Why This Omega-3 Fatty Acid Is Critical to Your Diet
By Adda Bjarnadottir
It is a part of every cell in your body, plays a vital role in your brain and is absolutely crucial during pregnancy and infancy. Since your body can't produce it in adequate amounts, it's essential to get it from your diet.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the most important omega-3 fatty acids.Photo credit: Shutterstock
This article explains everything you need to know about DHA.
What is DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)?
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid.
It's 22 carbons long, has 6 double bonds and is mainly found in seafood, such as fish, shellfish, fish oils and some types of algae.
Technically, it can be synthesized from another plant-based omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). However, this process is very inefficient and only 0.1–0.5 percent of ALA is converted into DHA in your body (6, 7, 8, 9, 10).
Because your body can't make DHA in significant amounts, you need to get it from your diet or supplements.
Bottom Line: DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid that is vital for your skin, eyes and brain. Your body can't produce it in adequate amounts, so you need to get it from your diet.
How Does it Work?
DHA is an unsaturated fatty acid with 6 double bonds. This means it's very flexible.
It's mainly located in cell membranes, where it makes the membranes and gaps between cells more fluid (14).
This makes it easier for cells to send and receive electrical signals, which is their way of communicating (15).
Therefore, adequate levels of DHA seem to make it easier, quicker and more efficient for cells to communicate.
Having low levels in your brain or eyes may slow the signaling between cells, resulting in poor eyesight or altered brain function.
Bottom Line: DHA makes the membranes and gaps between cells more fluid, making it easier for cells to communicate.
Top Food Sources of DHA
DHA is mainly found in seafood, such as fish, shellfish and algae.
Some fish oils, such as cod liver oil, can provide as much as 1 gram of DHA in one tablespoon (10–15 ml) (17).
Just keep in mind that fish oils may also be high in vitamin A, which can be harmful in large amounts.
However, it may be hard to get enough from your diet alone. So if you don't regularly eat the foods mentioned above, taking a supplement may be a good idea.
Bottom Line: DHA is mostly found in fatty fish, shellfish, fish oils and algae. Grass-fed meat, dairy and omega-3 enriched eggs may also contain small amounts.
Effects on the Brain
DHA is the most abundant omega-3 in your brain and plays a critical role in its development and function.
It Plays a Major Role in Brain Development
DHA intake during the third trimester of pregnancy determines the baby's levels, with the greatest accumulation occurring in the brain during the first few months of life (3).
These parts of the brain are responsible for processing information, memories and emotions. They are also important for sustained attention, planning and problem solving, as well as social, emotional and behavioral development (4, 5, 23).
In animals, decreased DHA in a developing brain leads to a reduced amount of new nerve cells and altered nerve function. It also impairs learning and eyesight (24).
Bottom Line: DHA is essential for brain and eye development. A deficiency in early life is linked to learning disabilities, ADHD and other disorders.
It May Have Benefits for the Aging Brain
Interestingly, many of these changes are also seen when DHA levels decrease.
Bottom Line: A DHA deficiency may disrupt brain function. Supplements may improve memory, learning and verbal fluency for certain people.
Low Levels Are Linked to Brain Diseases
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in older people.
Studies show that higher blood DHA levels are linked to a reduced risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's (56).
Bottom Line: Low DHA levels are linked to an increased risk of developing memory complaints, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Effects on Eyes and Vision
DHA is a very important membrane component in the eye. It helps activate a protein called rhodopsin, a membrane protein in the rods of the eye.
Bottom Line: DHA is important for vision and various functions inside the eye. A deficiency may cause vision problems in children.
Effects on Heart Health
Omega-3 fatty acids have generally been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease.
This applies especially to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids found in fatty fish and fish oils, such as EPA and DHA.
Their intake can improve many risk factors for heart disease, including:
- Blood triglycerides: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may reduce blood triglycerides by up to 30 percent (65, 66, 67, 68, 69).
- Blood pressure: The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils and fatty fish may reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure (70, 71, 72).
- Cholesterol levels: Fish oils and omega-3s may lower total cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol in people with high cholesterol levels (73, 74, 75).
- Endothelial function: DHA may protect against endothelial dysfunction, which is a leading driver of heart disease (76, 77, 78, 79).
Bottom Line: DHA may reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering blood triglycerides and blood pressure, improving cholesterol levels and protecting against endothelial dysfunction.
Other Health Benefits
DHA may also protect against the development of other diseases, including:
- Arthritis: It reduces inflammation in the body and may alleviate the pain and inflammation in the joints of people with arthritis (80, 81).
- Cancer: It may make it more difficult for cancer cells to survive. It may also cause them to die via programmed cell death (82, 83, 84, 85, 86).
- Asthma: It may reduce asthma symptoms, possibly by blocking mucus secretion and reducing blood pressure (87, 88, 89).
Bottom Line: DHA may also help with conditions like arthritis and asthma, as well as prevent the growth of cancer cells.
