In addition, it has been linked to several potential health benefits, including better blood sugar control and improved heart and digestive health.
This article reviews the nutritional content and health benefits of rye bread.
Rye bread is typically made with a combination of rye flour and rye grains (Secale cereale).
It comes in several forms, depending on the combination used, including:
- Light rye bread. This variety is made from only white rye flour, which comes from ground rye grain endosperm — the starchy core of the rye grain.
- Dark rye bread. This type is made from ground whole rye grains. Sometimes, dark rye flour is created from white rye flour that is colored with cocoa powder, instant coffee, or molasses.
- Marbled rye bread. This version is made from light and dark rye dough rolled together. Sometimes, the dark rye dough is made from light rye dough that is colored with cocoa powder, instant coffee, or molasses.
- Pumpernickel bread. This bread is made from coarsely ground whole rye grains.
In the United States, commercially made light and dark rye breads tend to be made in combination with wheat flour.
Compared with regular white and whole wheat bread, rye bread tends to be denser and darker and has a stronger, sour yet earthy taste.
Rye flour contains less gluten than wheat flour, which is why the bread is denser and doesn't rise as high as regular wheat-based breads.
However, given that it still contains gluten, it's unsuitable for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
Rye breads are made with a combination of rye flour and grains, depending on the type of bread. They're denser, darker, and have a stronger taste than regular white and wheat breads.
Rye bread is high in fiber and has an impressive nutrient profile.
That said, the exact composition depends on the amount of rye flour used, with darker rye breads containing more rye flour than lighter varieties.
On average, 1 slice (32 grams) of rye bread provides the following nutrients:
- Calories: 83
- Protein: 2.7 grams
- Carbs: 15.5 grams
- Fat: 1.1 grams
- Fiber: 1.9 grams
- Selenium: 18% of the Daily Value (DV)
- Thiamine: 11.6% of the DV
- Manganese: 11.5% of the DV
- Riboflavin: 8.2% of the DV
- Niacin: 7.6% of the DV
- Vitamin B6: 7.5% of the DV
- Copper: 6.6% of the DV
- Iron: 5% of the DV
- Folate: 8.8% of the DV
Rye bread also contains small amounts of zinc, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and other micronutrients.
Compared with regular breads, such as white and whole wheat, rye bread is typically higher in fiber and provides more micronutrients, especially B vitamins.
What's more, studies have shown that pure rye bread tends to be more filling and affects blood sugar levels to a lesser extent than white and wheat breads.
Rye bread is high in many nutrients, especially fiber and B vitamins. It may be more filling and affect blood sugar levels to a lesser extent than white or wheat breads.
Potential Health Benefits
Eating rye bread may benefit your health in several ways.
May Improve Heart Health
Adding rye bread to your diet may improve several aspects of heart health, as research has linked its intake to lower levels of heart disease risk factors.
For example, an 8-week study in 40 people compared the effects of eating 20% of their daily calories from either rye or wheat bread on blood cholesterol levels.
Researchers found that rye bread was more effective at lowering cholesterol levels in men than wheat bread and reduced total and LDL (bad) cholesterol by up to 14% and 12%, respectively.
This effect is likely due to rye bread's high soluble fiber content, a type of indigestible fiber that forms a gel-like substance in your digestive tract and can help remove cholesterol-rich bile from your blood and body.
Research has shown that regular soluble fiber intake is linked to a 5–10% reduction in both total and LDL (bad) cholesterol in as little as 4 weeks.
May Aid Blood Sugar Control
Blood sugar control is important for everyone, especially people with type 2 diabetes and those who cannot produce enough insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels.
Rye bread has several qualities that can aid blood sugar control.
For starters, it's high in soluble fiber, which helps slow the digestion and absorption of carbs and sugar through the digestive tract, leading to a more gradual rise in blood sugar levels.
Rye bread also contains phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid, which may slow the release of sugar and insulin into the bloodstream, further aiding blood sugar control.
For example, a study in 21 healthy adults found that consuming a rye-based evening meal with supplemental resistant starch helped slow the release of sugar and insulin into the bloodstream. Additionally, it raised the levels of satiety hormones, which kept people full for longer.
However, plain rye did not have a significant effect on blood sugar levels, though it did increase feelings of fullness.
Assist Digestive Health
Rye bread may help improve your digestive health in several ways.
First, it's a good source of fiber, which can help keep your bowels regular. Soluble fiber absorbs water, helping stools stay large and soft, making them easier to pass.
In fact, one study in 51 adults with constipation noted that rye bread was more effective than whole wheat bread and laxatives at treating constipation, without adverse effects.
Other studies have shown that rye bread fiber can elevate levels of short-chain fatty acids like butyrate in your bloodstream.
These short-chain fatty acids have been linked to various benefits, including weight loss, lower blood sugar levels, and protection against colon cancer.
Help You Stay Fuller for Longer
Numerous studies have shown that rye bread is incredibly filling.
This may be because it's high in soluble fiber, which can help you feel full for longer.
