This Climate Solution Could Cool the Planet and Feed the World
While the world focused on a deal to reduce emissions, another international initiative was quietly signed at the Paris climate conference, highlighting a critical but little known climate solution: soil.
In the first few days of COP21, in a standing-room-only crowd of 300+ delegates, French Minister of Agriculture Stéphane Le Foll championed the signing of a visionary initiative to increase the organic carbon level of agricultural soils by 0.4 percent each year.
@FrankRijsberman presenting the interest of 4/1000 initiative for adaptation to #climatechange https://t.co/shYgJgBPhK— François Houllier (@François Houllier)1448964961.0
According to the signatories from more than 25 countries—including France, Australia, Mexico, Germany and Japan—and hundreds of food, agriculture and research organizations, regenerative agricultural practices that store excess carbon in the soil have the potential to cool the planet and feed the world.
The 4/1000 Initiative: Soils for Food Security and Climate, consists of a voluntary action plan under the Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA), backed up by an ambitious research program. It aims to show that food security and combating climate change are complementary. It also positions our farmers as the pioneering climate heroes of our generation.
The French 4/1000 Initiative is the most direct plan for reversing #climagtechange! https://t.co/Vn5eILhvjy #COP21 https://t.co/IzSrkABaS0— Organic Consumers (@Organic Consumers)1450116045.0
“The conclusion is simple,” said Le Foll in a statement at COP21. “If we can store the equivalent of 4 per 1000 (tons of carbon) in farmland soils, we are capable of storing all man-made emissions on the planet today.”
“This is the most exciting news to come out of COP21,” said Andre Leu, president of IFOAM—Organics International. “By launching this initiative, the French government has validated the work of scientists, farmers and ranchers who have demonstrated the power of organic regenerative agriculture to restore the soil’s natural ability to draw down and sequester carbon.”
While soil was not on the official agenda at the climate conference in Paris, the representatives from an informal coalition of soil organizations brought the topic to the masses at a number of panels and side events, and from the Eiffel Tower itself.
“We’re spreading the ‘aha’ moment of our lifetime,” says Ryland Engelhart, chief inspiration officer behind the Los Angeles vegan restaurants Café Gratitude and Gracias Madre and co-Founder of California nonprofit Kiss The Ground. “Healthy soil is a solution right under our feet.” Kiss The Ground’s short film, The Soil Story, which explains how soil can balance the climate, was depicted in lights during the Paris climate summit.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports that even a small increase in carbon in our agricultural soils (notably grasslands, pastures and forest soils), is “crucial to contribute to achieving the long-term objective of limiting the global temperature increase to +2°C (+3.6°F).”
“Balancing the carbon cycle through regenerative agriculture practices is a viable and affordable solution to climate change,” according to Finian Makepeace, policy director of Kiss The Ground. “The way we grow our food can restore ecology and create abundant food sources, if we work with nature instead of against it.”
“Climate change, quite simply, cannot be halted without fixing agriculture,” shares Michael Pollan, food journalist and Berkley professor, in his recent Washington Post op-ed. “Regenerative farming would also increase the fertility of the land, making it more productive and better able to absorb and hold water, a critical function especially in times of climate-related floods and droughts. Carbon-rich fields require less synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and generate more productive crops, cutting farmer expenses.”
The Center for Food Safety explains the simple farming techniques being used today, such as crop diversity, rotation, composting and cover crops, which are key components in adding carbon to the land to make it more productive. “Covered fields keep carbon, nitrogen and other vital nutrients in soil, resulting in far more photosynthesis than bare fields, increasing carbon sequestration, and lowering the overall carbon footprint of farming,” the organization said.
While the recently signed UNFCCC Paris agreement for emissions reduction is a huge and important step, it’s only half of the solution. Even if we stopped all greenhouse emissions today, per the latest statement from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, climate change is irreversible “except in the case of a large net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere over a sustained period.”
That is, there is no way to reverse CO2 increases that are already locked in unless we also draw down atmospheric carbon.
California Department of Food and Agriculture Secretary Karen Ross agrees. “Healthy soils are critical not only for global food production but also for sustainability in a changing climate.”
While the U.S. was notably absent from the room, the State of California is working on pioneering initiatives, adding agriculture to its climate change goals and with the launch of Gov. Brown’s Healthy Soils Initiative.
2015 is also the UN International Year of Soils.
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Since even moderate-intensity workouts offer a slew of benefits, walking is a good choice for people looking to stay healthy.
