Consuming marijuana edibles may not be as risk-free as some like to believe, Canadian doctors argue.
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For 21 years, Doug Distaso served his country in the United States Air Force.
He commanded joint aviation, maintenance, and support personnel globally and served as a primary legislative affairs lead for two U.S. Special Operations Command leaders.
But after an Air Force plane accident left him with a traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain, Distaso was placed on more than a dozen prescription medications by doctors at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).
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By James David Adams
Medical marijuana is legal in 33 states as of November 2018. Yet the federal government still insists marijuana has no legal use and is easy to abuse. In the meantime, medical marijuana dispensaries have an increasing array of products available for pain, anxiety, sex and more.
The glass counters and their jars of products in the dispensary resemble an 18th century pharmacy. Many strains for sale have evocative and magical names like Blue Dream, Bubba Kush and Chocolope. But what does it all mean? Are there really differences in the medical qualities of the various strains? Or, are the different strains with the fanciful names all just advertising gimmicks?
What are Cannabinoids?<p>New research is revealing that marijuana is more than just a source of cannabinoids, chemicals that may bind to cannabinoid receptors in our brains, which are used to get high. The most well-known is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Marijuana is a particularly rich source of medicinal compounds that we have only begun to explore. In order to harness the full potential of the compounds in this plant, society needs to overcome misconceptions about marijuana and look at what research clearly says about the medical value.</p><p><span></span>The FDA has already made some moves in this direction by approving prescription drugs that come from marijuana including dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols and cannabidiol. Dronabinol and nabilone are cannabinoids that are used for nausea. Nabiximols — which contain THC, the compound most responsible for marijuana's high and cannabidiol, which does not induce a high — are used to treat <a href="https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Multiple-Sclerosis-Information-Page" target="_blank">multiple sclerosis</a>. Cannabidiol, or <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/cbd">CBD</a>, is also used to <a href="https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/06/26/fda-approves-first-cbd-oil-derived-marijuana-treat-epilepsy/733567002/" target="_blank">treat some types of epilepsy</a>.</p><p>Marijuana, originally from the Altai Mountains in Central and East Asia, contains at <a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.004" target="_blank">least 85 cannabinoids</a> and <a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.004" target="_blank">27 terpenes</a>, fragrant oils that are produced by many herbs and flowers that may be active, drug-like compounds. THC is the cannabinoid everyone wants in order to get high. It is produced from THC acid — which constitutes up to 25 percent of the plant's dry weight — by smoking or baking any part of the marijuana plant.</p><p>THC mimics a naturally occurring neurotransmitter called <a href="https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Anandamide" target="_blank">anandamide</a> that works as a signaling molecule in the brain. Anandamide attaches to proteins in the brain called cannabinoid receptors, which then send signals related to pleasure, memory, thinking, perception and coordination, to name a few. THC works by hijacking these natural cannabinoid receptors, triggering a profound high.</p><p>Tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid, another cannabinoid, can constitute up to 10 percent of the dry weight. It is converted to another compound that probably contributes to a high, <a href="https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/tetrahydrocannabivarin" target="_blank">tetrahydrocannabivarin</a>, when smoked or ingested in baked goods. Potent varieties like Doug's Varin and Tangie may contain even higher concentrations.</p>
Medical Properties of Marijuana<p>But not all cannabinoids make you high. Cannabidiol, a cannabinoid similar to THC, and its acid are also present in marijuana, especially in certain varieties. But these do not cause euphoria. The cannabidiol molecule interacts with a variety of receptors — including cannabinoid and serotonin receptors and transient receptor potential cation channels (TRP) – <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00379-8" target="_blank">to reduce seizures</a>, combat anxiety and produce other effects.</p><p>Marijuana also contains several monoterpenoids — small, aromatic molecules — that have a wide range of activities <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/ph5101045" target="_blank">including pain</a> and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2008.11.004" target="_blank">anxiety relief and that work by inhibiting TRP channels.</a></p><p>Myrcene is the most abundant monoterpenoid, a type or terpene, in marijuana. It <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587690" target="_blank">can relax muscles</a>. Other terpenes such as pinene, linalool, limonene and the sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene are <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/5/10/1045" target="_blank">pain relievers, especially when applied directly to the skin</a> as a liniment. Some of these terpenes may add to the high when marijuana is smoked.</p>