For example, a study in 41 participants found that those who ate whole grain rye bread felt fuller and ate fewer calories later in the day than people who ate refined wheat bread.
Other Potential Benefits
Aside from those listed above, rye bread offers some additional potential health benefits.
While they are supported by fewer studies and weaker evidence, they include the following:
- May reduce inflammation. A human study linked rye bread intake to lower markers of inflammation, such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6).
- May protect against certain cancers. In human and test-tube studies, rye intake has been linked to a reduced risk of several cancers, including prostate, colorectal, and breast cancers.
Rye bread has been linked to many potential health benefits, including weight loss, reduced inflammation, better blood sugar control, and improved heart and digestive health.
Possible Downsides of Rye Bread
Though rye bread is generally healthy, it may have some downsides, including:
- Contains antinutrients. Rye bread, especially the lighter varieties, contain phytic acid, an antinutrient that may hinder the absorption of minerals like iron and zinc from the same meal. Still, antinutrients are not a concern for people following a well-balanced diet.
- May cause bloating. Rye is high in fiber and gluten, which may cause bloating in people who are sensitive to these compounds.
- Unsuitable for a gluten-free diet. Rye bread contains gluten, making it unsuitable for people on a gluten-free diet, such as those with celiac disease.
- May be high in added sugar. In some parts of the world, rye breads are high in added sugar to enhance their taste. Added sugar is unhealthy and can add unwanted calories to your diet.
Rye bread has several potential downsides. It's unsuitable for a gluten-free diet, may cause bloating, may be high in added sugar, and contains antinutrients like phytic acid, which may affect mineral absorption.
How to Make Rye Bread
Fresh rye bread can be made at home with only a few ingredients.
The following ingredients and ratios are used to make lighter rye bread:
- 1.5 teaspoons of instant dry yeast
- 1.5 cups (375 ml) of warm water
- 1 teaspoon of salt
- 1.5 cups (200 grams) of rye flour
- 1.5 cups (200 grams) of wholemeal flour
- 1 teaspoon of caraway seeds (optional)
Here is a quick overview of how to make rye bread:
- Combine the yeast, salt, rye flour, wheat flour, and water in a bowl. Rye flour is quite dry, so you can add more water if the dough seems too dry. Knead it until smooth. Note that rye dough is not as springy as wheat dough.
- Place the dough in a lightly greased bowl, cover with cling wrap, and let the dough rise until it doubles in size. This takes 1–2 hours.
- Remove the dough from the bowl and shape it into a smooth oval loaf. If you would like to add caraway seeds, add them during this step.
- Place the dough in a lightly greased loaf tin, cover with cling wrap, and let it rise until it doubles in size again, which takes another 1–2 hours.
- Preheat the oven to 425°F (220°C). Uncover the bread, make a few horizontal incisions with a knife, and then bake it for 30 minutes or until dark. Remove the bread and let it sit on a cooling rack for at least 20 minutes before serving.
Rye bread is easy to make at home. Simply follow the steps above and indulge in a fresh slice of homemade rye bread.
The Bottom Line
Rye bread is a great alternative to regular white and wheat breads.
Though it may cause bloating in sensitive people and some varieties may be loaded with added sugar, it may offer various benefits.
It contains more fiber and nutrients — especially B vitamins — and has been linked to health benefits, such as weight loss, better blood sugar control, and improved heart and digestive health.
What's more, it's easy to incorporate into your diet in place of regular white or wheat breads and can easily be made at home.
By Karen L. Smith-Janssen
Colette Pichon Battle gave a December 2019 TEDWomen Talk on the stark realities of climate change displacement, and people took notice. The video racked up a million views in about two weeks. The attorney, founder, and executive director of the Gulf Coast Center for Law & Policy (GCCLP) advocates for climate justice in communities of color. Confronted with evidence showing how her own South Louisiana coastal home of Bayou Liberty will be lost to flooding in coming years, the 2019 Obama Fellow dedicates herself to helping others still reeling from the impacts of Katrina face the heavy toll that climate change has taken—and will take—on their lives and homelands. Her work focuses on strengthening multiracial coalitions, advocating for federal, state, and local disaster mitigation measures, and redirecting resources toward Black communities across the Gulf South.
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"These are not just wildfires, they are climate fires," Jay Inslee, Governor of Washington State, said as he stood amid the charred remains of the town of Malden west of Seattle earlier this month. "This is not an act of God," he added. "This has happened because we have changed the climate of the state of Washington in dramatic ways."
