'Sheer Madness': Coal Surges in China, Threatening Paris Climate Targets
While most of the world is reducing its dependence on coal-fired power because of the enormous amount of greenhouse gases associated with it, China raised its coal fired capacity over 2018 and half of 2019, according to a new study.
Over the 18-month period that ended in June, China bucked the international trend and raised its coal-fired power capacity 42.9 gigawatts (GW), or about 4.5 percent, while connecting new coal projects to its grid, according to the study, as Reuters reported. In the rest of the world, coal-fired capacity fell 8.1 GW.
"As more countries turn away from coal and retire their plants, China's continued pursuit of coal is increasingly out of step with the rest of the world, and is now effectively driving the ongoing expansion of the global coal fleet," the study authors wrote.
The recent surge in coal investments echoes the push for economic development and the "one coal plant a week" building program that ran for a decade from 2006 to 2015. That push to meet a growing demand for energy led to overcapacity, as most plants were only able to run half the time, and it brought an enormous amount of air pollution to Chinese cities, making it hazardous to be outside, as the BBC reported.
As for the Paris agreement targets:
"China's proposal to continue increasing its coal power capacity through 2035 is not compatible with the steep and rapid reductions needed in coal power generation to limit the rise in global average temperature to well below 2°C," the report says.
It also concluded that the future path China chooses could make or break the Paris climate goals.
The surge in coal development happened with a disconnect between local government and Beijing. While the national government promised an "energy revolution" with a large investment in renewable sources, local governments were allowed to issue new permits as a way to boost growth and they were allowed to restart suspended coal projects, as Reuters reported.
In the time since Beijing promised an energy revolution in 2015, local governments permitted up to five times more plants than in any similar period, as the BBC reported.
"This goat that the snake swallowed is still moving through the snake, and it's coming out in the form of another 20 percent in the Chinese coal fleet on top of a fleet that was already over-built," said Nace.
In addition to the power it is already generating, China has another 121.3 GW of coal-fired power plants under construction, according to the report. That's nearly enough to power all of France, as Reuters reported.
China has boosted its investment in renewable energy. It successfully cut coal's contribution to the country's total energy from 68 percent in 2012 to 59 percent last year, and researchers predict it will fall to 55.3 percent by 2020. However, while that is welcome news, the total amount of coal that is burned has continued to climb as China's overall demand for energy has grown, according to Reuters.
"The continued growth of China's coal fleet and consideration of plans to significantly raise the nation's coal power cap show that while the country is often hailed as a clean energy leader, the momentum of coal power expansion has yet to be halted," says the study.
China has drawn criticism from environmental groups since it has used money earmarked for green energy to invest in clean coal. China approved 40 new coal mines in 2019 and it is building 50 percent more coal plants than the rest of the world combined, as the BBC reported. China also funds one quarter of all the coal plants outside its borders in countries like South Africa, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
"The thing we are super worried about is that industry has actually organized to keep the whole thing going," said Nace to the BBC. "There are three different powerful trade groups, proposing to increase the coal fleet by 40 percent. This is sheer madness at this point."
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The ghoulishly named ogre-faced spider can "hear" with its legs and use that ability to catch insects flying behind it, the study published in Current Biology Thursday concluded.
"Spiders are sensitive to airborne sound," Cornell professor emeritus Dr. Charles Walcott, who was not involved with the study, told the Cornell Chronicle. "That's the big message really."
The net-casting, ogre-faced spider (Deinopis spinosa) has a unique hunting strategy, as study coauthor Cornell University postdoctoral researcher Jay Stafstrom explained in a video.
They hunt only at night using a special kind of web: an A-shaped frame made from non-sticky silk that supports a fuzzy rectangle that they hold with their front forelegs and use to trap prey.
They do this in two ways. In a maneuver called a "forward strike," they pounce down on prey moving beneath them on the ground. This is enabled by their large eyes — the biggest of any spider. These eyes give them 2,000 times the night vision that we have, Science explained.
But the spiders can also perform a move called the "backward strike," Stafstrom explained, in which they reach their legs behind them and catch insects flying through the air.
"So here comes a flying bug and somehow the spider gets information on the sound direction and its distance. The spiders time the 200-millisecond leap if the fly is within its capture zone – much like an over-the-shoulder catch. The spider gets its prey. They're accurate," coauthor Ronald Hoy, the D & D Joslovitz Merksamer Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior in the College of Arts and Sciences, told the Cornell Chronicle.
What the researchers wanted to understand was how the spiders could tell what was moving behind them when they have no ears.
It isn't a question of peripheral vision. In a 2016 study, the same team blindfolded the spiders and sent them out to hunt, Science explained. This prevented the spiders from making their forward strikes, but they were still able to catch prey using the backwards strike. The researchers thought the spiders were "hearing" their prey with the sensors on the tips of their legs. All spiders have these sensors, but scientists had previously thought they were only able to detect vibrations through surfaces, not sounds in the air.
To test how well the ogre-faced spiders could actually hear, the researchers conducted a two-part experiment.
First, they inserted electrodes into removed spider legs and into the brains of intact spiders. They put the spiders and the legs into a vibration-proof booth and played sounds from two meters (approximately 6.5 feet) away. The spiders and the legs responded to sounds from 100 hertz to 10,000 hertz.
Next, they played the five sounds that had triggered the biggest response to 25 spiders in the wild and 51 spiders in the lab. More than half the spiders did the "backward strike" move when they heard sounds that have a lower frequency similar to insect wing beats. When the higher frequency sounds were played, the spiders did not move. This suggests the higher frequencies may mimic the sounds of predators like birds.
University of Cincinnati spider behavioral ecologist George Uetz told Science that the results were a "surprise" that indicated science has much to learn about spiders as a whole. Because all spiders have these receptors on their legs, it is possible that all spiders can hear. This theory was first put forward by Walcott 60 years ago, but was dismissed at the time, according to the Cornell Chronicle. But studies of other spiders have turned up further evidence since. A 2016 study found that a kind of jumping spider can pick up sonic vibrations in the air.
"We don't know diddly about spiders," Uetz told Science. "They are much more complex than people ever thought they were."
Learning more provides scientists with an opportunity to study their sensory abilities in order to improve technology like bio-sensors, directional microphones and visual processing algorithms, Stafstrom told CNN.
"The point is any understudied, underappreciated group has fascinating lives, even a yucky spider, and we can learn something from it," he told CNN.
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