DHA is Especially Important During Pregnancy, Lactation and Childhood
DHA is critical during the last months of pregnancy and early in a baby's life.
Animal studies show that DHA-deficient diets during pregnancy, lactation and weaning limit the supply to the infant's brain to only about 20 percent of normal levels (94).
Deficiency is associated with changes in brain function, including learning disabilities, changes in gene expression and impaired vision (24).
Bottom Line: During pregnancy and early life, DHA is vital for the formation of structures in the brain and eyes.
How Much DHA Do You Need?
Children up to the age of two may need 4.5–5.5 mg/lb (10–12 mg/kg) of body weight, while older children may need up to 250 mg per day (104).
Interestingly, curcumin—the active compound in turmeric—may enhance DHA absorption in the body. It's linked with many health benefits and animal studies have shown that it may boost DHA levels in the brain (109, 110).
Therefore, curcumin may be helpful when supplementing with DHA.
Bottom Line: Adults should get 250–500 mg of combined EPA and DHA daily, while children should get 4.5–5.5 mg/lb (10–12 mg/kg) of body weight.
Considerations and Adverse Effects
DHA supplements are usually well tolerated, even in large doses.
However, omega-3s are generally anti-inflammatory and may thin the blood (111).
Consequently, too much omega-3 may cause blood thinning or excessive bleeding.
If you are planning surgery, you should stop supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids a week or two beforehand.
Also make sure to speak with a doctor before taking omega-3s if you have a blood clotting disorder or take blood thinning medication.
Bottom Line: Like other omega-3 fatty acids, DHA may cause blood thinning. You should avoid taking omega-3 supplements 1-2 weeks before surgery.
Take Home Message
DHA is a vital part of every cell in your body, especially the cells in your brain and eyes.
It's also an essential part of brain development and function. What's more, it may affect the speed and quality of communication between nerve cells.
Furthermore, DHA is important for your eyes and it may reduce many risk factors for developing heart disease.
If you suspect you're not getting enough in your diet, consider taking an omega-3 supplement. It is one of the few supplements that may actually be worth the money.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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- Your gut is home to trillions of bacteria that are vital for keeping you healthy.
- Some of these microbes help to regulate the immune system.
- New research, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, shows the presence of certain bacteria in the gut may reveal which people are more vulnerable to a more severe case of COVID-19.
You may not know it, but you have an army of microbes living inside of you that are essential for fighting off threats, including the virus that causes COVID-19.
How Do Resident Bacteria Keep You Healthy?<p>Our immune defense is part of a complex biological response against harmful pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria. However, because our bodies are inhabited by trillions of mostly beneficial bacteria, virus and fungi, activation of our immune response is tightly regulated to distinguish between harmful and helpful microbes.</p><p>Our bacteria are spectacular companions diligently helping prime our immune system defenses to combat infections. A seminal study found that mice treated with antibiotics that eliminate bacteria in the gut exhibited an impaired immune response. These animals had low counts of virus-fighting white blood cells, weak antibody responses and poor production of a protein that is vital for <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019378108" target="_blank">combating viral infection and modulating the immune response</a>.</p><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184976" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">In another study</a>, mice were fed <em>Lactobacillus</em> bacteria, commonly used as probiotic in fermented food. These microbes reduced the severity of influenza infection. The <em>Lactobacillus</em>-treated mice did not lose weight and had only mild lung damage compared with untreated mice. Similarly, others have found that treatment of mice with <em>Lactobacillus</em> protects against different <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/srep04638" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">subtypes of</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17487-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">influenza</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008072" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">virus</a> and human respiratory syncytial virus – the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39602-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">major cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children</a>.</p>
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Thus, researchers like me need to take repeated patient stool, saliva and blood samples over a longer time frame to learn how the altered microbiome observed in COVID-19 patients can modulate COVID-19 disease severity, perhaps by altering the development of the T-regulatory cells.</p><p>As a Latina scientist investigating interactions between diet, microbiome and immunity, I must stress the importance of better policies to improve access to healthy foods, which lead to a healthier microbiome. It is also important to design culturally sensitive dietary interventions for Black and Latinx communities. While a good-quality diet might not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, it can treat the underlying conditions related to its severity.</p><p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/ana-maldonado-contreras-1152969" target="_blank">Ana Maldonado-Contreras</a> is an assistant professor of Microbiology and Physiological Systems at the University of Massachusetts Medical School.</em></p><p><em>Disclosure statement: Ana Maldonado-Contreras receives funding from The Helmsley Charitable Trust and her work has been supported by the American Gastroenterological Association. She received The Charles A. King Trust Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. She is also member of the Diversity Committee of the American Gastroenterological Association.</em></p><p><em style="">Reposted with permission from <a href="https://theconversation.com/a-healthy-microbiome-builds-a-strong-immune-system-that-could-help-defeat-covid-19-145668" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" style="">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>
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