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This Climate Solution Could Cool the Planet and Feed the World
While the world focused on a deal to reduce emissions, another international initiative was quietly signed at the Paris climate conference, highlighting a critical but little known climate solution: soil.
In the first few days of COP21, in a standing-room-only crowd of 300+ delegates, French Minister of Agriculture Stéphane Le Foll championed the signing of a visionary initiative to increase the organic carbon level of agricultural soils by 0.4 percent each year.
According to the signatories from more than 25 countries—including France, Australia, Mexico, Germany and Japan—and hundreds of food, agriculture and research organizations, regenerative agricultural practices that store excess carbon in the soil have the potential to cool the planet and feed the world.
The 4/1000 Initiative: Soils for Food Security and Climate, consists of a voluntary action plan under the Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA), backed up by an ambitious research program. It aims to show that food security and combating climate change are complementary. It also positions our farmers as the pioneering climate heroes of our generation.
“The conclusion is simple,” said Le Foll in a statement at COP21. “If we can store the equivalent of 4 per 1000 (tons of carbon) in farmland soils, we are capable of storing all man-made emissions on the planet today.”
“This is the most exciting news to come out of COP21,” said Andre Leu, president of IFOAM—Organics International. “By launching this initiative, the French government has validated the work of scientists, farmers and ranchers who have demonstrated the power of organic regenerative agriculture to restore the soil’s natural ability to draw down and sequester carbon.”
While soil was not on the official agenda at the climate conference in Paris, the representatives from an informal coalition of soil organizations brought the topic to the masses at a number of panels and side events, and from the Eiffel Tower itself.
“We’re spreading the ‘aha’ moment of our lifetime,” says Ryland Engelhart, chief inspiration officer behind the Los Angeles vegan restaurants Café Gratitude and Gracias Madre and co-Founder of California nonprofit Kiss The Ground. “Healthy soil is a solution right under our feet.” Kiss The Ground’s short film, The Soil Story, which explains how soil can balance the climate, was depicted in lights during the Paris climate summit.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports that even a small increase in carbon in our agricultural soils (notably grasslands, pastures and forest soils), is “crucial to contribute to achieving the long-term objective of limiting the global temperature increase to +2°C (+3.6°F).”
“Balancing the carbon cycle through regenerative agriculture practices is a viable and affordable solution to climate change,” according to Finian Makepeace, policy director of Kiss The Ground. “The way we grow our food can restore ecology and create abundant food sources, if we work with nature instead of against it.”
“Climate change, quite simply, cannot be halted without fixing agriculture,” shares Michael Pollan, food journalist and Berkley professor, in his recent Washington Post op-ed. “Regenerative farming would also increase the fertility of the land, making it more productive and better able to absorb and hold water, a critical function especially in times of climate-related floods and droughts. Carbon-rich fields require less synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and generate more productive crops, cutting farmer expenses.”
The Center for Food Safety explains the simple farming techniques being used today, such as crop diversity, rotation, composting and cover crops, which are key components in adding carbon to the land to make it more productive. “Covered fields keep carbon, nitrogen and other vital nutrients in soil, resulting in far more photosynthesis than bare fields, increasing carbon sequestration, and lowering the overall carbon footprint of farming,” the organization said.
While the recently signed UNFCCC Paris agreement for emissions reduction is a huge and important step, it’s only half of the solution. Even if we stopped all greenhouse emissions today, per the latest statement from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, climate change is irreversible “except in the case of a large net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere over a sustained period.”
That is, there is no way to reverse CO2 increases that are already locked in unless we also draw down atmospheric carbon.
California Department of Food and Agriculture Secretary Karen Ross agrees. “Healthy soils are critical not only for global food production but also for sustainability in a changing climate.”
While the U.S. was notably absent from the room, the State of California is working on pioneering initiatives, adding agriculture to its climate change goals and with the launch of Gov. Brown’s Healthy Soils Initiative.
2015 is also the UN International Year of Soils.
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A powerful volcano on Monday rocked an uninhabited island frequented by tourists about 30 miles off New Zealand's coast. Authorities have confirmed that five people died. They expect that number to rise as some are missing and police officials issued a statement that flights around the islands revealed "no signs of life had been seen at any point,", as The Guardian reported.
"Based on the information we have, we do not believe there are any survivors on the island," the police said in their official statement. "Police is working urgently to confirm the exact number of those who have died, further to the five confirmed deceased already."
The eruption happened on New Zealand's Whakaari/White Island, an islet jutting out of the Bay of Plenty, off the country's North Island. The island is privately owned and is typically visited for day-trips by thousands of tourists every year, according to The New York Times.
My god, White Island volcano in New Zealand erupted today for first time since 2001. My family and I had gotten off it 20 minutes before, were waiting at our boat about to leave when we saw it. Boat ride home tending to people our boat rescued was indescribable. #whiteisland pic.twitter.com/QJwWi12Tvt— Michael Schade (@sch) December 9, 2019
Michael Schade / Twitter
At the time of the eruption on Monday, about 50 passengers from the Ovation of Seas were on the island, including more than 30 who were part of a Royal Caribbean cruise trip, according to CNN. Twenty-three people, including the five dead, were evacuated from the island.
The eruption occurred at 2:11 pm local time on Monday, as footage from a crater camera owned and operated by GeoNet, New Zealand's geological hazards agency, shows. The camera also shows dozens of people walking near the rim as white smoke billows just before the eruption, according to Reuters.
Police were unable to reach the island because searing white ash posed imminent danger to rescue workers, said John Tims, New Zealand's deputy police commissioner, as he stood next to Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern in a press conference, as The New York Times reported. Tims said rescue workers would assess the safety of approaching the island on Tuesday morning. "We know the urgency to go back to the island," he told reporters.
"The physical environment is unsafe for us to return to the island," Tims added, as CNN reported. "It's important that we consider the health and safety of rescuers, so we're taking advice from experts going forward."
Authorities have had no communication with anyone on the island. They are frantically working to identify how many people remain and who they are, according to CNN.
Geologists said the eruption is not unexpected and some questioned why the island is open to tourism.
"The volcano has been restless for a few weeks, resulting in the raising of the alert level, so that this eruption is not really a surprise," said Bill McGuire, emeritus professor of geophysical and climate hazards at University College London, as The Guardian reported.
"White Island has been a disaster waiting to happen for many years," said Raymond Cas, emeritus professor at Monash University's school of earth, atmosphere and environment, as The Guardian reported. "Having visited it twice, I have always felt that it was too dangerous to allow the daily tour groups that visit the uninhabited island volcano by boat and helicopter."
The prime minister arrived Monday night in Whakatane, the town closest to the eruption, where day boats visiting the island are docked. Whakatane has a large Maori population.
Ardern met with local council leaders on Monday. She is scheduled to meet with search and rescue teams and will speak to the media at 7 a.m. local time (1 p.m. EST), after drones survey the island, as CNN reported.
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