Coming up with healthy snack ideas that fit a vegan diet can be challenging.
This is because the vegan diet includes only plant foods and excludes all animal products, limiting the selection of snack foods.
Luckily, countless combinations of plant foods can make up healthy and satisfying snacks—whether you eat fully vegan or are simply interested in reducing animal products in your diet.
Here are 24 healthy vegan snacks that are both tasty and nutritious.
1. Fruit and Nut Butter
Fruit and nut butter, made from blended nuts, is a delicious vegan snack with many nutritional benefits.
For the most nutritional benefits, make sure to select a nut butter without added sugar, oil or salt.
2. Guacamole and Crackers
Guacamole is a vegan dip usually made from avocado, onion, garlic and lime juice.
You can prepare your own guacamole or purchase a premade version without added salt or sugar. Choose 100% whole-grain crackers to pair with guacamole for a healthy vegan snack.
3. Edamame With Sea Salt
Edamame is the name for immature soybeans in their pod.
You can prepare edamame by boiling or steaming the pods or by thawing them in your microwave. Sprinkle the warm pods with a little sea salt or soy sauce before chewing on them gently to eat the beans inside.
4. Trail Mix
Trail mix is a plant-based snack that typically includes nuts, seeds and dried fruit. Some varieties also have chocolate, coconut, crackers or whole grains.
Depending on the ingredients, trail mix can be a good source of protein, healthy fats and fiber (8).
However, some varieties may not be vegan or may contain added sugar, salt and oil. To avoid these ingredients, you can easily make your own trail mix by combining your favorite plant-based ingredients.
5. Roasted Chickpeas
Chickpeas, also known as garbanzo beans, are spherical and slightly yellow legumes.
Roasted chickpeas are a delicious vegan snack. You can make your own by tossing canned chickpeas in olive oil and seasonings, spreading them on a baking sheet and baking them for 40 minutes or until crunchy at 450°F (230°C).
6. Fruit Leather
Fruit leather is made from fruit puree that has been thinly flattened, dried and sliced.
It has similar nutrients to the fresh fruit from which it is made and is usually high in fiber, vitamins and minerals. However, some packaged fruit leathers have added sugar or color and are not as nutritious as homemade varieties (10).
To make your own, puree fruits of your choice and mix with lemon juice and maple syrup if preferred. Spread the puree in a thin layer on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper and dry it in a dehydrator or in your oven at 140°F (60°C) for approximately six hours.
7. Rice Cakes and Avocado
Rice cakes are a snack food similar to crackers. They're made from puffed rice that has been packed together and shaped into circles.
Rice cakes topped with avocado is a balanced vegan snack with both healthy fats and fiber. You can sprinkle the rice cakes with toasted sesame seeds for extra crunch and flavor.
8. Hummus and Veggies
Hummus is a vegan dip made from chickpeas, oil, lemon juice, garlic and a sesame seed paste called tahini.
It is high in fiber, healthy fats, B vitamins and vitamin C. Homemade versions are generally more nutritious than commercially prepared hummus that may have added vegetable oils and preservatives (12, 13).
You can pair homemade or store-bought hummus with carrot, celery, cucumber, radishes and other raw vegetables for a healthy and crunchy vegan snack.
9. Fruit and Veggie Smoothies
Smoothies are an excellent on-the-go snack for vegans.
Popular smoothie ingredients include fruits and veggies, which are rich in vitamins and minerals. You can easily make your own smoothie by blending plant-based milk or water with your favorite fruits and vegetables, including bananas, berries, spinach and kale.
10. Oatmeal With Fruit, Nuts or Seeds
Oatmeal is made by heating oats with liquid. It's commonly eaten as a breakfast food but can be enjoyed at any time of the day for a quick and healthy vegan snack.
It's high in fiber, iron, magnesium and several other vitamins and minerals. Cooking oatmeal with unsweetened almond milk and adding sliced fruit and nuts or seeds can boost the nutrient content (16).
The healthiest way to prepare oatmeal is to make your own or choose instant options without added sugars or salt.
