Island Trees Have Nowhere to Run From Climate Change
By Marlene Cimons
Kyle Rosenblad was hiking a steep mountain on the island of Maui in the summer of 2015 when he noticed a ruggedly beautiful tree species scattered around the landscape. Curious, and wondering what they were, he took some photographs and showed them to a friend. They were Bermuda cedars, a species native to the island of Bermuda, first planted on Maui in the early 1900s.
"Sometimes, island species are transported by humans outside their native islands — either to a mainland continent or to another island — and manage to survive in the wild there, as the Bermuda cedar has done on Maui," said Rosenblad, a research associate with the Sax Lab at Brown University's department of ecology and evolutionary biology.
He had never been to Bermuda, but suspected its climate was different from Maui's. "Then it hit me: if my suspicion was correct, then this species, by succeeding in Maui's climate, was effectively showing us its biological buffer that might help it survive future climate change," Rosenblad said."However, we still didn't know whether this buffer would be wide enough to accommodate the changes in climate expected to occur on Bermuda."
In other words, the Bermuda cedar could cope with life on Maui, but that doesn't mean it could cope with life in Bermuda later this century.
A Bermuda beach
Existing research shows that island species are less diverse than their cousins on the mainland. That lack of diversity makes them vulnerable to changing conditions. On an island, for instance, every member of a particular tree species might be suited to cool weather, whereas on the mainland, some are suited to the cold, while others are built for the heat. If temperatures rise, at least some of the mainland trees, those built for warm weather, might endure, but the island trees could perish.
"If climate change makes a given island too warm for the species that live there — or too dry or too stormy — then those species will be stuck on their island with nowhere to escape," Rosenblad said.
Rosenblad and his colleagues — Dov Sax, head of the Sax Lab, and doctoral student Daniel Perret — investigated the dangers that climate change poses to island species by studying conifers, a group that includes cedars, firs and pines. "When unique island tree species are given a chance to grow outside their native islands, how much extra climate hardiness do they show?" Rosenblad said. "And will that extra hardiness be sufficient to help them survive predicted future changes in climate?"
Branches of a Bermuda cedar
What they found was troubling. Their work suggests that climate change could push many small island conifers — nearly a quarter of those they studied — into extinction by 2070. The smaller the island the more danger, as trees have nowhere to flee. The larger the island, the more varied the climate, meaning species can relocate to cooler areas. Their research appears in the journal Nature Climate Change.
"Our results took us by surprise," Rosenblad said. "We expect if these species are left to fend for themselves, climate change will eventually drive them extinct."
Species can adapt to new conditions, but climate change will make that difficult. "The rub is that for some species, the amount of hardiness and adaptability they have shown is still not enough to buffer them against the changes in climate that are expected to occur on their native islands," Rosenblad said.
Canary Island pine trees, one of the conifers used in the study
So, while the Bermuda cedar may thrive on Maui, adapting to the future climate of Bermuda "will require an even bigger stretch," he added. He added that while the Bermuda cedar is surviving in many different places, "sadly none of them has a climate that resembles the one that Bermuda is projected to have in 50 years." That being the case, he said, "we still don't have any evidence that it can handle the climatic changes that are expected to occur on its native island."
The scientists urged caution in interpreting the findings, as species might be hardier that the evidence suggests. "However, I still find our results highly concerning," Rosenblad said.
In conducting their study, the researchers relied upon data obtained from global digitized plant specimen collections. Focusing on 55 species of coniferous trees, they cross-referenced information about them with existing worldwide climate statistics to determine the climate conditions, such as temperature and precipitation, at each location where their study species were found, including their native islands and other sites. They then built computer models for each species which told the researchers how the species would fare under different combinations of climatic conditions, including climate conditions projected for their native islands in 50 years.
Norfolk Island pines, one of the conifers used in the study
Researchers said many island tree species likely will require "serious help" withstanding climate change. "Failing to provide this help could have dire consequences, not just for the tree species themselves," he said. Trees perform essential functions, he explained, "like helping to regulate the flows of water and nutrients through the ecosystem."
Researchers called for targeted conservation efforts to avert extinction. Moreover, many of these trees also are culturally significant to island residents, especially the Bermuda cedar.
"It remains an indelible Bermudian cultural symbol," Rosenblad said. "Its wood has long been prized by artisans and builders. There is even a Bermudian wedding tradition, in which the cake is presented carrying a cedar seedling on top, and the couple then plants the seedling together."
He added, " It's important to underscore the beauty of these trees — and help them avoid extinction — so future generations can benefit from all they have to offer."
Reposted with permission from our media associate Nexus Media.
Environmental officials and members of the U.S. Coast Guard are racing to clean up a mysterious oil spill that has spread to 11 miles of Delaware coastline.
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By Dr. Kate Raynes-Goldie
Of all the plastic we've ever produced, only 9% has been recycled. So what happened to all that plastic you've put in the recycling bin over the years?
