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Four Questions About the New Line 5 Pipeline Report

Energy
Below the Mackinac bridge runs Enbridge Line 5, transporting 23 Million gallons of oil and liquid gas every day. Conor Mihell

By Beth Wallace

In June, the state of Michigan released a draft report on alternatives to Enbridge's Line 5 pipeline, which pumps up to 23 million gallons of oil and natural gas liquids (NGLs) per day along the bottom of the Straits of Mackinac. The draft report, written by Dynamic Risk, was met with heavy criticism from all sides, and the National Wildlife Federation joined with many others to suggest numerous and substantive changes. On Nov. 20, the final alternatives report was released to the public. As per an agreement with the state to obtain funding for the report, Enbridge has had five days to review this report before it is released publicly.


Mike Shriberg, executive director for the National Wildlife Federation's Great Lakes Regional Center and a member of the Michigan Pipeline Safety Advisory Board, issued the following statement Monday about how we're evaluating the final alternatives analysis:

"We're looking for this report to address four issues, at minimum, lacking in the first draft. It must assess what's best for Michigan—not Enbridge; it must analyze Michigan's share of product transported through Line 5; it must accurately assess the risk of Line 5 and treat that risk with the seriousness it deserves; and it must fully analyze all alternatives to Line 5."

Here's a little more detail about what we're looking for in the report.

What's Best for Michigan?

Dynamic Risk needs to focus the final report so Michigan's interests are the main focus. The draft report prioritized the business interests of Enbridge over the interests of Michigan's citizens. The final report should start with a clear accounting of what products on Line 5 are actually utilized in Michigan and conduct the analysis by looking at alternatives for these uses for the state. Without this fundamental change, their assessment of risk and viability of alternatives fails to meet even the most basic expectations for the citizens of Michigan and the understanding of the Line 5 review process.

A blue heron covered in tar sands oil from the Kalamazoo River pipeline disaster.Michigan DEQ

Michigan's Share of Product

A majority of the oil and NGLs pumped through Line 5 originate in Canada and are delivered to Canada from this Canadian pipeline company, Enbridge. Michigan has only three uses for Line 5. First, less than 5 percent of Line 5 product goes to Rapid River, Michigan for processing into propane. Second, oil injected into Line 5 from northern Michigan wells is less than 5 percent and falling steadily, according to Dynamic Risk. Third, regional refineries fed by Line 5 could easily be fulfilled by other pipeline networks throughout our region. Addressing these three very solvable problems for Michigan, which is largely buried in the draft report, should be the focus of the final report.

Evaluating the Risk of a Line 5 Rupture

The draft report significantly underestimated both the risk of failure of Line 5 and the cost of a failure. The cost figures assigned to alternatives and possible spill costs were grossly under represented and failed to consider major factors such as permitting, tribal treaty rights and threatened ecosystems (just to name a few). Moreover, Dynamic risk must correct the apples to oranges comparison on risk from alternatives. While Dynamic Risk only evaluated risk for up to 5 miles of Line 5 (traveling through the Great Lakes), for most of the outlined alternatives, they evaluated risk and cost associated with an entire project.

Dynamic Risk needs to assess risk for all of Line 5 and provide a more comprehensive cost breakdown to provide a proper assessment. Despite this poor analysis, Dynamic Risk did note, both in writing and during public information sessions, that the odds of a break in Line 5, under the Straits of Mackinac, is only one in 60.

Endangered piping plovers nest along the Great Lakes shorelines which would be impacted by a Line 5 oil spill. Vince Cavalieri / USFWS

The University of Michigan, conversely, estimated that a worst-case spill would pose a threat to 700 miles of Great Lakes shoreline, with more than 150 miles at risk from any one spill, and almost 17,000 square miles of Great Lakes open water vulnerable, with over 600 square miles impacted by any one spill. These models show threats to fish and wildlife habitat for species like the endangered piping plover (pictured), and sport-fish like atlantic salmon, steelhead, and lake trout which contribute to the Great Lakes $7 billion sport-fishery.

