As we enjoy the last of summer, I find myself reflecting on the last few months with bittersweet memories. While swimming in the Pacific Ocean and sailing on Lake Champlain, Vermont, I have enjoyed the best our water resources have to offer. News reports across the U.S., however, have been a reminder that our water systems are increasingly at risk of nutrient pollution.
North Carolina's Chowan River, the Great Lakes and the entire Pacific coast have experienced hazardous algal blooms this year that have prevented recreational activity, threatened the health of aquatic species and even endangered the health of communities living along these waterways.
I cannot imagine, and do not want, a future where our water is too polluted to enjoy the gifts it brings our lives.
Changing the course of our water future requires a collaborative approach that informs and empowers everyone—from national leaders and scientists to community groups and individual citizens. While efforts like the U.S. Open Water Data Initiative are championing unprecedented transparency of water information, there is a need to translate the complex science behind water data into tangible and accessible opportunities to increase the general public's understanding of the state of water in the U.S.
With today's innovative technology achievements, we know its possible to bring the power of storytelling and the science of water data together to inform communities and disturb the water management status quo.
The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Blue Legacy International hosted the 2015 Visualizing Nutrients Challenge where solvers produced creative and compelling interpretations of nutrient water data demonstrating the possibilities for communicating risks, impacts and solutions related to nutrient pollution.
The visualization created by Matthew Seibert, Benjamin Wellington and Eric Roy of Landscape Metrics won the first price in the challenge for its interactive tutorial about algal blooms on Lake Erie, a water body that the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicts will see algae growth this year that could rival the record-setting 2011 bloom.
Between government policy and engagement like the Visualizing Nutrients Challenge, momentum is building and public awareness of water issues is improving. Now is the time to come together around kitchen counters, in city halls and across conference tables to take collective action toward a more sustainable water future that is championed by each and every one of us.
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Your body's immune system is the natural, front line defense to protect you against harmful pathogens and infections. You can boost the effectiveness of your immune system through diet and exercise but did you know that certain multivitamins can aid your immune system and promote general wellness? Here are our recommendations of the top five supplements to help boost your immune system.
What is the Immune System?
There are two main aspects to the immune system: the innate and the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system is one you are born with, and it is the body's rapid response system. It works to attack antigens or invaders in the body. The adaptive or acquired immune system builds antibodies to protect your body from certain microbes, or germs, it encounters in the environment.
Did you know that your immune system keeps track of each germ it has ever defeated? This way, if your body encounters a germ it has fought in its immune system before, it can recognize and protect your body from it more effectively.
Your immune system's memory of the germs it encounters is stored in white blood cells. The white blood cells move through the blood and tissue in your body and attack harmful invaders such as viruses and bacteria.
Fortunately, you can support and improve the effectiveness of your immune system by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, drinking alcohol in moderation, and getting a proper amount of sleep.
Our Top 5 Supplements to Boost Immune Health
Each product featured here has been independently selected by the writer. You can learn more about our review methodology here. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.
- Best Overall - NutraOne Immune One
- Best for Vitality - Vital Plan Daily Herbal Supplement
- Best for Bioavailability - Global Healing Liquid Zinc
- Best for Respiratory Health - Renew Life Everyday Immune Probiotic
- Best Gummy for Immune Health - Nested Naturals Elderberry Gummies
Vitamins and Minerals that Support the Immune System
It's no secret that certain vitamins and supplements can aid your immune system to fight off potentially harmful infections. Here are some that stand out.
- Elderberry: There are around 30 different types of elder plants and trees globally. Sambucus nigra is the type that helps with healing and immune health. Elderberry consists of many vitamins and antioxidants.
- Vitamin C: Your body doesn't naturally produce Vitamin C. However, it has proven to have immense health benefits. Vitamin C helps the immune system's white blood cell production.
- Zinc: This supplement helps produce new immune system cells in your body.
- Vitamin D: Vitamin D helps to regulate the body's immune system.