Triangle of Mistruths<p>The myth created around plastic recycling has been one of simplicity. We look for the familiar triangle arrows, then pop the waste in the recycling bin so it can be reused.</p><p>But the true purpose of those triangles has been misunderstood by the general public ever since their invention in the 1980s.</p><p>These triangles were actually created by the plastics industry and, according to a report provided to them in July 1993, <a href="https://www.npr.org/transcripts/912150085" target="_blank">were creating "unrealistic expectations"</a> about what could be recycled. But they decided to keep using the codes.</p><p>Which is why many people still believe that these triangular symbols (also known as a <a href="https://sustainablepackaging.org/101-resin-identification-codes/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">resin identifier code</a> or RIC) means something is recyclable.</p><p>But according to the American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) – which controls the RIC system – the numbered triangles "<a href="https://www.astm.org/Standards/D7611.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">are not recycle codes</a>." In fact, they weren't created for the general public at all. They were made for the post-consumer plastic industry.</p><p>In other words, the symbols make it easier to sort the different types of plastics, some of which cannot be recycled – <a href="https://www.ecobin.com.au/understand-recycling-codes/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">depending on the recycling facility</a>.</p><p>"Unfortunately, just placing your plastic into the recycling bin doesn't mean it will get recycled," says Lara Camilla Pinho. She is an architect and lecturer at the UWA School of Design who is researching novel uses of plastic waste.</p><p>"The recycling system is complicated and often dictated by market demand. Not all plastic is recyclable. We cannot recycle plastic bags or straws for example."</p>
Behind the Scenes<p>So, what makes recycling plastics so difficult?</p><p>"Essentially, there are two types of plastics – thermoplastics and thermosets. While thermoplastics can be re-melted and re-molded, thermosets contain cross-linked polymers that cannot be separated meaning they cannot be recycled," says Lara.</p><p>"Even thermoplastics have a limit to the amount of times we can recycle them, as each time they are recycled they downgrade in quality."</p><p>Even when plastics are recyclable, it is <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/13/war-on-plastic-waste-faces-setback-as-cost-of-recycled-material-soars" target="_blank">often more costly</a> than simply making new plastics.</p>
Sugar, Seaweed and Mushrooms<p>If the conventional recycling system isn't working, what else can we do with all the plastic we've created?</p><p>Lara is looking for ways to add value to recycled plastics such as using it in the design and development of architectural products. She hopes to use these architectural products to help underserved communities that are disproportionately affected by plastic waste.</p><p>In addition to recycling, we also need to find ways to reduce our use of virgin petroleum-based plastics.</p><p>Bioplastic is one such product that has been getting a lot of hype over the last few years. And although they're better than petroleum-based plastics, bioplastics also come with their own <a href="https://phys.org/news/2017-12-truth-bioplastics.html" target="_blank">set of challenges</a>.</p><p>"There are already a lot of bio-based alternatives to plastic, such as bagasse – a byproduct of sugar cane processing," says Lara.</p><p><a href="https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-mycelium-revolution-is-upon-us/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Mycelium</a>, a type of fungi we most often associate with mushrooms, are also providing an interesting plastic alternative.</p><p>"In the field of architecture, mycelium is starting to be used as an alternative to plastic insulation, but also as compostable packaging and bricks," says Lara.</p><p>"The bricks take around five days to make and are strong, durable, water resistant and compostable at the end of their use."</p><p><a href="https://www.arup.com/news-and-events/hyfi-reinvents-the-brick" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Hy-Fi Tower</a>, created by <a href="http://www.thelivingnewyork.com/living_about.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Living</a>, is an example of a building made from these bricks.</p><p>And finally, there's seaweed.</p><p>"[Seaweed is] cheap and can reproduce itself quickly without fertilizers. In architecture, there is use for seaweed as an alternative to plastic insulation but also as cladding," says Lara.</p>
More Money, More Problems<p>While all these alternatives are great, the main cause of our plastic dilemma is not scientific or technological, but economic.</p><p>As long as it remains <a href="https://engineering.mit.edu/engage/ask-an-engineer/why-is-it-cheaper-to-make-new-plastic-bottles-than-to-recycle-old-ones/" target="_blank">cheaper to create new plastics</a> from fossil fuels rather than from bioplastics or from recycling, we're going to be stuck with plastic garbage islands floating in our oceans.</p><p>The true cost to our health and our environment has yet to be included in the equation. But once it is, maybe that is when the real shift will happen.</p>
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Towards the end of the final presidential debate of the 2020 election season, the moderator asked both candidates how they would address both the climate crisis and job growth, leading to a nearly 12-minute discussion where Donald Trump did not acknowledge that the climate is changing and Joe Biden called the climate crisis an existential threat.
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By Zheng Chen and Darren H. S. Tan
As concern mounts over the impacts of climate change, many experts are calling for greater use of electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels. Powered by advancements in battery technology, the number of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles on U.S. roads is increasing. And utilities are generating a growing share of their power from renewable fuels, supported by large-scale battery storage systems.