11. Salsa and Homemade Tortilla Chips
Salsa is typically made from chopped tomatoes, onions, lime juice, salt and seasonings.
Salsa is commonly eaten with tortilla chips, but store-bought chips are often made with vegetable oil and excess salt. To make your own, simply slice a few tortillas, brush them with olive oil and bake for 15 minutes at 350°F (175°C).
12. Popcorn With Nutritional Yeast
Popcorn is made by heating dried corn kernels. It can be prepared in an air popper, microwave or a kettle with oil on the stove.
When popcorn is made in an air popper, it can be a highly nutritious vegan snack. A two-cup serving (16 grams) has close to 10% of the DV for fiber at only 62 calories (19).
Adding nutritional yeast can boost the nutrition of popcorn even more. This flakey yellow yeast is a high-quality plant protein and usually fortified with zinc and B vitamins. It has a savory taste that some people compare to cheese (20).
13. Homemade Granola
There are many types of granola, but most contain oats, nuts or seeds, dried fruits, spices and a sweetener.
Many store-bought granolas are laden with added sugar and vegetable oil. On the other hand, homemade varieties can be a healthy vegan snack rich in fiber, protein and healthy fats (21).
To make your own granola, combine old-fashioned oats, almonds, pumpkin seeds, raisins and cinnamon with melted coconut oil and maple syrup. Spread out the mixture on a lined baking sheet and bake for 30–40 minutes at low heat in your oven.
14. Fruit and Nut Bars
Fruit and nut bars are an easy on-the-go snack that can be very nutritious.
Brands that have vegan bar options include LaraBars, GoMacro Bars and KIND Bars. A Cashew Cookie LaraBar (48 grams) has five grams of protein, 6% of the DV for potassium and 8% of the DV for iron (22).
You can also make your own fruit and nut bars by combining 1–2 cups (125–250 grams) of nuts, one cup (175 grams) of dried fruit and 1/4 cup (85 grams) of maple or brown rice syrup.
Spread this mixture in a greased 8-inch (20-cm) baking pan and bake for approximately 20 minutes at 325°F (165°C).
15. White Bean Dip and Homemade Pita Chips
White bean dip is typically made by blending white or cannellini beans with olive oil, lemon juice, garlic and fresh herbs.
White beans have an impressive nutrient profile, packing approximately five grams of protein, over 10% of the DV for iron and four grams of fiber in just 1/4 cup (50 grams) (23).
Pairing pita chips with white bean dip makes for a healthy vegan snack. You can make homemade pita chips by slicing whole grain pitas, brushing them with olive oil and baking them for 10 minutes at 400°F (205°C).
16. Peanut Butter and Banana Bites
Peanut butter and banana is a popular and healthy snack combination.
To make peanut butter and banana bites, slice a banana into thin pieces and spread a layer of peanut butter in between two slices. These treats taste especially delicious when frozen for at least 30 minutes on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper in your freezer.
17. Dried Coconut and Dark Chocolate
For a healthy vegan snack that will also satisfy your sweet tooth, try eating dried coconut with a few squares of dark chocolate.
Dried coconut is made from dehydrated coconut flakes or pieces. Unsweetened varieties are incredibly nutritious, packing 18% of the DV for fiber in just one ounce (28 grams) (25).
As an added bonus, dark chocolate that is at least 65% cacao provides plant compounds and may have a number of health benefits. To make sure your dark chocolate is vegan, look for brands that do not contain any animal products (26).
18. Baked Veggie Chips
Baked veggie chips made from sliced vegetables, dehydrated or baked at low temperatures, are a delicious vegan snack.
Depending on the type of vegetable, baked veggie chips provide a variety of nutrients. For example, dehydrated carrots are loaded with vitamin A while baked beet chips are rich in potassium and folate (27, 28).
You can make your own vegetable chips by baking thinly sliced veggies at 200–250°F (90–120°C) for 30–60 minutes.
19. Spiced Nuts
All nuts are an incredibly nutritious vegan snack option. For example, just one ounce (23 grams) of almonds has six grams of protein, over 12% of the DV for fiber and several vitamins and minerals (29).