What Do All These Varieties Do?<p>Many different varieties of marijuana are on the market and are alleged to treat a range of diseases. The FDA has no oversight for these claims, since the FDA does not recognize marijuana as a legal product.</p><p>Strains of marijuana are grown that produce more THC than cannadidiol or vice versa. Other varieties have abundant monoterpenoids. How do you know that the strain you choose is legitimate with probable medical benefits? Each strain should <a href="https://b2b.gocaliva.com/what-is-cannabis-certificate-of-analysis-coa-california/" target="_blank">have a certificate of analysis</a> that shows you how much of each active compound is present in the product you buy. Many states have a bureau of cannabis control that verifies these certificates of analysis. However, many certificates of analysis do not show the monoterpenoids present in the marijuana. The analysis of monoterpenoids is difficult since they evaporate from the plant material. If you are looking for a strain high in myrcene or linalool, ask for proof.</p><p>Marijuana can improve several conditions, but it can also make others worse and can have nasty side effects.</p><p>As recreational use has become more widespread, <a href="http://doi.org/10.14309/crj.2018.3" target="_blank">marijuana hyperemesis syndrome</a> is becoming more of a problem in our society. Some people vomit uncontrollably after smoking marijuana regularly. It can be <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28494183" target="_blank">treated</a> by rubbing a cream made from capsaicin, from chili peppers, on the abdomen. Capsaicin cream is available in pharmacies.</p><p>Also, high THC varieties of marijuana, such as Royal Gorilla and Fat Banana, can <a href="http://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17r11839" target="_blank">cause anxiety and even psychosis</a> in some people.</p><p>Researchers have also shown that anxiety can be effectively treated with strains that have more cannabidiol and linalool. It may be best to <a href="https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796018000239" target="_blank">rub a cannabidiol balm or lotion on your cheeks to relieve anxiety</a>.</p><p>Other conditions that studies have shown are improved by marijuana are: <a href="http://doi.org/10.2217/fon-2018-0530" target="_blank">cancer induced nausea</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-2303" target="_blank">Type 2 diabetes</a>, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00379-8" target="_blank">two forms of epilepsy</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.6358" target="_blank">HIV-induced weight gain</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0009" target="_blank">irritable bowel syndrome</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1002/phar.1673" target="_blank">migraines</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1517/14712598.2012.721765" target="_blank">multiple sclerosis</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13146" target="_blank">osteoarthritis</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kei183" target="_blank">rheumatoid arthritis</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.6358" target="_blank">pain</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.6358" target="_blank">chronic pain</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s40261-014-0212-3" target="_blank">post-traumatic stress disorder</a>, <a href="http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.6358" target="_blank">sleep disorders</a> and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264643" target="_blank">traumatic brain injury</a>.</p><p>For some of these conditions, studies show that eating or topically applying marijuana products rather than smoking is recommended.</p><p>Clearly, more research is needed from the scientific community to help guide the appropriate, safe use of marijuana. However, the FDA does not recognize the use of medical marijuana. This makes funding for research on marijuana difficult to find. Perhaps the cannabis industry should consider funding scientific research on marijuana. But conflicts of interest may become a concern as we have seen with drug company-sponsored studies.</p>
By Jenny Wilkerson and Lance McMahon
Cannabidiol or CBD, has become a household name. On many social media sites, people suggest "but have you tried CBD oil?" on posts pertaining to any health-related issue.
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Facing Controversy and a Takeover, Canadian Cannabis Company Names Organic Products Mogul as Chairman
Daniel Brothers / Moment / Getty Images
Embattled Canadian cannabis company Aphria Inc. named a new, independent chairman in a press release on Dec. 27, 2018: Hain Celestial Group Inc. Founder Irwin D. Simon.
Let's start the new year off with a look at what's happening with Cannabis, a food politics topic because of its edibles.
This sponsored post was brought to you by Authority Health and written by Barrett Jones, PharmD
Cannabis oil is quickly gaining momentum in the health industry as it has become an appealing option for people who are looking for relief from pain and from other health issues.
In this article, we will be looking at what scientific studies show when it comes to how cannabis oil might treat a wide variety of common ailments.
New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo said Monday he will push to fully legalize recreational marijuana in the state as part of his agenda for the next year.
"The fact is we have had two criminal justice systems: one for the wealthy and the well off, and one for everyone else," Cuomo said in a speech about his agenda for the first 100 days of his third term, as quoted by The New York Times.
By Stephanie Garr
The topic of cannabis (marijuana) has become far less taboo in recent years, but there are still many misconceptions—and fears—about its use as a medicinal plant.
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Coke announced its interest after a report from Canada's BNN Bloomberg said the soda giant was in "serious talks" with Edmonton-based Aurora Cannabis, a medical marijuana producer and distributor, to develop drinks infused with cannabidiol, or CBD.
By Brian Barth
The federal government still considers it a crime to grow or possess cannabis, but 30 states have now legalized it to varying degrees. Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska, Nevada, Colorado, Maine and Massachusetts have decriminalized weed for recreational use, and similar legislation is under consideration elsewhere. Pardon the pun, but it is high time we talk about how to grow the stuff.
By Phillip Smith
Archeologists in China have uncovered a 2,500-year-old gravesite that contains the bones of a man draped in freshly harvested marijuana plants—with the budding tops lopped off. As first reported in National Geographic, researchers say the "extraordinary cache" helps deepen our understanding of the plant's ritual and medicinal use in ancient Eurasian cultures.
According to research findings reported in the journal Economic Botany, a team led by archeologist Hongen Jiang unearthed the burial site of a man, approximately 35 years old with Caucasian features, from a cemetery in China's Turpan Basin. At the time of the man's death, the area was known as the Gushi Kingdom and the desert oasis there was an important stop on the Silk Road.