Tropical Forests Are Losing Their Ability to Absorb Carbon, Study Finds
The world's tropical forests are rapidly losing their ability to absorb carbon from the atmosphere, worrying scientists that a major carbon dump will transform them into a carbon source, according to research published Wednesday.
The study, which was published in the journal Nature, found that in 15 years the Amazon could turn into a carbon source, due to wildfires, deforestation, and the excess greenhouse gasses pumped into the atmosphere, as The Guardian reported.
An international consortium of European and African scientists led by researchers from the University of Leeds studied more than 300,000 trees over the course of 30 years in the Amazon and the African tropics. The researchers found that climate models that typically predict that tropical forests will serve as carbon sinks for decades are inaccurate. Instead, the decades of analysis found that the uptake of carbon into the world's tropical forests actually peaked in the 1990s, according to a press release from the University of Leeds.
"Our findings show that back in the 1990s intact tropical forests were absorbing 4.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide every year," Simon Lewis, professor of Global Change Science at University College London, and Lee White, the government of Gabon's Minister for Water, Forests, the Sea and Environment, wrote in The Independent. "This has slumped to an estimated 2.5 billion tons each year over the last decade. To put these colossal numbers in context, the decline of 2.1 billion tons each year is equivalent to five times the annual carbon dioxide emissions of the UK. Tropical forests have been helping us, but that help is starting to wane."
Manmade emissions continue to climb year after year, which is taxing already oversaturated tropical forests, which account for around half of all land-based carbon absorption. The oversaturation is threatening the forests' ability to provide people with medicine, food, shelter and water, as ScienceAlert reported.
"The cause of this is climate change impacts - in terms of heat stress and droughts - on these remaining intact forests," Lewis said, as Reuters reported. "Humanity has been really lucky so far in that these forests have been mopping up our pollution, and they might not keep doing that for that much longer."
Many industrialized nations aim to offset their greenhouse gas emissions by restoring forests, but that might not be enough. However, the new research shows that preserving forests may not be enough in the absence of cutting emissions.
To conduct the research, the scientists combined data from two large research networks of forest observations in Africa and the Amazon. They also spent years in remote field sites. The researchers tagged individual trees and measured them and estimated the height of every single tree within 565 different patches of forest. The researchers returned every few years to repeat the process, enabling them to figure out the carbon stored in the trees that survived and the ones that died, as The Guardian reported. Their calculations showed that the African tropics have been more resilient than the Amazon, but both are now on a worrying trend line.
"There is a lot of talk about offsetting, but the reality is that every country and every sector needs to reach zero emissions, with any small amount of residual emissions needing to be removed from the atmosphere," Lewis said as The Guardian reported. "The use of forests as an offset is largely a marketing tool for companies to try to continue with business as usual."
Writing in The Independent yesterday, Lewis and White explained, "We need to see emissions declining fast, by almost half by 2030, in order to avoid reaching that feared point where critical carbon sinks become carbon sources and climate change begins to run out of control."
Their thoughts were echoed by Doug Parr, chief scientist at Greenpeace UK, who said to The Guardian, "For years, we have had scientific warnings about tipping points in the Earth system and they've been largely ignored by policy and decision-makers. That forests are now seemingly losing the ability to absorb pollution is alarming. What more of a wake-up call do we need?"
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Wisdom the mōlī, or Laysan albatross, is the oldest wild bird known to science at the age of at least 70. She is also, as of February 1, a new mother.
<div id="dadb2" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="aa2ad8cb566c9b4b6d2df2693669f6f9"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1357796504740761602" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">🚨Cute baby alert! Wisdom's chick has hatched!!! 🐣😍 Wisdom, a mōlī (Laysan albatross) and world’s oldest known, ban… https://t.co/Nco050ztBA</div> — USFWS Pacific Region (@USFWS Pacific Region)<a href="https://twitter.com/USFWSPacific/statuses/1357796504740761602">1612558888.0</a></blockquote></div>
By Hui Hu
Winter is supposed to be the best season for wind power – the winds are stronger, and since air density increases as the temperature drops, more force is pushing on the blades. But winter also comes with a problem: freezing weather.