'These Aren't Wildfires'<p>Sam Ricketts, who led climate policy and strategy for Governor Jay Inslee's 2020 presidential campaign, tweeted on September 11 that "These aren't wildfires. These are #climatefires, driven by fossil fuel pollution."</p><p>"The rate and the strength and the devastation wrought by these disasters are fueled by climate change," Ricketts told DW of fires that have burnt well over 5 million acres across California, Oregon, Washington State, and into neighboring Idaho. </p><p>In a two-day period in early September, Ricketts notes that more of Washington State burned than in almost any entire fire season until now, apart from 2015. </p><p>California, meanwhile, was a tinderbox after its hottest summer on record, with temperatures in Death Valley reaching nearly 130 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the U.S. National Weather Service. It has been reported as the hottest temperature ever measured on Earth.</p>
<div id="29ad9" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="8346fe7350e1371d400097cd48bf45a2"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1306969603180879872" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">Drought-parched wetlands in South America have been burning for weeks. https://t.co/pjAKdFcKPg #Pantanal https://t.co/ImN2C5vwcp</div> — NASA Earth (@NASA Earth)<a href="https://twitter.com/NASAEarth/statuses/1306969603180879872">1600440810.0</a></blockquote></div><p>As evidenced by Australia's apocalyptic Black Summer of 2019-2020, fires are burning bigger and for longer, with new records set year-on-year. Right now, Brazil's vast and highly biodiverse Pantanal wetlands are suffering from catastrophic fires.</p>
#climatefires Started in Australia<p>Governor Inslee this month invoked the phrase climate fires for arguably the first time in the U.S., according to Ricketts.</p><p>But the term was also used as fires burnt out of control in Australia in late 2019. In the face of a 2000km (more than 1,200 miles) fire front, and government officials and media who <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/trump-climate-change-denial-emissions-environment-germany-fake-heartland-seibt/a-52688933" target="_blank">played down the link to climate change</a>, Greens Party Senator Sarah Hanson-Young and a friend decided that reference to bushfires was inadequate. </p><p>"We both just said, we've got to start calling them climate fires, that's what they are," the Australian Senator told DW.</p><p>Hanson-Young says scientists have been warning for decades that these would be the effects of global heating. "We've been told these kinds of extreme weather events and destruction is what climate change would look like, and it's right here on our doorstep," she said from her home state of South Australia — where by early September fire warnings had already been issued.</p><p>"Calling them climate fires was making it absolutely crystal clear. It is essential that there's no ambiguity," she said </p><p>Having deliberately invoked the term, Hanson-Young soon started to push it on social media via a #climatefires hashtag. </p>
How to Talk About the Urgency of Global Heating<p>The need to use more explicit language when talking about extreme weather events linked to climate change is part of a broader push to express the urgency of global heating. In 2019, activist Greta Thunberg tweeted that the term "climate change" did not reflect the seriousness of the situation. </p><p>"Can we all now please stop saying 'climate change' and instead call it what it is: climate breakdown, climate crisis, climate emergency, ecological breakdown, ecological crisis and ecological emergency?" she wrote. </p><p>"Climate change has for a long time been talked about as something that is a danger in the future," said Hansen-Young. "But the consequences are already here. When people hear the word crisis, they understand that something has to happen, that action has to be taken."</p><p><span></span>Some terms are now used in public policy, with state and national governments, and indeed the EU Parliament, declaring an official climate emergency in the last year. </p>
Words That Reflect the Science<p>But while the West Coast governors all fervently link the fires to an unfolding climate crisis, U.S. President Donald Trump continues to avoid any reference to climate. In a briefing about the fires, he responded to overtures by Wade Crowfoot, California's Natural Resources Secretary, to work with the states on the climate crisis by stating: "It'll start getting cooler. You just watch." Crowfoot replied by saying that scientists disagreed. Trump rejoined with "I don't think science knows, actually." </p><p>It was reminiscent of the anti-science approach to the coronavirus pandemic within the Trump administration, <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/donald-trump-admits-playing-down-coronavirus-risks/a-54874350" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">at least publicly</a>. Fossil fuel companies are also benefiting from his disavowal of climate science, with the Trump administration having <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/opinion-trumps-paris-climate-accord-exit-isnt-really-a-problem/a-51124958" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">pulled out of the Paris Agreement</a> and reopened fossil fuel infrastructure like the Keystone XL pipeline. </p><p>But the science community has responded, with Scientific American magazine endorsing Trump's Democratic presidential challenger Joe Biden, the first presidential endorsement in its 175-year history. </p><p>Hanson-Young says the use of explicit language like climate fires has also been important in Australia due to the climate denialism of politicians and the press, especially in publications owned by Rupert Murdoch. As fires burnt out much of Australia's southeast coast, they were commonly blamed on arson — a tactic also recently used in the U.S.</p>
Climate Rhetoric Could Help Decide Election<p>The language of climate has begun to influence the U.S. presidential election campaign, with Democratic nominee Joe Biden labelling President Trump a "climate arsonist."</p><p>Biden is touting a robust climate plan that includes a 2050 zero emissions target and a return to the Paris Agreement. Though lacking the ambition of The New Green Deal, it has been front and center of his policy platform in recent days, at a time when five hurricanes are battering the U.S. Gulf Coast while smoke blanketing the West Coast spreads all the way to the East. </p><p>People are experiencing the climate crisis in a visceral way and almost universally relate to the language of an emergency, says Ricketts. "They know something is wrong."</p>
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