- Vitamin E: This antioxidant is fat-soluble and helps protect cells from harmful 'free radicals' which are unstable atoms that can cause damage to cells; this response can lead to illness.
- Reishi mushrooms: There are three molecules in reishi mushrooms that are responsible for their health effects: triterpenoids, polysaccharides, and peptidoglycans. Studies have found that reishi mushrooms may be able to change the inflammation pathways in white blood cells.
Best Overall: NutraOne ImmuneOne
5 Star Nutrition has an array of quality vitamins, minerals, and supplements. For immune health, we recommend the ImmuneOne supplement. It's formulated with vitamin C, elderberry, and echinacea to help improve overall wellness, with the added benefit of supporting lung health.Why buy: ImmuneOne includes 1000 mg of vitamin C, as well as elderberry, Zinc, and vitamin A. We like that this supplement is made with natural ingredients like cinnamon, echinacea, and ginseng, without any artificial additives.
Best for Vitality: Vital Plan Daily Herbal
The Daily Herbal blend by Vital Plan is a unique herbal supplement created by Dr. Bill Rawls. His formula "works at the cellular level to address the modern-day stress factors associated with accelerated aging." The blend includes medicinal mushrooms, as well as Rhodiola and Turmeric extract.Why buy: Daily Herbal includes five adaptogenic ingredients designed to support cell resilience, immune response, and microbiome balance. It can also boost energy and endurance because of the Rhodiola extract. The product is gluten and dairy free, and is also tested at a third-party lab for ingredient purity verification.
Best for Bioavailability: Global Healing Liquid Zinc
Every cell in your body uses Zinc, and it's an effective mineral to boost your immune system. It also helps the digestive system, and even encourages cell growth. Zinc is also great for skin complexion, sexual health, and supporting normal blood sugar.
Why buy: Global Healing Plant-Based Zinc is vegan, certified USDA organic, gluten-free, and is not tested on animals. We like that this Zinc is plant based and all natural. The Zinc is extracted from organic guava leaves, and comes with a one-year money-back guarantee.
Best for Respiratory Health: Renew Life Everyday Immune Probiotic 10 Billion
Renew Life prioritizes wellness that is backed by science. They believe that the intake of probiotics is the only way to add bacterial species into the body's microbiome to help support a healthy immune response.Why buy: Renew Life's Everyday Immune Probiotic 10 Billion helps improve overall wellbeing and immune health with a formula that includes probiotics, Zinc, and Vitamin C. The capsules are small, making it easier to swallow, and Renew Life offers a 60-day money-back guarantee.
Best Gummies for Immune Health: Nested Naturals Elderberry Gummies
These Elderberry gummies include a vegan blend of Vitamin C and Zinc to ensure thriving immune health. The blend of Elderberry and Vitamin C can also provide wellness during travel and during the change of seasons.Why buy: We like these Elderberry gummies because they contain around 100 mg of elderberry extract per gummy, are vegan, gluten-free, and go through a four-part lab test. They also taste great and contain less than a gram of sugar each.
How to Choose an Immune Supplement or Multivitamin
There are a few key aspects to look out for when shopping for immune supplements. Below is a list of what to look for when shopping for a supplement to help boost your immune system.
What to Look For
When comparing different brands of immune supplements, look for these things before you buy.
Clinical Research: Many immune supplements will inform you if they're clinically researched formulas, or formulated by doctors.
Transparency: Some supplement brands list all of the vitamins and minerals they use in the formula of their supplement. It's important to know exactly what you're ingesting, and where it came from.
Lab Testing: To guarantee what you're consuming is pure, and safe, look too see if a brand had their product tested at a third-party lab.
Non-Artificial Ingredients: Immune supplements with natural, non-artificial ingredients that are plant-derived or organic are always a good choice. If the brand uses animal products, check to see that they are sourced ethically and sustainably.
