The best of EcoWatch, right in your inbox. Sign up for our email newsletter!
Scientists have identified four new species of walking shark in the waters off Australia and New Guinea.
While that might sound like the stuff of horror films, researchers say that the foot-long fish, which have evolved to use their fins to walk on land or in shallow water, are actually adorable.
"They're incredibly cute little animals and are really more like a gecko walking around than a shark," Mark Erdmann, a coral reef ecologist at the California Academy of Sciences and vice president of the Asia-Pacific Field Division of Conservation International, told VICE.
Erdmann was part of a team of scientists who spent 12 years studying the walking sharks. Their efforts, published in Marine and Freshwater Research Tuesday, nearly doubled the number of known species, raising it from five to nine, the University of Queensland reported.
The walking sharks all belong to the genus Hemiscyllium, according to Science Alert. The sharks have evolved to succeed in their unique coral reef environment and hunt during low tides.
"At less than a metre long on average, walking sharks present no threat to people but their ability to withstand low oxygen environments and walk on their fins gives them a remarkable edge over their prey of small crustaceans and molluscs," study coauthor Dr. Christine Dudgeon of the University of Queensland said in the press release.
The researchers used tissue samples taken from live sharks to determine that DNA linked the new shark species to the Hemiscyllium genus, according to Science Alert.
DNA testing also revealed that the walking sharks are the youngest type of shark on Earth, VICE reported.
"With our molecular clock, we've been able to show that this group really only branched off from their nearest ancestor about nine million years ago and they've been actively radiating ever since," Erdmann told VICE. "Obviously in human terms, that still seems like a long time ago, but for sharks, and for speciation in general, that's actually very recent."
Dudgeon explained in the press release how the sharks may have ended up in their current form and their current location:
"Data suggests the new species evolved after the sharks moved away from their original population, became genetically isolated in new areas and developed into new species," she said.
"They may have moved by swimming or walking on their fins, but it's also possible they 'hitched' a ride on reefs moving westward across the top of New Guinea, about two million years ago."
Because each species has a very small, unique range, they are vulnerable to natural disasters like volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, as well as human pressures like habitat loss and their increasing desirability for aquariums, VICE reported. Three of the nine species have been added to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List.
At the same time, the researchers don't think they have yet accounted for every species of walking shark out there.
"We believe there are more walking shark species still waiting to be discovered," Dudgeon said in the press release.
- Hundreds of Sharks and Rays Entangled in Plastic Debris, Study Finds ›
- How to Protect Sharks From Overfishing - EcoWatch ›
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Charli Shield
At unsettling times like the coronavirus outbreak, it might feel like things are very much out of your control. Most routines have been thrown into disarray and the future, as far as the experts tell us, is far from certain.
By Elizabeth Henderson
Farmworkers, farmers and their organizations around the country have been singing the same tune for years on the urgent need for immigration reform. That harmony turns to discord as soon as you get down to details on how to get it done, what to include and what compromises you are willing to make. Case in point: the Farm Workforce Modernization Act (H.R. 5038), which passed in the House of Representatives on Dec. 11, 2019, by a vote of 260-165. The Senate received the bill the next day and referred it to the Committee on the Judiciary, where it remains. Two hundred and fifty agriculture and labor groups signed on to the United Farm Workers' (UFW) call for support for H.R. 5038. UFW President Arturo Rodriguez rejoiced:
By Julia Conley
A council representing more than 800,000 doctors across the U.S. signed a letter Friday imploring President Donald Trump to reverse his call for businesses to reopen by April 12, warning that the president's flouting of the guidance of public health experts could jeopardize the health of millions of Americans and throw hospitals into even more chaos as they fight the coronavirus pandemic.
By Melissa Kravitz Hoeffner
Over six gallons of water are required to produce one gallon of wine. "Irrigation, sprays, and frost protection all [used in winemaking] require a lot of water," explained winemaker and sommelier Keith Wallace, who's also a professor and the founder of the Wine School of Philadelphia, the largest independent wine school in the U.S. And water waste is just the start of the climate-ruining inefficiencies commonplace in the wine industry. Sustainably speaking, climate change could be problematic for your favorite glass of wine.