Does Too Much Vitamin C Cause Side Effects?
Getting enough of this vitamin is especially important for maintaining a healthy immune system. It also plays an important role in wound healing, keeping your bones strong, and enhancing brain function.
Interestingly, some claim that vitamin C supplements provide benefits beyond those that can be obtained from the vitamin C found in food.
One of the most common reasons people take vitamin C supplements is the idea that they help prevent the common cold.
However, many supplements contain extremely high amounts of the vitamin, which can cause undesirable side effects in some cases.
This article explores the overall safety of vitamin C, whether it's possible to consume too much, and the potential adverse effects of taking large doses.
Vitamin C is Water-Soluble and Not Stored in Your Body
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water.
In contrast to fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins do not get stored within the body.
Instead, the vitamin C that you consume gets transported to your tissues via body fluids, and any extra gets excreted in urine (1Trusted Source).
However, supplementing with high amounts of vitamin C can lead to adverse effects, such as digestive distress and kidney stones.
That's because if you overload your body with larger-than-normal doses of this vitamin, it will start to accumulate, potentially leading to overdose symptoms (3Trusted Source).
It's important to note that it's unnecessary for most people to take vitamin C supplements, as you can easily get enough by eating fresh foods, especially fruits and vegetables (1Trusted Source).
Vitamin C is water-soluble, so it's not stored within your body. If you consume more than your body needs, it's excreted in your urine.
Too Much Vitamin C May Cause Digestive Symptoms
The most common side effect of high vitamin C intake is digestive distress.
In general, these side effects do not occur from eating foods that contain vitamin C, but rather from taking the vitamin in supplement form.
You're most likely to experience digestive symptoms if you consume more than 2,000 mg at once. Thus, a tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 2,000 mg per day has been established.
The most common digestive symptoms of excessive vitamin C intake are diarrhea and nausea.
Excessive intake has also been reported to lead to acid reflux, although this is not supported by evidence.
If you're experiencing digestive problems as a result of taking too much vitamin C, simply cut back your supplement dose or avoid vitamin C supplements altogether.
Ingesting more than 2,000 mg of vitamin C per day may lead to gastrointestinal upset, including symptoms like diarrhea and nausea.
Vitamin C May Cause Iron Overload
Vitamin C is known to enhance iron absorption.
It can bind to non-heme iron, which is found in plant foods. Non-heme iron is not absorbed by your body as efficiently as heme iron, the type of iron found in animal products.
Vitamin C binds with non-heme iron, making it much easier for your body to absorb. This is an important function, especially for individuals who get most of their iron from plant-based foods.
One study in adults found that iron absorption increased by 67% when they took 100 mg of vitamin C with a meal.
However, individuals with conditions that increase the risk of iron accumulation in the body, such as hemochromatosis, should be cautious with vitamin C supplements.
Under these circumstances, taking vitamin C in excess may lead to iron overload, which can cause serious damage to your heart, liver, pancreas, thyroid, and central nervous system.
That said, iron overload is highly unlikely if you don't have a condition that increases iron absorption. Additionally, iron overload is more likely to occur when excess iron is consumed in supplement form.
Since vitamin C increases iron absorption, consuming too much of it is a concern for individuals with conditions that lead to iron accumulation in the body.
Taking Supplements in High Doses May Lead to Kidney Stones
xcess vitamin C is excreted from the body as oxalate, a bodily waste product.
Oxalate typically exits the body via urine. However, under some circumstances, oxalate may bind to minerals and form crystals that can lead to the formation of kidney stones.
Consuming too much vitamin C has the potential to increase the amount of oxalate in your urine, thus increasing the risk of developing kidney stones.
High vitamin C intake is not only associated with greater amounts of urinary oxalate but also linked to the development of kidney stones, especially if you consume amounts greater than 2,000 mg.
Reports of kidney failure have also been reported in people who have taken more than 2,000 mg in a day. However, this is extremely rare, especially in healthy people.
