scientists are watching to see what happens as summer comes to the Northern Hemisphere.</p>
Which Clues Call for Caution?<p>COVID-19 is already spreading in many parts of the world where it's hot, including Australia and South America, demonstrating that high temperatures are not enough to stop the disease.</p><p>The most important reason to be concerned about ongoing spread is the fact that this is a brand new virus for humans, so almost everyone is susceptible to being infected.</p><p>In fact, weather actually appears to <a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.18.20036731" target="_blank">play a minor role</a> in the rate at which this virus spreads.</p><p><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/13/opinion/coronavirus-what-we-know.html" target="_blank">Other influences on infection rates</a> include individual behaviors, cultural practices, geography, income and living conditions. <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/social-distancing.html" target="_blank">Public health practices</a> such as social distancing, the intensity of testing for infection, contact tracing, quarantine of people who are exposed and isolation of people who are actually infected also play a big role in how the coronavirus spreads.</p><p>The news from other viral diseases <a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25771/rapid-expert-consultation-on-sars-cov-2-survival-in-relation-to-temperature-and-humidity-and-potential-for-seasonality-for-the-covid-19-pandemic-april-7-2020" target="_blank">is not encouraging either</a>. The two most serious coronavirus diseases that are closely related to COVID-19, the first SARS outbreak and MERS, <a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25771/rapid-expert-consultation-on-sars-cov-2-survival-in-relation-to-temperature-and-humidity-and-potential-for-seasonality-for-the-covid-19-pandemic-april-7-2020" target="_blank">did not vary with the seasons after they emerged</a>. In fact, MERS is still <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/index.html" target="_blank">found year-round in the Middle East</a>, where it is hot and dry. Pandemic influenza infections have emerged at different times of the year as well.</p>
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