Holiday Cheer: Drinking Wine Can Be Good for the Environment!
By Stuart Butler
Christmas is just around the corner and with it flying reindeer and over-sized turkeys, carol singing and tinsel covered trees. The holiday season also means wine-drinking (and the younger and more excited your children, the more bottles of wine you'll likely require). For those of us who imbibe, it's almost impossible to imagine a Christmas without wine. It would be like a Christmas without a fat man in a red suit trying to squeeze down the chimney.
Speaking of opening bottles of wine, I'd suggest you go and pour yourself a nice big glass and then sit down because—and I'm sorry about this—I'm about to spoil the Christmas spirit by getting all environmental and serious with you.
While wine-drinking is an ancient form of merry-making, the way we cap our bottles of wine is changing. And that could spell bad news for the plants and animals of the western Mediterranean.
That bottle of wine I just asked you to open: What was the stopper made of? Was it a traditional cork stopper? A metal cap like a bottle top? Or an easy-to-open screw cap? Not so long ago, it almost certainly would have been a cork stopper. But today that's not necessarily the case, and the ever-increasing use of synthetic wine stoppers is threatening the cork-oak forests of the western Mediterranean.
Most of the cork we use as wine bottle stoppers comes from cork-oak forests, but those forests are starting to disappear. There are a number of reasons why. Climate change, increasing forest fires and overgrazing all play a significant part in overall forest loss. But another reason for cork-oak forest decline is that synthetic wine bottle stoppers are replacing traditional cork—which has been used as a wine bottle stopper since the time of the classical Greeks. As this happens, the need for farmers to maintain cork forests decreases, and what was once biologically diverse woodland gets converted to other uses such as mono-crop farming. This might not sound like anything to get too heated up about, but take a deep sip from that glass of wine as I explain why this is alarming.
Today, the Mediterranean cork-oak forests cover some 6.6 million acres of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and North Africa. Even though the majority of these forests are privately owned and managed, in general they aren't sole-species forests like, say, a timber farm. Instead, they are very bio-diverse. Intermingled among the cork-oak (Quercus suber) are other kinds of oaks, as well as pines and sometimes even wild olive trees. More than 130 different plant species can be found within less than one square mile of a healthy cork-oak forest. But it's not just the trees and flowers that love a good cork-oak forest. Wildlife is often abundant; cork-oak forests are a critical habitat for such endangered species including the Iberian lynx, Iberian imperial eagle and Barbary apes and deer. Scientists consider Mediterranean cork-oak forests among the most bio-diverse forests in the world. The United Nations has classified them as one of the planet's "25 Biodiversity Hot Spots."
But it's not just plants and animals that benefit from cork-oak forests—people do, too. Cork-oak forests do a sterling job of absorbing all that nasty carbon dioxide we keep insisting on pumping into the atmosphere. In Portugal alone (which is the country with the largest share of cork-oak forest), some ten million tons of CO2 are absorbed by cork oak trees annually. And harvesting cork is totally sustainable. The cork is merely the spongy bark of the tree, and when harvested the tree isn't felled or killed. Instead, the cork is carefully pried off the tree in huge sheets. A new layer of cork then slowly regrows around the tree until, about nine years later, the cork can be harvested again.
With cork-oak trees living on average for 200 years, a single tree can be harvested up to 16 times. Each time the cork re-grows, it absorbs an additional 10 tons of CO2. Unfortunately, in this age it seems a tree has to do more than just help keep human civilization alive and well in order to justify its existence. It also has to generate money. Cork oaks do that as well. The European cork industry generates around €1.5 billion annually and directly employs an estimated 30,000 people (as well as many thousands more indirectly in industries like nurseries, transportation and research).
Given these various benefits, why are cork stoppers vanishing from our wine bottles and being replaced with synthetic versions? There are a couple of reasons. One is cost. It's simply cheaper to close a bottle with a screw cap or metal stopper. The bigger reason, however, is some winemakers' concern about "cork taint" in wine. Cork taint occurs when a natural compound called Trichloroanisole (or TCA) is created inside the bottle, giving wine a certain musty smell an flavor.
For many winters, wine sellers and drinkers, these two reasons have been enough to encourage a mass conversion from traditional cork to synthetic stoppers. Though the transition began some 15 years ago, few wine drinkers appear to have given the issue much thought. They should. Because it turns out though that, along with potential deforestation, there are other significant environmental problems associated with the use of synthetic wine stoppers.