Consuming too much vitamin C may increase the amount of oxalate in your kidneys, which has the potential to lead to kidney stones.
How Much Vitamin C is Too Much?
Since vitamin C is water-soluble and your body excretes excess amounts of it within a few hours after you consume it, it's quite difficult to consume too much.
In fact, it is nearly impossible for you to get too much vitamin C from your diet alone. In healthy people, any extra vitamin C consumed above the recommended daily amount simply gets flushed out of the body.
However, the risks of vitamin C overdose are higher when people take supplements, and it is possible to consume too much of the vitamin in some circumstances.
For example, those with conditions that increase the risk of iron overload or are prone to kidney stones should be cautious with their vitamin C intake.
If you choose to take a vitamin C supplement, it is best to choose one that contains no more than 100% of your daily needs. That's 90 mg per day for men and 75 mg per day for women.
It's nearly impossible to consume too much vitamin C from food. However, if you're supplementing with this vitamin, you can minimize your risk of getting too much by taking no more than 90 mg per day if you're a man, or 75 mg per day if you're a woman.
The Bottom Line
Vitamin C is generally safe for most people.
This is especially true if you get it from foods, rather than supplements.
Individuals who take vitamin C in supplement form are at greater risk of consuming too much of it and experiencing side effects, the most common of which are digestive symptoms.
However, more serious consequences, such as iron overload and kidney stones, may also result from taking extreme amounts of vitamin C.
Fortunately, it's easy to prevent these potential side effects — simply avoid vitamin C supplements.
Unless you have a vitamin C deficiency, which rarely occurs in healthy people, it is probably unnecessary for you to take large doses of this vitamin.
By Victoria Masterson
Using one of the world's problems to solve another is the philosophy behind a Norwegian start-up's mission to develop affordable housing from 100% recycled plastic.
Sustainable Homes<p>UN-Habitat says an <a href="https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-aims-to-use-plastic-waste-to-support-housing-for-all" target="_blank">estimated 60% of people living in urban areas of Africa are in informal settlements</a>. At the same time, between 1990 and 2017, African countries imported around 230 metric tonnes of plastic, "which mostly ended up in dump sites creating a massive environmental challenge," the agency adds.</p><p>UN-Habitat deputy executive director, Victor Kisob, said the aim of the partnership with Othalo was to "promote adequate, sustainable and affordable housing for all."</p>
Artist's impression of an Othalo community, imagined by architect Julien De Smedt. Othalo<p>Othalo's process involves shredding plastic waste and mixing it with other elements, including non-flammable materials. Components are used to build up to four floors, with a home of 60 square metres using eight tons of recycled plastic. A factory with one production line can produce 2,800 housing units annually.</p><p>Following successful laboratory tests, Othalo's factory in Estonia has started producing components to build three demonstration homes for Kenya's capital, Nairobi; Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon and Dakar, the capital of Senegal.</p><p>Othalo founder Frank Cato Lahti has been developing and testing the technology since 2016 in partnership with <a href="https://www.sintef.no/en/" target="_blank">SINTEF</a>, a 70-year-old independent research organization in Trondheim, Norway, and experts at Norway's <a href="https://en.uit.no/startsida" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">University of Tromsø</a>.</p>
Othalo founder Frank Cato Lahti. Othalo<p>Almost <a href="https://www.un.org/development/desa/publications/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html" target="_blank">seven out of every 10 people in the world are expected to live in urban areas by 2050</a>. More than 90% of this growth will take place in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.</p><p>"In the absence of effective urban planning, the consequences of this rapid urbanization will be dramatic," UN-Habitat warns.</p><p>Lack of proper housing and growth of slums, inadequate and outdated infrastructure, escalating poverty and unemployment, and pollution and health issues, are just some of the effects.</p><p>Mindsets, policies, and approaches towards urbanization need to change for the growth of cities and urban areas to be turned into opportunities that will leave nobody behind, UN-Habitat says.</p>
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