Amazon to Flip the Switch on Massive Wind Project in North Carolina
By Robynne Boyd
Before the ball drops on New Year's Eve, 104 wind turbines scattered across 22,000 acres of farmland near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, will begin churning out electricity. It will be the South's first large-scale wind farm. At 208 megawatts, Avangrid's facility has the capacity to capture enough of the sky's kinetic energy to power 61,000 homes. But instead of homes, this electricity will run data centers for Amazon Web Services, a subsidiary of Amazon.com.
Amazon Wind Farm U.S. East, a new wind farm outside Elizabeth City, North Carolina.Avangrid Renewables
Wind generates about 5 percent of U.S. electricity, but that figure is steadily rising. In fact, at 41 percent, wind power was the largest source of new electricity production in 2015. None of that, however, came out of the Southeast. The region imports 3.8 gigawatts of wind energy from the Midwest (enough to power 10 million homes for as little as 1.8 cents per kilowatt-hour), but wind farms themselves, similar to solar, have almost no penetration here.
"Wind is so new in the Southeast; I think there has been a fear of the unknown," said Katharine Kollins, president of Southeastern Wind Coalition. "Having the Avangrid project up and running will be important for people to see wind farms firsthand and up close."
Except for the occasional hurricane, the South isn't known to be particularly windy—at least not compared with Plains states like Iowa, where the wind accounts for nearly a third of total electricity generation. But great potential exists in this void and with new turbine technology, some southern states are getting ready to tap into it.
"The biggest change in the industry has been turbine advancements," said Simon Mahan, director of the Southern Wind Energy Association, an industry organization. Taller turbines, like those at Avangrid's Amazon Wind Farm, can reach higher, stronger winds, and longer blades are able to harness gentler breezes. "This is opening the South as the next frontier for wind energy," Mahan noted.
Indeed, wind turbines have gone through a growth spurt. Since the 1990s, hub height has risen from 45 to 300 feet, which is as tall as the Statue of Liberty. And blades now extend more than 180 feet in length.
In addition to technology, improvements in energy policy, such as renewable energy standards and the federal Production Tax Credit, have enabled wind's price tag to plummet 90 percent over the past 25 years, making it more alluring in the competitive energy market.
According to a 2015 report by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Southeast could become the Most Improved Player in coming years, particularly as the national energy mix continues to change. "If I'm thinking realistic numbers, the Southeast could easily support a few gigawatts of wind," Kollins said.
Over the next 12 years, 46 coal power plants around the country (including 19 in the Southeast) are due to retire, despite the incoming Trump administration's promises to bring back the coal industry by removing regulations that protect clean air and water. Improved energy efficiency will help, but those retired plants' electricity contribution, about 15,600 megawatts, will need to be replaced with something. And that something will likely be a combo of cheap natural gas and renewables, which together provided 45 percent of the country's electricity last year.
"A company or utility looking to decrease its costs needs to be looking to buy wind and solar right now," Mahan said. "At the end of the day, if it's cheaper to do, why not?"
It's Official: #Solar Energy Cheaper Than Fossil Fuels https://t.co/UDrEnWwREP @elonmusk @solarcity @SEIA @wef @IEA @NRDC @ClimateReality— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1482866602.0
So, then, why aren't more renewable projects in the works in the South? One limiting factor is that Georgia, Tennessee, and South Carolina are all building new nuclear reactors and once these are complete (whenever that happens), the region will have more than enough power. However, the largest factor is the lack of independent system operators (ISOs) or regional transmission organizations (RTOs).
Electricity markets can be complicated, so stay with me here: The U.S. is divided into three interconnection regions (Eastern, Western and Texas) that do not share energy between them. Smaller subregions, such as California and the Northeast, exist within those three, and they can organize their markets as an ISO or RTO, which enables entities other than utilities (such as wind farms) to sell electricity directly to the market. The area around Elizabeth City, for example, is part of an RTO called PJM Interconnection. PJM allows Avangrid, the wind farm developer, to sell electricity directly to Amazon Web Services for its data centers at a price per kilowatt-hour negotiated by the two parties. This type of arrangement creates open, competitive markets for companies and utilities as well as the cities that welcome the projects. Avangrid, by the way, is now the largest taxpayer by far in Perquimans County.