Nuts are especially delicious when coated in spices. You can buy spiced nuts at most grocery stores. To make homemade spiced nuts, toss your preferred variety in olive oil and seasonings before baking the mix for 15–20 minutes at 350°F (175°C).
20. Seaweed Crisps
Seaweed crisps are made from sheets of seaweed that have been baked, sliced into squares and seasoned with salt.
They're a vegan, low-calorie snack loaded with folate (vitamin B9), fiber and vitamins A and C. Seaweed is also an excellent source of iodine, a nutrient that naturally occurs in seawater and is vital to proper thyroid functioning (30, 31, 32).
When purchasing seaweed crisps, look for varieties with minimal ingredients, such as SeaSnax, which only contains seaweed, olive oil and salt.
21. No-Bake Energy Balls
Energy balls refer to bite-size snacks that are typically made from a mix of oats, nuts, seeds, nut butter, dried fruit, maple syrup and occasionally chocolate chips or other add-ins.
To make homemade energy balls, you can combine one cup (90 grams) of old-fashioned oats, 1/2 cup (125 grams) of peanut butter, 1/3 cup (113 grams) maple syrup, two tablespoons of hemp seeds and two tablespoons of raisins.
Divide and roll the batter into balls and store in your refrigerator.
22. Ants on a Log
Ants on a log is the name of a popular snack made from celery sticks stuffed with peanut butter and raisins.
This vegan treat is rich in fiber from celery, healthy fats from peanut butter and vitamins and minerals from the raisins (33).
To make ants on a log, simply slice a few stalks of celery into pieces, add peanut butter and sprinkle with raisins.
23. Almond-Butter-Stuffed Dried Dates
Dates are chewy, brown fruits that grow on palm trees and have a sweet and nutty flavor.
They contain natural sugars and fiber that can give you a quick boost of energy. In fact, one date has approximately 18 grams of carbs (34).
For a healthy vegan snack, you can remove the pits of dates and stuff them with almond butter. However, keep in mind that they are high in calories, so remember to watch your portion size.
24. Frozen Grapes
Grapes are small spherical fruits that grow on vines and come in purple, red, green and black.
One cup (151 grams) of grapes has 28% of the DV for vitamin K and 27% of the DV for vitamin C. They are also rich in polyphenols, which are plant compounds that may protect against heart disease and type 2 diabetes (35, 36).
Frozen grapes are a delicious vegan snack. For a refreshing treat, keep grapes in a container in your freezer and enjoy a handful when hunger strikes.
The Bottom Line
If you're following a vegan diet—or are trying to reduce the number of animal foods you're eating—it's a good idea to keep plant-based snacks on hand.
The vegan snacks above are a great way to combat hunger between meals.
They're easy to make and a nutritious option for vegans and those just looking to eat more plant foods.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Heather Houser
Compost. Fly less. Reduce your meat consumption. Say no to plastic. These imperatives are familiar ones in the repertoire of individual actions to reduce a person's environmental impact. Don't have kids, or maybe just one. This climate action appears less frequently in that repertoire, but it's gaining currency as climate catastrophes mount. One study has shown that the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from having one fewer child in the United States is 20 times higher—yes 2000% greater—than the impact of lifestyle changes like those listed above.
