Trump EPA Will Maintain Obama-Era Smog Rule
Trump's U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) said Wednesday that it would defend an Obama-era smog rule from a lawsuit brought in part by disgraced administrator Scott Pruitt when he was still attorney general of Oklahoma, The Hill reported.
Justice Department attorneys said in a court brief that the EPA would no longer attempt to revise or repeal the 2015 rule, which lowered the permissible amount of ground-level ozone from 75 parts per billion to 70.
"While EPA officials in the current administration may have supported making different judgments about the significance of background concentrations of ozone and how to judge what standards are requisite to protect public health and welfare, the agency at this time does not intend to revisit the 2015 rule," the brief said, according to The Hill.
The brief was filed a day after the EPA released its annual air quality report monitoring the state of the nation's air since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970.
The report found that overall air pollution levels had fallen by 73 percent between 1970 and 2017. Ozone, one of the six pollutants tracked, had fallen by 22 percent, the smallest drop of the six.
When the Obama EPA first announced its new ozone rules in 2015, with a view to bettering the lives of tens of millions of Americans with respiratory disease, environmental and public health groups said the new limit did not go far enough, The Washington Post reported at the time.
In 2014, the EPA's own Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee found that an ozone limit of 70 parts per billion could still harm the health of some vulnerable groups, leading American Lung Association President and CEO Harold P. Wimmer to say the new standard "simply does not reflect what the science shows is necessary to truly protect public health."
Industry groups, on the other hand, thought the standard placed too much of a burden on them.
"We know that this regulation could have been worse, but it still feels like a punch in the gut," Neenah Enterprises, Inc CEO Tom Riordan told The Washington Post.
However, once Trump took office, environmental and public health groups had to fight his EPA to enforce the Obama-era standard.
Several such groups, in addition to 16 states, sued the EPA when Pruitt failed to report which states did not meet the new standard by an Oct. 1, 2017 deadline. In March of this year, a federal judge ruled that Pruitt had broken the law by delaying the report and ordered him to complete it.
The next time the ozone rule could be changed would be in 2020, since the Clean Air Act requires the EPA to reconsider standards every five years. The EPA has already begun the process of assessing if the ozone standard should be changed at that time, The Hill reported.
At first glance, you wouldn't think avocados and almonds could harm bees; but a closer look at how these popular crops are produced reveals their potentially detrimental effect on pollinators.
Migratory beekeeping involves trucking millions of bees across the U.S. to pollinate different crops, including avocados and almonds. Timothy Paule II / Pexels / CC0<p>According to <a href="https://www.fromthegrapevine.com/israeli-kitchen/beekeeping-how-to-keep-bees" target="_blank">From the Grapevine</a>, American avocados also fully depend on bees' pollination to produce fruit, so farmers have turned to migratory beekeeping as well to fill the void left by wild populations.</p><p>U.S. farmers have become reliant upon the practice, but migratory beekeeping has been called exploitative and harmful to bees. <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/10/health/avocado-almond-vegan-partner/index.html" target="_blank">CNN</a> reported that commercial beekeeping may injure or kill bees and that transporting them to pollinate crops appears to negatively affect their health and lifespan. Because the honeybees are forced to gather pollen and nectar from a single, monoculture crop — the one they've been brought in to pollinate — they are deprived of their normal diet, which is more diverse and nourishing as it's comprised of a variety of pollens and nectars, Scientific American reported.</p><p>Scientific American added how getting shuttled from crop to crop and field to field across the country boomerangs the bees between feast and famine, especially once the blooms they were brought in to fertilize end.</p><p>Plus, the artificial mass influx of bees guarantees spreading viruses, mites and fungi between the insects as they collide in midair and crawl over each other in their hives, Scientific American reported. According to CNN, some researchers argue that this explains why so many bees die each winter, and even why entire hives suddenly die off in a phenomenon called colony collapse disorder.</p>
Avocado and almond crops depend on bees for proper pollination. FRANK MERIÑO / Pexels / CC0<p>Salazar and other Columbian beekeepers described "scooping up piles of dead bees" year after year since the avocado and citrus booms began, according to Phys.org. Many have opted to salvage what partial colonies survive and move away from agricultural areas.</p><p>The future of pollinators and the crops they help create is uncertain. According to the United Nations, nearly half of insect pollinators, particularly bees and butterflies, risk global extinction, Phys.org reported. Their decline already has cascading consequences for the economy and beyond. Roughly 1.4 billion jobs and three-quarters of all crops around the world depend on bees and other pollinators for free fertilization services worth billions of dollars, Phys.org noted. Losing wild and native bees could <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/wild-bees-crop-shortage-2646849232.html" target="_self">trigger food security issues</a>.</p><p>Salazar, the beekeeper, warned Phys.org, "The bee is a bioindicator. If bees are dying, what other insects beneficial to the environment... are dying?"</p>
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