Watch Racing Extinction: It Will Change the Way You View the World
On Dec. 2, 2015, Discovery Channel premiered Louis Psihoyos' new film, Racing Extinction, in 220 countries around the world. This riveting film covers the planet's sixth and currently ongoing mass extinction, named the Anthropocene Extinction, which is largely the result of mankind. Psihoyos details what many scientists and experts believe are the causes behind this vast dying off of the world's species—the international wildlife trade and the fossil fuel industry. His goal is to unveil the horrific events damaging our planet's health and wildlife, but boiled down to digestible bites to promote education and action.
Psihoyos won an Oscar for his 2009 film, The Cove, a feature-length documentary that goes undercover to expose the yearly killing of dolphins in Taiji, Japan. In order to document the dolphin hunt, they had to employ tactics and technology never before used in a documentary. The film sparked worldwide reaction, but most importantly, Taiji's annual cull of 23,000 dolphins is believed to have dropped to 6,000. This was the first film for Psihoyos' Oceanic Preservation Society, which he cofounded in 2005.
In their second film, Racing Extinction, special focus is brought to marine life again but on a wider scale, exposing China's shark fin and manta ray gill trade as well as the greater threat of oceanic acidification, the evil twin of climate change, contributed to by the burning of fossil fuels. In order to uncover the truth behind the wildlife trade, he and his team go undercover in life-threatening situations, using covert-operations and false identities to infiltrate an enormous Chinese seafood wholesaler and to bust a Los Angeles restaurant for illegally selling whale meat. In a more hopeful scene, we are shown how change can happen, when a small Indonesian village is taught how to capitalize on a more lucrative tourism-driven economy, as opposed to the devastating hunting of manta ray to supply China's appetite for animal parts that are falsely believed to have medicinal benefits.
In addition to the wildlife trade, manmade global warming from greenhouse gas emissions is contributing to a breakdown in the natural systems that support all life. Racing Extinction features interviews with prominent scientists like Dr. Stuart Pimm, a conservation ecologist at Duke University, warning us that half of all species will be extinct within 100 years if humanity does not change its ways. Wildlife simply cannot adapt to unprecedented changes in not only temperature, but weather, ocean chemistry and atmospheric composition. To illustrate the enormity of this problem, the team drives through Los Angeles with a specially-designed high-definition FLIR camera making carbon dioxide and methane emissions visible to the general public for the first time.
Racing Extinction is full of cloak-and-dagger eco-activist operations, stunning visuals from iconic photographer Joel Sartore and features a one-of-its-kind Tesla driven by race-car driver Leilani Munter. Sartore, a National Geographic photographer, has captured on film 5,500 of the world's most endangered species in captivity for his Photo Ark. Combining this incredible group of highly-skilled people with an action-packed approach, Psihoyos seeks to break barriers in the documentary genre and reach new audiences.
Interviewed by EcoWatch's Stefanie Spear, Psihoyos describes that “with a film you can have a chance to change somebody's heart and that's what we want to do. The science shows that you don't change behavior by getting people to think differently, you change people's behavior by getting them to feel differently. That's what we're doing with this film, first we break people down, get people to have a little bit more compassion for other species and then build it up from there so they internalize that hey I'm responsible for this."
Louie Psihoyos' passion is palpable and it's impossible to not be infected with it in his presence. He photographed for National Geographic for 17 years, sending him around the world dozens of times. During his tenure there, he produced four stories for National Geographic Magazine on extinction, most notably about dinosaurs. He went on to write and photograph the book Hunting Dinosaurs with John Knoebber.
Leading up to the premiere, Psihoyos and his team engaged in an educational campaign to bring awareness by projecting images of critically endangered species onto public buildings including the Empire State Building, UN Headquarters and the Vatican. Featured in this campaign, is Toughie, a Rabbs fringe-limbed tree frog, who is sadly believed to be the last of his kind. Toughie actually lives at the Atlanta Botanical Garden in a special containment area called the "frogPOD." By sharing pictures of Toughie and other endangered animals he hopes to lift the curtain and show people how dire the situation has become for many of the Earth's creatures.
Combined with this educational effort is his #StartWith1Thing social media campaign. I love this approach because I'm often asked the very question which #StartWith1Thing is trying to answer—“The problem is so big, what can I possibly do?" Change starts with each one of us where we live and big change happens with the accumulation of many small actions.
Many people who grew up with the Captain Planet cartoons have told me that's where they learned to take responsible actions to make our communities better like recycling, conserving energy and water, restoring endangered species habitats and using less harmful chemicals. Instilling intentional mindfulness is key to becoming a steward of the environment, because it's not enough to just be concerned, you have to do something. RacingExtinction.com offers clear and easy resources on where to start with your one thing and there's something for everyone. You can learn how to find green power in your state, download the Seafood Watch app to make smarter choices or learn how to protect endangered species. I often tell people reducing resource consumption especially disposable items like straws, is a great place to start with your one thing.