The Stickiness of Population<p>Only five years ago, there was minimal coverage of the child-free for climate movement. AOC is just one of many reasons it's lighting up now. New scientific analyses, scholarly debates, and social media conversations have shined a light on reproduction and climate. The influential <a href="https://www.drawdown.org/" target="_blank">Project Drawdown</a> framework for climate mitigation includes a list of solutions ranked by their potential impact, two of which—educating girls and providing access to family planning—they project will have <a href="https://www.drawdown.org/solutions/table-of-solutions" target="_blank">a greater combined impact</a> on reducing greenhouse gas emissions than almost all other climate solutions because of their effect on fertility rates.</p><p>In January 2020, <a href="https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/70/1/8/5610806" target="_blank">11,000 scientists signed onto a study that warned</a> about the unfolding climate emergency. The authors prescribe steps in six sectors that can prevent irreversible planetary collapse, including that "the world population must be stabilized—and, ideally, gradually reduced—within a framework that ensures social integrity." The framework they propose includes universal access to family planning as well as education and equity for young women. (Other <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1410465111" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">scientific takes</a> on population-based climate actions are more skeptical about their immediate impact given the scale of fertility reductions needed to balance out longer lifespans.)</p><p>Even before 2020, a new movement was afoot to address climate by forgoing reproduction. Blythe Pepino, a British musician in her 30s, formed BirthStrike in 2018 to build a community of people—typically women-identified—who have opted not to reproduce in response to the ecological and social crises that climate change is creating. In the wake of the Black Lives Matter protests this summer, the group recognized the need to acknowledge the oppression that colors conversations about reproduction as it relates to climate and so reformed itself into a support group for those grieving parenthood. Their new stated goal is to channel that loss into action on climate justice.</p><p>Organizations such as <a href="https://conceivablefuture.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Conceivable Future</a>, however, continue to keep reproduction at the fore. Led by climate activists Meghan Kallman and Josephine Ferorelli, Conceivable Future is raising awareness about how the climate crisis affects "<a href="https://conceivablefuture.org/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">intimate choices</a>" like reproduction. The Conceivable Future and now-defunct BirthStrike campaigns share ideological terrain with "<a href="https://www.npr.org/2016/08/18/479349760/should-we-be-having-kids-in-the-age-of-climate-change" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">population engineers</a>," a group of bioethicists who <a href="https://doi.org/10.5840/soctheorpract201642430" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">forward policies for</a> limiting the size of the global population through positive incentives like family planning classes and negative ones such as taxes on wealthy procreators. </p><p>In proposing specific policies rather than individual action, population engineers acknowledge the structures within which reproductive choices occur, everything from media influence to the tax code. Even with this shift to the structural, however, the racist, sexist, colonialist, and nativist legacies of the population question within environmentalism still plague child-free for climate. As do the historical and social injustices that constrain so-called choices.</p>
Racism and Xenophobia in Environmentalism<p>This summer and fall, the climate crisis and its correlated catastrophes—<a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/heat-wave-western-united-states/" target="_blank">extreme heat</a>, <a href="https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/07/14/a-third-of-bangladesh-underwater-after-heavy-rains-floods/" target="_blank">flooding</a>, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/wildfires" target="_blank">wildfires</a>—are intensifying alongside Black Lives Matter uprisings and the <a href="http://www.yesmagazine.org/health-happiness/2020/06/09/coronavirus-public-health-social-justice/" target="_blank">coronavirus health disparities</a> among Black, Indigenous, and Latinx populations. This confluence has brought overdue attention to racism in environmentalism, as evidenced by the Audubon Society's recent <a href="http://audubon.org/magazine/fall-2020/revealing-past-create-future" target="_blank">reckoning</a> with racial injustices in its past and present, including <a href="https://www.audubon.org/news/the-myth-john-james-audubon" target="_blank">publicizing</a> that its famed founder was a White supremacist and a slaveholder. The intersections of <a href="https://www.yesmagazine.org/opinion/2020/09/23/election-black-voters-climate/" target="_blank">climate justice and racial justice</a> have also come to the fore through <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/05/climate/heat-minority-school-performance.html" target="_blank">studies of how Black communities are greatly harmed by hotter temperatures</a> and through the popular <a href="https://www.intersectionalenvironmentalist.com/" target="_blank">intersectional environmentalist</a> platform created by Leah Thomas, a young Black activist and "<a href="https://www.greengirlleah.com/about-1" target="_blank">eco-communicator</a>." To these reckonings we need to add the racism and xenophobia that have long characterized environmentally motivated population controls.