By Sarah McColl
Think of the environmental impacts of coffee and your mind likely goes to mountains of coffee cherries polluting waterways, piles of leftover grounds, nonrecyclable coffee pods or the paper waste from gazillions of grande to-go cups. Initially, you're probably not considering milk at all.
“You and me both," Robert Myers, cofounder of San Francisco's Paramo Coffee, said, whose focus, understandably, had been on the coffee aspects of his coffee business, from farming practices to roasting. But when your business partner is also involved in The Perennial, a restaurant out to fight climate change—as Paramo's Wes Wang is—you start getting articles sent to you. An article about the carbon footprint of heating water for coffee, articles about the emissions related to the aforementioned milk. “I was like, 'Oh great, now milk is a huge part of the problem,'" Myers said.
The milk math Paramo Coffee did was incriminating. Milk represents 60 to 70 percent of the carbon footprint of a cup of coffee with a few tablespoons of milk; for a latte, it's more like 80 or 90 percent. Per cup, black coffee produces 21 grams of CO2; each latte, 340 grams. “When you figure a coffee shop makes 300, 500, 700 drinks a day, this becomes significant," Myers told SFGate.
But rather than imagine a joyless life without lattes, Myers started to learn more about potential offset solutions, such as carbon farming. In this practice, land is covered in a layer of compost, then planted with perennial grasses. Compost seeds the soil with good microorganisms and carbon is captured and stored in the soil via the deep root system of perennial grasses.
“It's not just give up coffee, give up milk," he said. “Suddenly it seemed like, oh, there might be something we can do."
That something has taken the form of a new Paramo location next to The Perennial with a more energy-efficient roaster and a partnership with Marin County's Straus Family Creamery—which, among the nine dairy farms it works with, sources from one that has converted some of its grazing land to carbon farming. Since Paramo can't source milk solely from cows grazing on land that has been converted to carbon farming, it donates 5 cents from every drink to Marin Carbon Project to offset the cost of converting additional dairy rangeland.
Scientists think inexpensive, low-technology practices like carbon farming can turn back the carbon clock. The world's cultivated soils have lost between 50 and 70 percent of their original carbon stock, but carbon farming can reduce atmospheric CO2 while also increasing the health and productivity of the soil. Research from the University of California at Berkeley found that if compost were applied to 5 percent of the state's grazing land, it could store a year's worth of emissions from conventional farms and forestry operations. Boost that number to 25 percent of grazing land and the soil would absorb 75 percent of California's total annual emissions.
“That's a huge impact," Myers said. “It feels like we could really change things in a big way and within the context of something I'm already doing, which is selling coffee with milk. It's not an additional thing I have to do—it's just being more mindful and being a steward of my piece of it."
“If we can say, 'I can sell this milk, there's a lot of demand for it' and if we just keep asking for it, I'm hoping that will get more farmers to say, 'Well, maybe we should try this,'" he added
In a story about The Perennial, Chris Ying, cofounder of both the restaurant and ZeroFoodprint, told TakePart, “Eating, it turns out, is the most significant interaction most of us have with the environment." But the coffeeshop relationship is a unique one. For many coffee drinkers, the morning ministrations of our local barista may be meaningful enough to encourage us to consider the environmental impacts of the ritual.
“You enter into a type of intimacy that's very genuine," Myers said. “I think that's an opportunity to get into people's heart space—gradually, in small ways. But that's where I think the battle of environmental issues wins, when you can get into that space."
This article was reposted with permission from our media associate TakePart.