How to Read Labels
When reading the label of your supplement, be sure to notice the serving size. Oftentimes, the recommended serving size for a supplement is larger than simply taking one capsule or multivitamin. Some labels will specify the best time of day to take the supplement as well. Also take note of the ingredient list, and how much of the recommended daily intake it fulfills for certain vitamins and nutrients
It's also important to double check that the supplement was tested in a third-party lab for safety and quality. Note if the supplement is non-GMO, vegan, or gluten free. Many supplements will also tell you if it is free from certain allergens like soy and dairy.
Safety & Side Effects
Ingesting the right oral immune boosting supplements may be beneficial to your overall health. However, there are a few minor side effects to be aware of. Some common side effects of immune boosting supplements may include:
- Intense abdominal pain
Other, infrequent side effects may include:
- Pain in arms or legs
- Chest pain
- Abdominal bloating
Sometimes, when certain vitamins are ingested without food can cause stomach pain. Be sure to read the label to see if you should take an immune supplement with food and to be sure that you do not take more than the recommended amount. Most side effects from vitamin supplements are a result of taking too much at one time.
Certain vitamin and mineral supplements can interact with prescription medications. If you take prescription medicines, or are undergoing prescribed treatment for a condition, consult with your doctor before taking any additional supplements.
There are number of ways to help boost wellness and support a healthy immune system, and adding an extra immune-boosting supplement may help. Use our guide to find the best multivitamin or supplement to boost your immune system, and learn whether or not you should consider a supplement for immune health.
Audrey Nakagawa is the content creator intern at EcoWatch. She is a senior at James Madison University studying Media, Art, and Design, with a concentration in journalism. She's a reporter for The Breeze in the culture section and writes features on Harrisonburg artists, album reviews, and topics related to mental health and the environment. She was also a contributor for Virginia Reports where she reported on the impact that COVID-19 had on college students.
Since arriving in Canada on Sept. 11 to film three documentaries about the Ottawa river as part of River Mission, a joint initiative between Ottawa Riverkeeper, Blue Legacy International and the de Gaspe Beaubien Foundation, I have kayaked, whitewater rafted and canoed on the river. As the source of the region's tap water, I have drunk from the river and seen first hand the watershed's sewage plants as they clean and return water to the river.
As closely as I've gotten to know the Ottawa River during this expedition, I have gotten to know the people that are its champions even better—people like Ottawa Riverkeeper Meredith Brown, Ambroise Lycke, director of the Temiscamingue watershed and Algonquin elder Skip Ross, all of whom fight to give this river a voice.
While we've borne witness to stories of empowered and impassioned individuals advocating for the river, we have also discovered there is a dramatic lack of accessible information and technology tools to support public action and understanding of the state of our water.
All that I have seen and heard here truly underscores the importance of knowing the state of our water—is it safe to swim in, can we fish in it, can we drink it. Information about water quality is the most critical tool we have to empower people to reclaim and restore their water. And yet, time after time, I see how hard it is for people to obtain and make sense of that information.
Ultimately this is a river that belongs to the communities of people that enjoy and rely upon it every day. Hearing about their concerns for the river and their visions of a better future has truly reinforced my belief that we are all stewards of the quality of our own water. But to bring about the change we seek, we need the right tools, technology, innovation, access to water quality information, public accountability and openness.
Water advocacy on every level starts with one question: how well do you know the state of your water?
I was awoken today by the sound of raindrops on my windowsill. Sitting down at my desk, with the peaceful patter of water helping me to collect my thoughts and prepare for the day, I was stunned to read a report that enumerates a truth I already knew all too well.
Tuesday, American Rivers released its annual America's Most Endangered Rivers report. On the list, there are rivers under threat from natural gas development, the construction of new dams and reservoirs, mountaintop removal for coal mining and excessive water withdrawals. Looking over these threats, it is clear that what is fundamentally at risk is the quality and quantity of our freshwater—water that we can swim in, drink, and fish from—water that is there when and where we need it.