Amazon Wind Farm being built.Avangrid Renewables
Most of the Southeast, however, functions under a more traditional approach in which the utilities maintain control over the power plants and distribution wires―and therefore the price. So it can be challenging for wind companies to break into these markets, unless they sign a power purchase agreement with the utility. Currently, nearly a dozen wind projects in development in the region are waiting for a utility to show interest.
Despite the dearth of wind farms on southern soil, the industry still has a sizable footprint here. In more than 100 wind-related factories, thousands of southerners manufacture everything from turbine blades to rotors. If the South is making the tools for the country's wind industry, it might as well start using them too.
Typhoon Molave is expected to make landfall in Vietnam on Wednesday with 90 mph winds and heavy rainfall that could lead to flooding and landslides, according to the U.S. Embassy and U.S. Consulate in Ho Chi Minh City. To prepare for the powerful storm that already tore through the Philippines, Vietnam is making plans to evacuate nearly 1.3 million people along the central coast, as Reuters reported.
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By Sarah Steffen
A stretch of coastline in the Philippine capital, Manila has received backlash from environmentalists. The heavily polluted Manila Bay area, which had been slated for cleanup, has become the site of a controversial 500-meter (1,600-foot) stretch of white sand beach.
Sand Makeup Crucial for Ecosystems<p>While UNEP/GRID-Geneva generally supports finding <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/not-enough-sand-for-construction-industry-despite-abundance/a-49342942" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">alternative sources of sand</a> so as not to disrupt ecosystems in rivers and oceans when extracting them, Vander Velpen stressed it was vital to use sand which closely matches the makeup of the native sand to protect beach fauna.</p><p>"If you change the core characteristics of the native sand, the original sand, you need to do an environmental impact assessment (EIA) to find out how it's going to impact the ecosystem and nearby ecosystems," he told DW.</p><p>But according to Torres, such an assessment was not done in Manila.</p>
Beautification Stunt Instead of Proper Cleanup?<p>Manila Bay's waters are heavily polluted by oil and trash from nearby residential areas and ports. A huge "No swimming" sign warns visitors to stay away from the ocean.</p><p>Philippines' <a href="https://denr.gov.ph/index.php/priority-programs/manila-bay-clean-up/25-priority-programs/1825-frequently-ask-questions-faqs-on-the-dolomite-and-the-beach-nourishment-project" target="_blank">Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)</a> has denied dolomite sand poses any risk to human health and the ecosystem.</p><p>However, scientists of the University of the Philippines have come forward disputing the DENR's claims. A <a href="https://biology.science.upd.edu.ph/index.php/ib-statement-regarding-dolomite-in-manila-bay/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">statement by the Institute of Biology</a> said that using crushed dolomite did not address any of the rehabilitation phases and instead was "even more detrimental to the existing biodiversity as well as the communities in the area," pointing to the case of water birds. "The dumping of dolomite in Manila Bay has effectively covered part of the intertidal area used by the birds thereby reducing their habitat."</p><p>At peak migration season, Manila Bay is home to 90 aquatic bird species, including species of international conservation concern that are facing a very high extinction risk in the wild. </p><p>Authorities should focus on protecting and conserving biodiversity, the Institute of Biology added. "Rehabilitating mangroves is an example of a nature-based solution that is cheaper and more cost-effective than the dolomite dumping project," the scientists said.</p><p>Moreover, <a href="http://www.msi.upd.edu.ph/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">the Marine Science Institute</a> has warned that prolonged inhalation of finer dust particles of dolomite could "cause chronic health effects," leading to discomfort in the chest, shortness of breath and coughing.</p><p>They also warned dolomite sand grains would erode during storms and be carried out to sea, essentially being washed away.</p>