Don't worry if you missed Racing Extinction in theaters or the world premiere on Discovery, there are still plenty of ways to watch this must-see film. It's available on DVD, iTunes, Amazon, Google Play, local Screenings, or you can sign up to host a House Viewing Party. Just go to RacingExtinction.com for links and information on how to watch.
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By Eric Tate and Christopher Emrich
Disasters stemming from hazards like floods, wildfires, and disease often garner attention because of their extreme conditions and heavy societal impacts. Although the nature of the damage may vary, major disasters are alike in that socially vulnerable populations often experience the worst repercussions. For example, we saw this following Hurricanes Katrina and Harvey, each of which generated widespread physical damage and outsized impacts to low-income and minority survivors.
Mapping Social Vulnerability<p>Figure 1a is a typical map of social vulnerability across the United States at the census tract level based on the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) algorithm of <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002" target="_blank"><em>Cutter et al.</em></a> . Spatial representation of the index depicts high social vulnerability regionally in the Southwest, upper Great Plains, eastern Oklahoma, southern Texas, and southern Appalachia, among other places. With such a map, users can focus attention on select places and identify population characteristics associated with elevated vulnerabilities.</p>
Fig. 1. (a) Social vulnerability across the United States at the census tract scale is mapped here following the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). Red and pink hues indicate high social vulnerability. (b) This bivariate map depicts social vulnerability (blue hues) and annualized per capita hazard losses (pink hues) for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2019.<p>Many current indexes in the United States and abroad are direct or conceptual offshoots of SoVI, which has been widely replicated [e.g., <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-016-0090-9" target="_blank"><em>de Loyola Hummell et al.</em></a>, 2016]. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) <a href="https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/placeandhealth/svi/index.html" target="_blank">has also developed</a> a commonly used social vulnerability index intended to help local officials identify communities that may need support before, during, and after disasters.</p><p>The first modeling and mapping efforts, starting around the mid-2000s, largely focused on describing spatial distributions of social vulnerability at varying geographic scales. Over time, research in this area came to emphasize spatial comparisons between social vulnerability and physical hazards [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-009-9376-1" target="_blank"><em>Wood et al.</em></a>, 2010], modeling population dynamics following disasters [<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11111-008-0072-y" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Myers et al.</em></a>, 2008], and quantifying the robustness of social vulnerability measures [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0152-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Tate</em></a>, 2012].</p><p>More recent work is beginning to dissolve barriers between social vulnerability and environmental justice scholarship [<a href="https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304846" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Chakraborty et al.</em></a>, 2019], which has traditionally focused on root causes of exposure to pollution hazards. Another prominent new research direction involves deeper interrogation of social vulnerability drivers in specific hazard contexts and disaster phases (e.g., before, during, after). Such work has revealed that interactions among drivers are important, but existing case studies are ill suited to guiding development of new indicators [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.09.013" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Rufat et al.</em></a>, 2015].</p><p>Advances in geostatistical analyses have enabled researchers to characterize interactions more accurately among social vulnerability and hazard outcomes. Figure 1b depicts social vulnerability and annualized per capita hazard losses for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2019, facilitating visualization of the spatial coincidence of pre‑event susceptibilities and hazard impacts. Places ranked high in both dimensions may be priority locations for management interventions. Further, such analysis provides invaluable comparisons between places as well as information summarizing state and regional conditions.</p><p>In Figure 2, we take the analysis of interactions a step further, dividing counties into two categories: those experiencing annual per capita losses above or below the national average from 2010 to 2019. The differences among individual race, ethnicity, and poverty variables between the two county groups are small. But expressing race together with poverty (poverty attenuated by race) produces quite different results: Counties with high hazard losses have higher percentages of both impoverished Black populations and impoverished white populations than counties with low hazard losses. These county differences are most pronounced for impoverished Black populations.</p>
Fig. 2. Differences in population percentages between counties experiencing annual per capita losses above or below the national average from 2010 to 2019 for individual and compound social vulnerability indicators (race and poverty).<p>Our current work focuses on social vulnerability to floods using geostatistical modeling and mapping. The research directions are twofold. The first is to develop hazard-specific indicators of social vulnerability to aid in mitigation planning [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04470-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Tate et al.</em></a>, 2021]. Because natural hazards differ in their innate characteristics (e.g., rate of onset, spatial extent), causal processes (e.g., urbanization, meteorology), and programmatic responses by government, manifestations of social vulnerability vary across hazards.</p><p>The second is to assess the degree to which socially vulnerable populations benefit from the leading disaster recovery programs [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2019.1675578" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Emrich et al.</em></a>, 2020], such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) <a href="https://www.fema.gov/individual-disaster-assistance" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Individual Assistance</a> program and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) <a href="https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/cdbg-dr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Disaster Recovery</a> program. Both research directions posit social vulnerability indicators as potential measures of social equity.</p>