And at the top of the list this year is a river that continues to be in serious danger from pollution—a threat that is only heightened as members of Congress zealously crusade to dismantle and rollback key provisions of the Clean Water Act, the single most important piece of environmental legislation designed to protect our freshwater. The Potomac River, which flows through our nation's capital from the storied depths of our country's past, is number 1 on the list of America's Most Endangered Rivers of 2012.
In some ways, I am not surprised. In 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson called the Potomac "a national disgrace" because the river was a cesspool of sewage and industrial chemicals. Yet, despite how disheartening this observation may have been, it served as a much-needed wake-up call for our country. In fact, his remark was a major catalyst—among other observations like it concerning rivers across the U.S.—for the passage of the Clean Water Act of 1972. And with the passage of this groundbreaking legislation, we witnessed an unprecedented resurgence of the Potomac and rivers across the country over the last few decades.
But the fight to restore our rivers clearly wasn't over. In 2010, rounding out our 17,100 mile journey across North America, I brought my Blue Legacy crew to the Potomac River to reconnect with the watershed many of us call home. Yet, the message we took back from our final expedition stop was not one of hope and optimism—but rather, a message of uncertainty and ongoing threat.
While advancements have been made to partially restore its health and preserve the integrity of its rich natural habitat, the Potomac River is still threatened on a number of fronts. In our film, Our Nation's River: A System on the Edge, we investigate the ongoing challenges the river faces, with experts including: Potomac Riverkeeper, Ed Merrifield; Sandra Postel, founder of the Global Water Policy Project and National Geographic Freshwater Fellow; Chuck Fox, from the EPA; and The Nature Conservancy's Stephanie Flack. From these interviews, it is clear that the river and its tributaries—and the people and communities that depend on them—are still in jeopardy, because, today, the Potomac River barely sits on the edge of recovery.
The worst part about the situation is that, in spite of what scientists and water conservationists are telling us about the delicate state of the Potomac, Congress is actively pursuing legislation that will reduce federal environmental oversight of our lakes, rivers, and streams. Outside magazine reported on some specific bills that are meant to undermine the Clean Water Act that has protected our waters for so long:
- H.R. 2018: Clean Water Cooperative Federalism Act of 2011—This bill would amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to preserve the authority of each State to make determinations relating to the State's water quality standards, and for other purposes. The bill, which has already passed through the House, also calls for a number of limits to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in terms of its ability to revise or introduce water quality standards for a pollutant (unless the state concurs with the EPA administrator's opinion), and also would shorten the window during which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service could comment on dredge and fill permits.
- H.R. 872: The Reducing Regulatory Burdens Act—This bill would amend the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to clarify Congressional intent regarding the regulation of the use of pesticides in or near navigable waters, and for other purposes. The bill, which has also passed the House, would make it so parties are no longer required to seek a permit before using a pesticide, even if that pesticide could enter a waterway, as long as the pesticide is authorized for sale, distribution, or use under FIFRA.
- H.R. 4153: Chesapeake Bay Program Reauthorization and Improvement Act—This bill, spearheaded by Congressman Bob Goodlatte, aims to support efforts to reduce pollution of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. But, in reality, the bill would limit what Congressman Goodlatte considers the EPA's overreaching authority by giving states, rather than the federal government, the ability to set acceptable levels of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
So, what is there left to do? Should we throw-up our hands in the air in defeat, and let the devastation to our "nation's river" continue unabated—not to mention the hundreds of lakes, rivers and tributaries across the country which are still under threat? I am writing today to emphatically say NO! We all have a voice, and together we can make a positive difference.
Help protect America's most endangered river and rivers nationwide—tell your local government official why you care about the Potomac River, and why it is so important that the Clean Water Act is protected. But why stop there? Rivers across America need our support. All of the rivers on this list—and the hundreds that did not make it this year—represent a front line in the struggle against environmental de-regulation. Make no mistake, this water belongs to the people and the communities we live in, and we will not give up our right to protect our water without a fight. We need strong federal oversight to make sure these laws are followed.