Rehabilitation vs. Reclamation<p>Environmentalists say covering up the beach doesn't address the real issues of the bay. Torres and others believe the best way to clean up Manila Bay is not to add anything, but rather remove trash and pollution.</p><p>"There have been studies saying much of the waste comes from already collected waste — so these are open dump sites along the coast that get washed up because of the rain," Torres said.</p><p>She criticized the authorities for continuing to push reclamation projects she says are at odds with each other. These projects will affect large areas of mangrove forests, she said, and experts warn that this, in turn, exacerbates coastal erosion.</p><p>"If you've removed the areas that helped trap the sand, like mangrove forests, then the likelihood increases that you will have to nourish a beach. Same as building right up to the waterfront," said Vander Velpen of UNEP/GRID-Geneva.</p>
Plenty of Sand in the Sea?<p>The question of Manila's contentious white beach echoes larger questions about sand mining worldwide. <a href="https://unepgrid.ch/storage/app/media/documents/Sand_and_sustainability_UNEP_2019.pdf" target="_blank">Global sand consumption has tripled</a> over the past two decades, UNEP/GRID-Geneva has found. A huge chunk of it is now taken up by construction.</p><p>"Many operate on the assumption that natural sand is endless in its supply," said Vander Velpen.</p><p>Sand scarcity is a concern shared by Stefan Schimmels of <a href="https://www.fzk.uni-hannover.de/fzk_start.html?&L=1" target="_blank">Forschungszentrum Küste</a> who's done extensive research on shore nourishment to stop coastal erosion. And as climate change and rising sea levels are threatening coasts, demand for sand will grow even more.</p><p>A large study, the <a href="http://www.stencil-project.de/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/STENCIL_SWOT_Analyse_191026.pdf" target="_blank">Strategies and Tools for Environment-Friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures (STENCIL project)</a>, focused on the German island of Sylt, a popular vacation spot.</p><p>About 1 million cubic meter of sand per year is used to maintain the coastal area of Sylt, STENCIL project head Schimmels said. That's about 100 million 10-liter buckets of sand.</p><p>When sand was extracted off the coast of Sylt, underwater craters were formed. "You can still detect these craters even decades later," Schimmels told DW.</p><p>"Also when you add a couple of meters sand onto the beach — you essentially bury all things that do creep and fly," he said. "How quickly will they recover?" Schimmels said more research was needed as there was still too little known about long-term effects on the environment. </p>
Criticism Piling Up<p>As for Manila's artificial white sand, it looks like some might have already been blown away by a recent storm. DENR claims it wasn't washed away, but said that grayish sand, stones and other material had simply piled up over the dolomite sand. People in Manila have tweeted photos showing how the storm has ravaged the beach. </p>
<div id="adc0b" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="98f9390db6bb81cb421aaf0bb9d9a6fb"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1318816633280851969" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">Exactly one month after giving excited netizen a glimpse of Manila Bay white sands, look what happened now after ju… https://t.co/X0Z9i0bPB0</div> — M*A*S*H (@M*A*S*H)<a href="https://twitter.com/Magtira_Matibay/statuses/1318816633280851969">1603265362.0</a></blockquote></div><p>Authorities have been called tone-deaf for spending around 389 million pesos ($8 million) on a beach nourishment project in the middle of a raging pandemic.</p><p>An image of cake iced with the words "It really hurts - that's [worth] 389 million pesos?" has since gone viral.</p>
<div class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="4387aad52ea316e4db7330052318ca2f"><div class="fb-post" data-href="https://www.facebook.com/theweekendpatisserie/posts/144564207350008"></div></div><p>"It's just a waste of precious resources," Torres said. </p><p>The environmental activist now also worries that she might be labeled a terrorist for speaking out under the <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/philippine-anti-terrorism-law-triggers-fear-of-massive-rights-abuses/a-53732140" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Philippines' controversial new anti-terrorism law</a>. She says she could be arrested for inciting fear when talking about environmental dangers.</p>
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