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1. Stay Informed<p>A first order of business in pet evacuation planning is to understand and be ready for the possible threats in your area. Visit <a href="https://www.ready.gov/be-informed" target="_blank">Ready.gov</a> to learn more about preparing for potential disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and wildfires. Then pay attention to related updates by tuning <a href="http://www.weather.gov/nwr/" target="_blank">NOAA Weather Radio</a> to your local emergency station or using the <a href="https://www.fema.gov/mobile-app" target="_blank">FEMA app</a> to get National Weather Service alerts.</p>
2. Ensure Your Pet is Easily Identifiable<p><span>Household pets, including indoor cats, should wear collars with ID tags that have your mobile phone number. </span><a href="https://www.avma.org/microchipping-animals-faq" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Microchipping</a><span> your pets will also improve your chances of reunion should you become separated. Be sure to add an emergency contact for friends or relatives outside your immediate area.</span></p><p>Additionally, use <a href="https://secure.aspca.org/take-action/order-your-pet-safety-pack" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">'animals inside' door/window stickers</a> to show rescue workers how many pets live there. (If you evacuate with your pets, quickly write "Evacuated" on the sticker so first responders don't waste time searching for them.)</p>
3. Make a Pet Evacuation Plan<p> "No family disaster plan is complete without including your pets and all of your animals," says veterinarian Heather Case in <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9NRJkFKAm4" target="_blank">a video</a> produced by the American Veterinary Medical Association.</p><p>It's important to determine where to take your pet in the event of an emergency.</p><p>Red Cross shelters and many other emergency shelters allow only service animals. Ask your vet, local animal shelters, and emergency management officials for information on local and regional animal sheltering options.</p><p>For those with access to the rare shelter that allows pets, CDC offers <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/emergencies/pets-in-evacuation-centers.html" target="_blank">tips on what to expect</a> there, including potential health risks and hygiene best practices.</p><p>Beyond that, talk with family or friends outside the evacuation area about potentially hosting you and/or your pet if you're comfortable doing so. Search for pet-friendly hotel or boarding options along key evacuation routes.</p><p>If you have exotic pets or a mix of large and small animals, you may need to identify multiple locations to shelter them.</p><p>For other household pets like hamsters, snakes, and fish, the SPCA recommends that if they normally live in a cage, they should be transported in that cage. If the enclosure is too big to transport, however, transfer them to a smaller container temporarily. (More on that <a href="https://www.spcai.org/take-action/emergency-preparedness/evacuation-how-to-be-pet-prepared" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">here</a>.)</p><p>For any pet, a key step is to establish who in your household will be the point person for gathering up pets and bringing their supplies. Keep in mind that you may not be home when disaster strikes, so come up with a Plan B. For example, you might form a buddy system with neighbors with pets, or coordinate with a trusted pet sitter.</p>
4. Prepare a Pet Evacuation Kit<p>Like the emergency preparedness kit you'd prepare for humans, assemble basic survival items for your pets in a sturdy, easy-to-grab container. Items should include:</p><ul><li>Water, food, and medicine to last a week or two;</li><li>Water, food bowls, and a can opener if packing wet food;</li><li>Litter supplies for cats (a shoebox lined with a plastic bag and litter may work);</li><li>Leashes, harnesses, or vehicle restraints if applicable;</li><li>A <a href="https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/emergencycare/pet-first-aid-supplies-checklist" target="_blank">pet first aid kit</a>;</li><li>A sturdy carrier or crate for each cat or dog. In addition to easing transport, these may serve as your pet's most familiar or safe space in an unfamiliar environment;</li><li>A favorite toy and/or blanket;</li><li>If your pet is prone to anxiety or stress, the American Kennel Club suggests adding <a href="https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/home-living/create-emergency-evacuation-plan-dog/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">stress-relieving items</a> like an anxiety vest or calming sprays.</li></ul><p>In the not-unlikely event that you and your pet have to shelter in different places, your kit should also include:</p><ul><li>Detailed information including contact information for you, your vet, and other emergency contacts;</li><li>A list with phone numbers and addresses of potential destinations, including pet-friendly hotels and emergency boarding facilities near your planned evacuation routes, plus friends or relatives in other areas who might be willing to host you or your pet;</li><li>Medical information including vaccine records and a current rabies vaccination tag;</li><li>Feeding notes including portions and sizes in case you need to leave your pet in someone else's care;</li><li>A photo of you and your pet for identification purposes.</li></ul>
5. Be Ready to Evacuate at Any Time<p>It's always wise to be prepared, but stay especially vigilant in high-risk periods during fire or hurricane season. Practice evacuating at different times of day. Make sure your grab-and-go kit is up to date and in a convenient location, and keep leashes and carriers by the exit door. You might even stow a thick pillowcase under your bed for middle-of-the-night, dash-out emergencies when you don't have time to coax an anxious pet into a carrier. If forecasters warn of potential wildfire, a hurricane, or other dangerous conditions, bring outdoor pets inside so you can keep a close eye on them.</p><p>As with any emergency, the key is to be prepared. As the American Kennel Club points out, "If you panic, it will agitate your dog. Therefore, <a href="https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/home-living/create-emergency-evacuation-plan-dog/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">pet disaster preparedness</a> will not only reduce your anxiety but will help reduce your pet's anxiety too."</p>
Evacuating Horses and Other Farm Animals<p>The same basic principles apply for evacuating horses and most other livestock. Provide each with some form of identification. Ensure that adequate food, water, and medicine are available. And develop a clear plan on where to go and how to get there.</p><p>Sheltering and transporting farm animals requires careful coordination, from identifying potential shelter space at fairgrounds, racetracks, or pastures, to ensuring enough space is available in vehicles and trailers – not to mention handlers and drivers on hand to support the effort.</p><p>For most farm animals, the Red Cross advises that you consider precautionary evacuation when a threat seems imminent but evacuation orders haven't yet been announced. The American Veterinary Medical Association has <a href="https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/emergencycare/large-animals-and-livestock-disasters" target="_blank">more information</a>.</p>
Bottom Line: If You Need to Evacuate, So Do Your Pets<p>As the Humane Society warns, pets left behind in a disaster can easily be injured, lost, or killed. Plan ahead to make sure you can safely evacuate your entire household – furry members included.</p>
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