Analyzing Alternatives

The draft report failed in its core mission: to fully analyze the alternatives to Line 5. For example, the report failed to properly take into account all alternative modes of transportation, including using rail to deliver propane or a detailed analysis on a new 4 inch pipeline to feed propane to Rapid River, Michigan. Perhaps one of the most viable and least risky alternatives is to divert Line 5 product to other Lakehead pipelines that Enbridge owns and has been expanding for years. Dynamic Risk failed to provide any practical details on why they removed this alternative.

Their failure to forecast and take into account even the most basic and publicly available information around how Enbridge's system is expanding downstream and perhaps shrinking upstream from Line 5 shows a possible bias in their review. With the debate heating up around the fate of Line 3 in Minnesota, which is one of the only light crude oil pipelines upstream to Line 5, a complete review of this alternative is warranted and should be expected of Dynamic Risk in the final report.

Next Steps

In the months since the draft alternatives report was released, Enbridge's credibility in Michigan has been eroding faster than the protective coating on the pipeline itself. After telling the Michigan Pipeline Safety Advisory Council last Spring that there were no patches of missing protective coating on Line 5, Enbridge admitted that they have known of multiple "holidays" in protective coating since 2014.

It is critical that this alternatives report answers at least our four questions to restore some measure of trust in the process of accurately evaluating the risk that Line 5 poses to the Great Lakes and possible alternatives to it. Our Great Lakes depend on it.

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Farms with just one or a handful of different crops encourage fewer species of pollinating and pest-controlling insects to linger, ultimately winnowing away crop yields, according to a new study.

Up to half of the detrimental impacts of the "landscape simplification" that monocropping entails come as a result of a diminished mix of ecosystem service-providing insects, a team of scientists reported Oct. 16 in the journal Science Advances.

Monocrop palm oil plantation Honduras.

SHARE Foundation / Flickr / CC BY-NC 2.0​

"Our study shows that biodiversity is essential to ensure the provision of ecosystem services and to maintain a high and stable agricultural production," Matteo Dainese, the study's lead author and a biologist at Eurac Research in Bolzano, Italy, said in a statement.

It stands to reason that, with declines in the sheer numbers of insects that ferry pollen from plant to plant and keep crop-eating pests under control, these services will wane as well. But until now, it hasn't been clear how monocultures affect the number and mix of these species or how crop yields might change as a result.

Aiming to solve these questions, Dainese and his colleagues pulled together data from 89 studies cutting across a variety of landscapes, from the tropics of Asia and Africa to the higher latitudes of northern Europe. They tabulated the number of pollinating and pest-controlling insects at these sites — both the absolute number of individuals and the number of species — along with an assessment of the ecosystem services the insects provided.

In almost all of the studies they looked at, the team found that a more diverse pool of these species translated into more pollination and greater pest control. They also showed that simplified landscapes supported fewer species of service-providing insects, which ultimately led to lower crop yields.

The researchers also looked at a third measure of the makeup of insect populations — what they called "evenness." In natural ecosystems, a handful of dominant species with many more individuals typically live alongside a higher number of rarer species. The team found as landscapes became less diverse, dominant species numbers dwindled and rare species gained ground. This resulting, more equitable mix led to less pollination (though it didn't end up affecting pest control).

"Our study provides strong empirical support for the potential benefits of new pathways to sustainable agriculture that aim to reconcile the protection of biodiversity and the production of food for increasing human populations," Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, one of the study's authors and an animal ecologist at the University of Würzburg in Germany, said in the statement.

The scientists figure that the richness of pollinator species explains around a third of the harmful impacts of less diverse landscapes, while the richness of pest-controlling species accounts for about half of the same measure. In their view, the results of their research point to the need to protect biodiversity on and around crops in an uncertain future.

"Under future conditions with ongoing global change and more frequent extreme climate events, the value of farmland biodiversity ensuring resilience against environmental disturbances will become even more important," Steffan-Dewenter said.

Reposted with permission from our media associate Mongabay.

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