</p><p>The New York Times recently exposed these sins in <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/14/us/anti-immigration-cordelia-scaife-may.html/" target="_blank">a profile of Cordelia Scaife May</a>, showing how this heir to the Mellon fortune converted a love of birding into a network of anti-immigration, pro-population-control organizations that still influence politics today. In the 1960s May linked threatened birdlife to the rapidly expanding human population. May wasn't wrong to see and worry over this link: A host of human activities—from <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/popular-pesticides-linked-drops-bird-population-180951971/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">toxic agriculture and industry</a> to <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0050157" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">sprawling settlements</a> and <a href="https://www.npr.org/2017/10/05/555949789/light-pollution-can-impact-noctural-bird-migration" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">light</a> and <a href="https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/blogs/birds-live-near-human-noise-sing-louder-shorter-songs" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">noise pollution</a>—decimate avian habitats and habits. May's anti-immigration approach, however, indicates how readily environmentalism can mutate into racist and xenophobic actions.</p><p>The Times investigators show that "protecting natural habitats and helping women prevent unplanned pregnancies merged over time into a single goal of preserving the environment by discouraging offspring altogether." Taken on its own, this goal resonates with Conceivable Future's and population engineers' aims. To be clear, this does not mean that today's child-free climate advocates are racist nativists. However, it does indicate how readily the affiliation arises because of the ugly history of forced population control.</p>
Contemporary Examples<p>And this history is hardly past. For example, race and class conflicts erupted around a population platform within the Sierra Club only 15 years ago. In 2004, a faction of club members took a page from May and argued that more people living in the U.S. meant more encroachment on less developed land and water. As with May's effort, this anti-immigration push amounted to "the greening of hate," according to the Southern Poverty Law Center and Anti-Defamation League, who entered the dispute when they found White supremacists lobbying for anti-immigration Sierra Club board candidates. A 2010 <a href="https://www.splcenter.org/20100630/greenwash-nativists-environmentalism-and-hypocrisy-hate" target="_blank">SPLC report</a> firms up the connection between environmentalist intentions and racist agendas by explaining why White nationalist John Tanton infiltrated the club: "Using an organization perceived by the public as part of the liberal left would insulate nativists from charges of racism—charges that … would likely otherwise stick."</p><p>Charges of racism ultimately did stick to Tanton and his anti-immigration, pro-population-control allies. And they continue to stick in analyses of the child-free for climate movement today. Earlier this year, climate journalist Meehan Crist <a href="https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v42/n05/meehan-crist/is-it-ok-to-have-a-child" target="_blank">took up</a> AOC's question of whether it's OK to have a child. In arriving at an answer (for her, yes), she affiliates child-free positions with "anti-feminist, racist and anti-human" values and with bad science. "Darker visions" proceed from this analysis, she writes, visions of those who believe "racial purity will save the planet. Closed borders. . . . Ecofascist death squads." The dark visions Crist spins from the child-free for climate question underscore how readily calls for reproductive limits touch the third rails of modern environmentalism: racism, eugenics, xenophobia, even death-dealing.</p><p>We get even closer to these third rails when we consider that the question of whether to reproduce is, for some people, no choice at all. Modern efforts to limit fertility, which ramped up after World War II, have targeted poor women in the Global South, and Black, Indigenous, and people of color in the U.S. using coercion and force. BIPOC reproductive justice advocates such as Loretta Ross have condemned dichotomous pro-abortion-rights versus anti-abortion politics for producing "<a href="https://www.google.com/books/edition/Radical_Reproductive_Justice/hN-4DgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=loretta%20ross%20radical%20reproductive&pg=PT8&printsec=frontcover&bsq=anemic" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">anemic political analyses</a>" that ignore the reality of forced sterilizations in prisons and the appallingly high maternal mortality rate for Black women in the U.S. These are all forms of what medical historian and ethicist Harriet Washington calls "<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8WCS1Rs8K8" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">medical apartheid</a>."</p>
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By Sharon Guynup
At this time of year, in Russia's far north Laptev Sea, the sun hovers near the horizon during the day, generating little warmth, as the region heads towards months of polar night. By late September or early October, the sea's shallow waters should be a vast, frozen expanse.