Social Vulnerability as a Measure of Equity<p>Given their focus on social marginalization and economic barriers, social vulnerability indicators are attracting growing scientific interest as measures of inequity resulting from disasters. Indeed, social vulnerability and inequity are related concepts. Social vulnerability research explores the differential susceptibilities and capacities of disaster-affected populations, whereas social equity analyses tend to focus on population disparities in the allocation of resources for hazard mitigation and disaster recovery. Interventions with an equity focus emphasize full and equal resource access for all people with unmet disaster needs.</p><p>Yet newer studies of inequity in disaster programs have documented troubling disparities in income, race, and home ownership among those who <a href="https://eos.org/articles/equity-concerns-raised-in-federal-flood-property-buyouts" target="_blank">participate in flood buyout programs</a>, are <a href="https://www.eenews.net/stories/1063477407" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">eligible for postdisaster loans</a>, receive short-term recovery assistance [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.102010" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Drakes et al.</em></a>, 2021], and have <a href="https://www.texastribune.org/2020/08/25/texas-natural-disasters--mental-health/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">access to mental health services</a>. For example, a recent analysis of federal flood buyouts found racial privilege to be infused at multiple program stages and geographic scales, resulting in resources that disproportionately benefit whiter and more urban counties and neighborhoods [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023120905439" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Elliott et al.</em></a>, 2020].</p><p>Investments in disaster risk reduction are largely prioritized on the basis of hazard modeling, historical impacts, and economic risk. Social equity, meanwhile, has been far less integrated into the considerations of public agencies for hazard and disaster management. But this situation may be beginning to shift. Following the adage of "what gets measured gets managed," social equity metrics are increasingly being inserted into disaster management.</p><p>At the national level, FEMA has <a href="https://www.fema.gov/news-release/20200220/fema-releases-affordability-framework-national-flood-insurance-program" target="_blank">developed options</a> to increase the affordability of flood insurance [Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2018]. At the subnational scale, Puerto Rico has integrated social vulnerability into its CDBG Mitigation Action Plan, expanding its considerations of risk beyond only economic factors. At the local level, Harris County, Texas, has begun using social vulnerability indicators alongside traditional measures of flood risk to introduce equity into the prioritization of flood mitigation projects [<a href="https://www.hcfcd.org/Portals/62/Resilience/Bond-Program/Prioritization-Framework/final_prioritization-framework-report_20190827.pdf?ver=2019-09-19-092535-743" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Harris County Flood Control District</em></a>, 2019].</p><p>Unfortunately, many existing measures of disaster equity fall short. They may be unidimensional, using single indicators such as income in places where underlying vulnerability processes suggest that a multidimensional measure like racialized poverty (Figure 2) would be more valid. And criteria presumed to be objective and neutral for determining resource allocation, such as economic loss and cost-benefit ratios, prioritize asset value over social equity. For example, following the <a href="http://www.cedar-rapids.org/discover_cedar_rapids/flood_of_2008/2008_flood_facts.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2008 flooding</a> in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, cost-benefit criteria supported new flood protections for the city's central business district on the east side of the Cedar River but not for vulnerable populations and workforce housing on the west side.</p><p>Furthermore, many equity measures are aspatial or ahistorical, even though the roots of marginalization may lie in systemic and spatially explicit processes that originated long ago like redlining and urban renewal. More research is thus needed to understand which measures are most suitable for which social equity analyses.</p>
Challenges for Disaster Equity Analysis<p>Across studies that quantify, map, and analyze social vulnerability to natural hazards, modelers have faced recurrent measurement challenges, many of which also apply in measuring disaster equity (Table 1). The first is clearly establishing the purpose of an equity analysis by defining characteristics such as the end user and intended use, the type of hazard, and the disaster stage (i.e., mitigation, response, or recovery). Analyses using generalized indicators like the CDC Social Vulnerability Index may be appropriate for identifying broad areas of concern, whereas more detailed analyses are ideal for high-stakes decisions about budget allocations and project prioritization.</p>
By Jessica Corbett
Sen. Bernie Sanders on Tuesday was the lone progressive to vote against Tom Vilsack reprising his role as secretary of agriculture, citing concerns that progressive advocacy groups have been raising since even before President Joe Biden officially nominated the former Obama administration appointee.