Comparing rime ice and glaze ice shows how each changes the texture of the blade. Gao, Liu and Hu, 2021, CC BY-ND
Ice buildup changes air flow around the turbine blade, which can slow it down. The top photos show ice forming after 10 minutes at different temperatures in the Wind Research Tunnel. The lower measurements show airflow separation as ice accumulates. Icing Research Tunnel of Iowa State University, CC BY-ND
While traditional investment in the ocean technology sector has been tentative, growth in Israeli maritime innovations has been exponential in the last few years, and environmental concern has come to the forefront.
theDOCK aims to innovate the Israeli maritime sector. Pexels<p>The UN hopes that new investments in ocean science and technology will help turn the tide for the oceans. As such, this year kicked off the <a href="https://www.oceandecade.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030)</a> to galvanize massive support for the blue economy.</p><p>According to the World Bank, the blue economy is the "sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystem," <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019338255#b0245" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Science Direct</a> reported. It represents this new sector for investments and innovations that work in tandem with the oceans rather than in exploitation of them.</p><p>As recently as Aug. 2020, <a href="https://www.reutersevents.com/sustainability/esg-investors-slow-make-waves-25tn-ocean-economy" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Reuters</a> noted that ESG Investors, those looking to invest in opportunities that have a positive impact in environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues, have been interested in "blue finance" but slow to invest.</p><p>"It is a hugely under-invested economic opportunity that is crucial to the way we have to address living on one planet," Simon Dent, director of blue investments at Mirova Natural Capital, told Reuters.</p><p>Even with slow investment, the blue economy is still expected to expand at twice the rate of the mainstream economy by 2030, Reuters reported. It already contributes $2.5tn a year in economic output, the report noted.</p><p>Current, upward <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/-innovation-blue-economy-2646147405.html" target="_self">shifts in blue economy investments are being driven by innovation</a>, a trend the UN hopes will continue globally for the benefit of all oceans and people.</p><p>In Israel, this push has successfully translated into investment in and innovation of global ports, shipping, logistics and offshore sectors. The "Startup Nation," as Israel is often called, has seen its maritime tech ecosystem grow "significantly" in recent years and expects that growth to "accelerate dramatically," <a href="https://itrade.gov.il/belgium-english/how-israel-is-becoming-a-port-of-call-for-maritime-innovation/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">iTrade</a> reported.</p><p>Driving this wave of momentum has been rising Israeli venture capital hub <a href="https://www.thedockinnovation.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">theDOCK</a>. Founded by Israeli Navy veterans in 2017, theDOCK works with early-stage companies in the maritime space to bring their solutions to market. The hub's pioneering efforts ignited Israel's maritime technology sector, and now, with their new fund, theDOCK is motivating these high-tech solutions to also address ESG criteria.</p><p>"While ESG has always been on theDOCK's agenda, this theme has become even more of a priority," Nir Gartzman, theDOCK's managing partner, told EcoWatch. "80 percent of the startups in our portfolio (for theDOCK's Navigator II fund) will have a primary or secondary contribution to environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria."</p><p>In a company presentation, theDOCK called contribution to the ESG agenda a "hot discussion topic" for traditional players in the space and their boards, many of whom are looking to adopt new technologies with a positive impact on the planet. The focus is on reducing carbon emissions and protecting the environment, the presentation outlines. As such, theDOCK also explicitly screens candidate investments by ESG criteria as well.</p><p>Within the maritime space, environmental innovations could include measures like increased fuel and energy efficiency, better monitoring of potential pollution sources, improved waste and air emissions management and processing of marine debris/trash into reusable materials, theDOCK's presentation noted.</p>
theDOCK team includes (left to right) Michal Hendel-Sufa, Head of Alliances, Noa Schuman, CMO, Nir Gartzman, Co-Founder & Managing Partner, and Hannan Carmeli, Co-Founder & Managing Partner. Dudu Koren<p>theDOCK's own portfolio includes companies like Orca AI, which uses an intelligent collision avoidance system to reduce the probability of oil or fuel spills, AiDock, which eliminates the use of paper by automating the customs clearance process, and DockTech, which uses depth "crowdsourcing" data to map riverbeds in real-time and optimize cargo loading, thereby reducing trips and fuel usage while also avoiding groundings.</p><p>"Oceans are a big opportunity primarily because they are just that – big!" theDOCK's Chief Marketing Officer Noa Schuman summarized. "As such, the magnitude of their criticality to the global ecosystem, the magnitude of pollution risk and the steps needed to overcome those challenges – are all huge."</p><p>There is hope that this wave of interest and investment in environmentally-positive maritime technologies will accelerate the blue economy and ESG investing even further, in Israel and beyond.</p>
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