Quantcast

Northern Red Sea Could Be Unique Global Warming Refuge for Coral

Animals
Coral growth near Aqaba, Jordan. kaetidh / Flickr

Lying at the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba might be able sustain its coral population for another 100 to 150 years, despite global warming, new research predicts.

Scientists from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), the University of Essex and Al-Azhar University believe that a stretch of nearly 1,120 miles could become one of the few—and one of the largest—refuges for coral.


By 2040, 25 out 29 World Heritage reef areas will experience twice-per-decade bleaching, an occurrence that will "rapidly kill most corals present and prevent successful reproduction necessary for recovery of corals," the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concluded. In the past three years alone, three-fourths of the world's reefs have experienced severe bleaching.

Since the Gulf of Aqaba lies at the northern edge of the Red Sea, the surface water temperature is coolest. Uniquely, coral in the entire Red Sea is heat resistant, but populations in the south are already nearing their tipping point. "Bleaching usually occurs at 1°C over the summer mean average temperature," Christian Voolstra, one of the study's authors, told Nature Asia. In the northern waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, coral enjoys a temperature margin of 5°C.

To reach these conclusions, scientists compared patterns of coral heat sensitivity across the Red Sea to a dataset of coral bleaching events since 1982. This allowed them to identify areas least susceptible to thermal stress. The team then looked at thermal histories of Hurghada, Egypt and Thuwal, Saudi Arabia—each bordering the Red Sea—and their coral-bleaching patterns, but also the effect of 2015-2016 El Niño events on their coral areas. From this they were able to conclude that the Red Sea's northern coral was less susceptible to rises in water temperature.

"This anomaly, which is only found in the Red Sea, gives us a window of opportunity to take action," Voolstra said.

But tucked between Egypt, Jordan, Israel and Saudi Arabia, the coral will also have to contend with local, human-made threats, such as pollution and coastal development.

The Gulf of Aqaba is home to two bustling port cities, the Israeli city of Eilat and the Jordanian city of Aqaba, both sitting next to coral reefs. In 2016, 200 tons of crude oil spilled into the gulf after an oil pipeline burst in the port of Aqaba.

To the south of Aqaba and Eilat, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are planning a massive bridge to link the two countries. Such a project could disturb the fragile ecosystem.

EcoWatch Daily Newsletter

New pine trees grow from the forest floor along the North Fork of the Flathead River on the western boundary of Glacier National Park on Sept. 16, 2019 near West Glacier, Montana. Chip Somodevilla / Getty Images

By Alex Kirby

New forests are an apparently promising way to tackle global heating: the trees absorb carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas from human activities. But there's a snag, because permanently lower river flows can be an unintended consequence.

Read More
Household actions lead to changes in collective behavior and are an essential part of social movements. Pixabay / Pexels

By Greg McDermid, Joule A Bergerson, Sheri Madigan

Hidden among all of the troubling environmental headlines from 2019 — and let's face it, there were plenty — was one encouraging sign: the world is waking up to the reality of climate change.

So now what?

Read More
Sponsored
Logging state in the U.S. is seen representing some of the consequences humans will face in the absence of concrete action to stop deforestation, pollution and the climate crisis. Mark Newman / Lonely Planet Images / Getty Images

Talk is cheap, says the acting executive secretary of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, who begged governments around the world to make sure that 2020 is not another year of conferences and empty promises, but instead is the year to take decisive action to stop the mass extinction of wildlife and the destruction of habitat-sustaining ecosystems, as The Guardian reported.

Read More
The people of Kiribati have been under pressure to relocate due to sea level rise. A young woman wades through the salty sea water that flooded her way home on Sept. 29, 2015. Jonas Gratzer / LightRocket via Getty Images

Refugees fleeing the impending effects of the climate crisis cannot be forced to return home, according to a new decision by the United Nations Human Rights Committee, as CNN reported. The new decision could open up a massive wave of legal claims by displaced people around the world.

Read More
The first day of the Strike WEF march on Davos on Jan. 18, 2020 near Davos, Switzerland. The activists want climate justice and think the WEF is for the world's richest and political elite only. Kristian Buus / In Pictures via Getty Images

By Ashutosh Pandey

Teenage climate activist Greta Thunberg is returning to the Swiss ski resort of Davos for the 2020 World Economic Forum with a strong and clear message: put an end to the fossil fuel "madness."

Read More