How to Rock Your Walk<p>Walking isn't just fun and healthy. It's accessible.</p><p>"Walking is cheap," says Dr. John Paul H. Rue, a sports medicine doctor at <a href="https://mdmercy.com/" target="_blank">Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore</a>. "You can do it anywhere at any time; [it] requires little to no special equipment and has many of the same cardio benefits as running or other more intense workouts."</p><p>Want to up your walking game? Try the tips below.</p>
Use Hand Weights<p>Cardio and strength training can go hand-in-hand when you add weights to your walk.</p><p>A <a href="https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2019/03000/Associations_of_Resistance_Exercise_with.14.aspx" target="_blank">2019 study</a> found that weight training is good for your heart, and <a href="https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(17)30167-2/abstract" target="_blank">research</a> shows it reduces the risk of developing a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/nutrition-metabolism-disorders" target="_blank">metabolic disorder</a> by 17 percent. People with metabolic disorders have a higher chance of being diagnosed with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes.</p><p>Rue suggests not carrying weights for your entire walk.</p><p>"Hand weights can give you an added level of energy burning, but you have to be careful with these because carrying [them] over a long period of time or while walking could actually lead to some overuse injuries," he says.</p>
Make It a Circuit<p>As another option, consider doing a circuit. First, put a pair of dumbbells on your lawn or somewhere in your home. Walk around the block once, then stop and do some bicep curls and tricep lifts before walking around the block again.</p><p>Rue recommends <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/exercise-fitness/running-with-weights" target="_blank">avoiding ankle weights</a> during cardio workouts, as they force you to use your quadriceps rather than hamstrings. They can also cause muscle imbalance, according to the <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/wearable-weights-how-they-can-help-or-hurt" target="_blank">Harvard Health Letter</a>.</p>
Find a Fitness Trail<p>Strength training isn't limited to weights. You can get stronger by <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/bodyweight-workout" target="_blank">simply using your body</a>.</p><p>Often found at parks, fitness trails are obstacle courses with equipment for pullups, pushups, rowing, and stretches to build upper and lower body strength.</p><p>Try searching "fitness trails near me" online, checking out your local parks and recreation website, or calling the municipal office to <a href="https://calisthenics-parks.com/" target="_blank">find one</a>.</p>
Recruit a Friend<p>People who workout together stay healthy together.</p><p><a href="https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-017-0584-3" target="_blank">One study</a> showed that older adults who exercised with a group improved or maintained their functional health and enjoyed their lives more.</p><p>Enlist the help of a walking buddy with a regimen you aspire to have. If you don't know anyone in your area, apps like <a href="https://www.strava.com/" target="_blank">Strava</a> have social networking features so you can get support from fellow exercisers.</p>
Try Meditation<p>According to the <a href="https://www.nccih.nih.gov/research/statistics/nhis/2017" target="_blank">2017 National Health Interview Survey</a>, published by the National Institutes of Health, meditation is on the rise, and for good reason.</p><p>Researchers <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29616846/" target="_blank">found</a> that mind-body relaxation practices can regulate inflammation, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/biological-rhythms" target="_blank">circadian rhythms</a>, and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/glucose" target="_blank">glucose</a> metabolism, as well as lower <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension" target="_blank">blood pressure</a>.</p><p>"Any form of exercise can be turned into a meditation of some type, either by the surroundings you are walking in, like a park or trail, or by blocking out the outside world with music on your headphones," Rue says.</p><p>You can also play a podcast or download an app like <a href="https://www.headspace.com/headspace-meditation-app" target="_blank">Headspace</a> that has a library of guided meditations to practice while you walk.</p>
Do Fartlek Walks<p>Typically used in running, fartlek intervals alternate periods of increased and decreased speed. These are <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-hiit" target="_blank">high-intensity interval training (HIIT)</a> workouts, which allow exercisers to accomplish more in less time.</p><p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154075" target="_blank">One study</a> showed that 10-minute interval training improved <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/metabolic-syndrome" target="_blank">cardiometabolic</a> health, or lowered the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, just as well as working out at a continuous pace for 50 minutes.</p><p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111489" target="_blank">Research</a> also shows that HIIT workouts increase muscle <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/fast-twitch-muscles" target="_blank">oxidative</a> capacity, or the ability to use oxygen. To do a fartlek walk, try walking at an increased pace for 3 minutes, slow down for 2 minutes, and repeat.</p>
Gradually Increase Pace<p>A faster walking pace is associated with a lower risk of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/copd" target="_blank">chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)</a> and respiratory diseases, according to a <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30303933/" target="_blank">2019 study</a>.</p><p>Still, it's best not to go from a stroll to an Olympic-worthy power walk in a day. Instead, increase your pace gradually to prevent injury.</p><p>"Start by walking at a brisk pace for about 10 minutes per day, 3 to 5 days per week," Rue says. "Once you've done this for a few weeks, increase your time by 5 to 10 minutes per day until you get to 30 minutes."</p>
Add Stairs<p>You've likely heard that taking the stairs instead of an elevator is a way to add more movement into your daily routine. It's also a way to step up your walking. Stair climbing has been shown to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335519301123?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">decrease the risk of mortality</a> and can easily add a bit more challenge to your walk.</p><p>If you don't have stairs in your home, you can often find them outside a local municipal building, train station, or at a high school stadium.</p>
Is Your Walk a True Cardio Workout?<p>Not all walks are equal. A walk that's too leisurely may not provide enough burn to qualify as cardio. To see if you're getting a good workout, try to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/how-to-check-heart-rate" target="_blank">measure your heart rate</a> using a monitor.</p><p>"A target goal for a good walking workout heart rate is about 50 to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate," Rue says, adding that maximum heart rate is <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/fitness-exercise/fat-burning-heart-rate" target="_blank">typically calculated</a> by 220 beats per minute minus your age.</p><p>You can also monitor how easily you can carry on a conversation while you walk to gauge your heart rate.</p><p>"If you can walk and carry on a normal conversation, that's probably a lower intensity walk," says Rue. "If you are slightly breathless but can still have a conversation, that's probably a moderate workout. If you are out of breath and can't talk normally, that's a vigorous workout."</p>
Takeaway<p>By shaking up your routine, you can add excitement to your workout and reap even more rewards than a basic walk provides. Increasing the pace and intensity of a workout will make it more effective.</p><p>Simply pick your favorite variation to add some spice to your next walk.</p>
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