Listening to the sound of raindrops outside my window, I am reminded of a simple, yet powerful truth. Each one of those drops has begun an incredible journey. Sliding off a leaf, it lands in a puddle on the street, and flows into the storm drain. And at the end of the pipe, it will become one with the Potomac River and eventually, as it re-enters the water cycle once again, part of each one of us. The waters of our rivers course through our veins. So, for the sake of our health, and the health of our children, it's time we did something to stop the degradation of our rivers—of the Potomac—because we never want to see our nation's river—or any of the rivers that run through our communities—on the most endangered list ever again.
What happens when a river no longer runs to the sea?
In August 2010, my documentary film crew and I explored the Colorado River's dry riverbed from the Mexican border to its mouth in the Gulf of California as a part of our Expedition Blue Planet: North America project. What we witnessed was the eerie ghost of a mighty river that once carried water, rich silts and prosperity on its way to connect with the sea my grandfather Jacques-Yves Cousteau called “the world's aquarium" and the “Galapagos of North America." Sadly, with the exception of a few extraordinarily wet seasons, the nutrient-rich waters of the Colorado have not completed their journey to the sea in decades.
Along the way, we worked with leading scientists and met locals who told us about the birds, wildlife and trees that disappeared; about the once-abundant fish that no longer thrive; and a way of life that is vanishing with the fisheries. A land of forests and emerald lagoons just 80 years ago has become a salted mud flat and desert.
The explanation for this collapse is no mystery. Before it ever reaches the border with Mexico, 90 percent of the water in the Colorado is diverted for use by seven Colorado River basin states. At the border, Mexico's Morelos Dam diverts what's left to agriculture and cities like Tijuana and Mexicali. And after that, there is hardly a trickle left to keep critical natural systems operating across the once-rich riverbed. From the border to the sea, the Colorado is a river no more.
After the April 2010 Mexicali earthquake, which damaged local infrastructure and irrigation canals in northwest Mexico, the U.S. agreed to temporary storage of a small percentage of Mexico's allocation—water that Mexico could not use due to the earthquake damage—for the first time allowing our river partners to take advantage of storage behind U.S. dams.
Additionally, during a trial run of the Yuma Desalting Plant in Arizona, the two countries collaborated to protect critical wetlands at the internationally recognized 40,000-acre Ciénega de Santa Clara in Mexico. The Ciénega relies entirely on Colorado River water from agricultural drainage to form the last remaining wetland in the Delta and a critical habitat for millions of water birds and shorebirds. Deprived of life-giving flows during the pilot run, the Ciénega would have suffered irreparable damage.
The U.S. and Mexico are now negotiating a new cooperative agreement to improve Colorado River management. To accomplish a final U.S.-Mexico agreement, it is critical that both nations agree to provide basic flows to the disappearing Colorado River Delta. The conservation community urges Interior Secretary Ken Salazar and the Obama administration to see this pivotal agreement to completion as quickly as possible. Salazar has repeatedly demonstrated his mastery of collaborative alliance and we look forward to a successful outcome here.
At stake is water security for both nations. Most importantly it would establish more equitable management of water during droughts, reducing the impact of shortages on water users in both countries.
With a modest water supply, life will continue to flourish in the Delta and increasingly return along the river below the last dam. But our leaders must act together to bring back life-giving flows to the Colorado River Delta.
The time is now. Desert river deltas are famous for their diversity, and critical for all life along their pathways. The Colorado River Delta is the critical “waistline in the hourglass" of the Pacific Flyway, a major continental migratory route for birds. Its mud flats and estuary zone create an irreplaceable food stock for the fisheries that are an important source of income for communities throughout the region.
As a completed system, the Colorado River represents one of the most impressive and important mountains-to-canyons-to-sea natural corridors on our continent—one we'd be foolish and selfish to not preserve for our children. Without a thriving Delta, we trade away a natural system that supplies life and resiliency to both nations. In this election season of political rancor, it's important to keep pushing forward with this historic collaboration—to seal in water our promise to work together for a prosperous and vibrant future.