According to the Cork Forest Conservation Alliance, producing one screw cap wine stopper creates 24 times more CO2 than producing one cork stopper. And while screw caps or synthetic corks require more energy to produce, a natural cork can also claim some carbon offset benefits, since the parent tree stays alive. Also, unlike natural corks, many synthetic wine stoppers are made from materials that are not biodegradable and are not sustainably sourced.
As you pour yourself that second glass of wine, maybe you're thinking, "Well okay so it's environmentally better to use natural cork stoppers, but what about the wine taint issue?" Well, here's some good news. Over the past decade the cork industry has spent significant resources improving the cork closure manufacturing process. Today wine taint from bottles closed with natural cork is down to just 1 percent. And that's something worth drinking to.
There's an old expression in Portugal that goes, "Whoever cares for their grandchildren plants a cork-oak tree." Maybe us wine drinkers in other countries should adopt and change the expression to make it our own, "Whoever cares for their grandchildren should drink wine—with a cork stopper."
Reposted with permission from our media associate SIERRA Magazine.
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By Gwen Ranniger
In the midst of a pandemic, sales of cleaning products have skyrocketed, and many feel a need to clean more often. Knowing what to look for when purchasing cleaning supplies can help prevent unwanted and dangerous toxics from entering your home.
1. Fragrance – Avoid It<p>One of the fastest ways to narrow down your product options is immediately eliminating any product that promotes a fragrance, or parfum. That scent of "fresh breeze" or lemon might initially smell good, but the fragrance does not last. What does last? The concoction of various undisclosed and unregulated chemicals that created that fragrance.</p><p>Many fragrances contain phthalates, which are linked to many health risks including reproductive problems and cancer.</p>
2. With Bleach? Do Without<p>Going scent-free should have narrowed down your options substantially – now, check the front of the remaining packaging. Any that include ammonia or chlorine bleach ought to go, as these substances are irritating and corrosive to your body. While bleach is commonly known as a powerful disinfectant, there are safer alternatives that you can use in your home, such as sodium borate or hydrogen peroxide.</p><p>While you're at it, check if there are any warnings on the label – "flammable," "use in ventilated area," etc. – if the product is hazardous, that's a red flag and should be avoided.</p>
3. Check the Back Label<p>Flip to the back of the remaining contenders and check out that ingredient list. Less is more, here. Opt for a shorter ingredient list with words you recognize and/or can pronounce.</p><p>You may notice many products do not have ingredient lists – while this doesn't necessarily mean they contain toxic ingredients, transparency is key. Feel free to look up a list online, or stick to products that are open about their ingredients.</p>
4. Ingredients to Avoid<p>We already mentioned that cleaners containing fragrance or parfum, and bleach or ammonia should be avoided, but there are other ingredients to look out for as well.</p><ul><li>Quaternary ammonium "quats" – lung irritants that contribute to asthma and other breathing problems. Also linger on surfaces long after they've been cleaned.</li><li>Parabens – Known hormone disruptor; can contribute to ailments such as cancer</li><li>Triclosan – triclosan and other antibacterial chemicals are registered with the EPA as pesticides. Triclosan is a known hormone disruptor and can also impact your immune system.</li><li>Formaldehyde – Causes irritation of eyes, nose, and throat; studies suggest formaldehyde exposure is linked with certain varieties of cancer. Can be found in products or become a byproduct of chemical reactions in the air.</li></ul>
Cleaning Products and Toxics: The Bottom Line<p>Do your research. There are many cleaning products available, but taking these steps will drastically reduce your options and help keep your home toxic-free. Protecting your home from bacteria and viruses is important, but make sure you do so in a way that doesn't introduce other health risks into the home.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.ehn.org/how-to-shop-for-cleaning-products-while-avoiding-toxics-2648130273.html" target="_blank">Environmental Health News</a>. </em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649054624#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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Twenty-five years ago, a food called Tofurky made its debut on grocery store shelves. Since then, the tofu-based roast has become a beloved part of many vegetarians' holiday feasts.
By Jessica Corbett
A leading environmental advocacy group marked Native American Heritage Month on Wednesday by urging President-elect Joe Biden, Vice President-elect Kamala Kamala Harris, and the entire incoming administration "to honor Indigenous sovereignty and immediately halt the Keystone XL, Dakota Access, and Line 3 pipelines."