Comparison of autumn sea ice formation for the first half of October 2012 (the record year for Arctic sea ice extent loss) and in 2020 (second place for sea ice extent loss). The satellite record goes back to 1979. @Icy_Samuel, data provided by NSIDC
Arctic sea ice extent on Oct. 25, 2020 was at a record low 5.613 million square kilometers for this date, surpassing the record set in 2019 of 6.174 million square kilometers. ChArctic NSIDC
The Arctic appears to be changing into an entirely new climate state due to rapid warming. The extent of sea ice in the late summer, when it reaches its minimum each year, has already entered a statistically different climate, with surface air temperatures and the number of days with rain instead of snow also beginning to transition. Simmi Sinha, ©UCAR
A polar bear prowls the Arctic shoreline. VisualHunt.com
A fire burning through northern forest in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, in July 2020. Greenpeace International
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By Peter A. Kloess
Picture Antarctica today and what comes to mind? Large ice floes bobbing in the Southern Ocean? Maybe a remote outpost populated with scientists from around the world? Or perhaps colonies of penguins puttering amid vast open tracts of snow?
Giants of the Sky<p>As their name suggests, these ancient birds had sharp, bony spikes protruding from sawlike jaws. Resembling teeth, these spikes would have helped them catch squid or fish. We also studied another remarkable feature of the pelagornithids – their imposing size.</p><p>The largest flying bird alive today is the <a href="https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/group/albatrosses/" target="_blank">wandering albatross</a>, which has a wingspan that reaches 11 ½ feet. The Antarctic pelagornithids fossils we studied have a wingspan nearly double that – about 21 feet across. If you tipped a two-story building on its side, that's about 20 feet.</p><p>Across Earth's history, very few groups of vertebrates have achieved powered flight – and only two reached truly giant sizes: birds and a group of <a href="https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/pterosaurs-flight-in-the-age-of-dinosaurs/what-is-a-pterosaur" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">reptiles called pterosaurs</a>.</p>
Full-size model of a Quetzalcoatlus on display at JuraPark in Baltow, Poland. Aneta Leszkiewicz / Wikimedia<p>Pterosaurs ruled the skies during the Mesozoic Era (252 million to 66 million years ago), the same period that dinosaurs roamed the planet, and they reached hard-to-believe dimensions. <a href="https://www.wired.com/2013/11/absurd-creature-of-the-week-quetz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Quetzalcoatlus</a> stood 16 feet tall and had a colossal 33-foot wingspan.</p>
Birds Get Their Opportunity<p>Birds originated while dinosaurs and pterosaurs were still roaming the planet. But when an <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/dinosaur-killing-asteroid-impact-chicxulub-crater-timeline-destruction-180973075/" target="_blank">asteroid struck the Yucatan Peninsula 66 million years ago</a>, dinosaurs and pterosaurs both perished. Some <a href="https://www.audubon.org/news/how-birds-survived-asteroid-impact-wiped-out-dinosaurs" target="_blank">select birds survived</a>, though. These survivors diversified into the thousands of bird species alive today. Pelagornithids evolved in the period right after dinosaur and pterosaur extinction, when competition for food was lessened.</p><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/spp2.1284" target="_blank">The earliest pelagornithid remains</a>, recovered from 62-million-year-old sediments in New Zealand, were about the size of modern gulls. The first giant pelagornithids, the ones in our study, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75248-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">took flight over Antarctica about 10 million years later</a>, in a period called the Eocene Epoch (56 million to 33.9 million years ago). In addition to these specimens, fossilized remains from other pelagornithids have been found on every continent.</p><p>Pelagornithids lasted for about 60 million years before going extinct just before the Pleistocene Epoch (2.5 million to 11,700 years ago). No one knows exactly why, though, because few fossil records have been recovered from the period at the end of their reign. Some paleontologists cite <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2011.562268" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">climate change as a possible factor</a>.</p>
Piecing it Together<p>The fossils we studied are fragments of whole bones collected by paleontologists from the University of California at Riverside in the 1980s. In 2003, the specimens were transferred to Berkeley, where they now reside in the <a href="https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">University of California Museum of Paleontology</a>.</p><p>There isn't enough material from Antarctica to rebuild an entire skeleton, but by comparing the fossil fragments with similar elements from more complete individuals, we were able to assess their size.</p>
In life, the pelagornithid would have had numerous 'teeth,' making it a formidable predator. Peter Kloess, CC BY-NC-SA
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