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Returning the ‘Three Sisters’ – Corn, Beans and Squash – to Native American Farms Nourishes People, Land and Cultures
By Christina Gish Hill
Historians know that turkey and corn were part of the first Thanksgiving, when Wampanoag peoples shared a harvest meal with the pilgrims of Plymouth plantation in Massachusetts. And traditional Native American farming practices tell us that squash and beans likely were part of that 1621 dinner too.
Abundant Harvests<p>Historically, Native people throughout the Americas bred indigenous plant varieties specific to the growing conditions of their homelands. They selected seeds for many different traits, such as <a href="https://emergencemagazine.org/story/corn-tastes-better/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">flavor, texture and color</a>.</p><p>Native growers knew that planting corn, beans, squash and sunflowers together produced mutual benefits. Corn stalks created a trellis for beans to climb, and beans' twining vines secured the corn in high winds. They also certainly observed that corn and bean plants growing together tended to be healthier than when raised separately. Today we know the reason: Bacteria living on bean plant roots pull nitrogen – an essential plant nutrient – from the air and <a href="http://www.tilthalliance.org/learn/resources-1/almanac/october/octobermngg" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">convert it to a form that both beans and corn can use</a>.</p><p>Squash plants contributed by shading the ground with their broad leaves, preventing weeds from growing and retaining water in the soil. Heritage squash varieties also had spines that discouraged deer and raccoons from visiting the garden for a snack. And sunflowers planted around the edges of the garden created a natural fence, protecting other plants from wind and animals and attracting pollinators.</p><p>Interplanting these agricultural sisters produced bountiful harvests that sustained large Native communities and <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/eam.2015.0016" target="_blank">spurred fruitful trade economies</a>. The first Europeans who reached the Americas were shocked at the abundant food crops they found. My research is exploring how, 200 years ago, Native American agriculturalists around the Great Lakes and along the Missouri and Red rivers fed fur traders with their diverse vegetable products.</p>
Displaced From the Land<p>As Euro-Americans settled permanently on the most fertile North American lands and acquired seeds that Native growers had carefully bred, they imposed policies that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/87.2.550" target="_blank">made Native farming practices impossible</a>. In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed the <a href="https://guides.loc.gov/indian-removal-act" target="_blank">Indian Removal Act</a>, which made it official U.S. policy to force Native peoples from their home locations, pushing them onto subpar lands.</p><p>On reservations, U.S. government officials discouraged Native women from cultivating anything larger than small garden plots and pressured Native men to practice Euro-American style monoculture. Allotment policies assigned small plots to nuclear families, further limiting Native Americans' access to land and preventing them from using communal farming practices.</p><p>Native children were forced to attend boarding schools, where they had no opportunity to <a href="https://doi.org/10.5749/jamerindieduc.57.1.0145" target="_blank">learn Native agriculture techniques or preservation and preparation of Indigenous foods</a>. Instead they were forced to eat Western foods, turning their palates away from their traditional preferences. Taken together, these policies <a href="https://kansaspress.ku.edu/978-0-7006-0802-7.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">almost entirely eradicated three sisters agriculture</a> from Native communities in the Midwest by the 1930s.</p>
Reviving Native Agriculture<p>Today Native people all over the U.S. are working diligently to <a href="https://www.oupress.com/books/15107980/indigenous-food-sovereignty-in-the-united-sta" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">reclaim Indigenous varieties of corn, beans, squash, sunflowers and other crops</a>. This effort is important for many reasons.</p><p>Improving Native people's access to healthy, culturally appropriate foods will help lower rates of <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/aian-diabetes/index.html" target="_blank">diabetes</a> and <a href="https://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/ethnicity-health/native-american/obesity" target="_blank">obesity</a>, which affect Native Americans at disproportionately high rates. Sharing traditional knowledge about agriculture is a way for elders to pass cultural information along to younger generations. Indigenous growing techniques also protect the lands that Native nations now inhabit, and can potentially benefit the wider ecosystems around them.</p>
By Jake Johnson
Amid reports that oil industry-friendly former Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz remains under consideration to return to his old post in the incoming Biden administration, a diverse coalition of environmental groups is mobilizing for an "all-out push" to keep Moniz away from the White House and demand a cabinet willing to boldly confront the corporations responsible for the climate emergency.