By Ajit Niranjan
When private equity giant Blackstone invested in alternative milk maker Oatly this summer, furious customers pledged to boycott the dairy-free drink.
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Project goal: To create an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to leather, in this case using fungi.
McDonald's' ended a highly-publicized six-month trial of a meatless Beyond Meat burger April 6 without announcing any plans to continue or expand the partnership, CBC News reported Thursday. Instead, it simply removed the burger's information from its website.
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By Jeannette Cwienk
After the coronavirus spread through a number of slaughterhouses in Germany and the United States, some people might be asking themselves how they can replace meat in their diets.
1. Soy Products: Schnitzel, Tofu, Tempeh<p>The typical meat substitute in supermarkets in Europe, North America and Australia comes from soy. From burgers and goulash to sliced meat, sausages and cold cuts — a variety of products are seasoned and shaped to resemble animal products. In its native Asia, soy is mostly consumed as the fresh bean, edamame, or as tofu and tempeh.</p><p>The protein content of dried soybeans is significant — about 35-40%. On top of that, the bean contains several essential amino acids that the body needs to absorb protein. But it's also important to point out that the beans' protein content drops to about 12% after cooking. Tofu contains 7-15 grams, while tempeh and soy strips contain 18-20%.</p><p>Besides protein, soybeans also contain many unsaturated fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. By comparison, 100 grams of raw pork has about 18% protein, according to the GU nutrition table.</p><p>Given that 80% of the world's soybean cultivation <a href="https://www.worldwildlife.org/industries/soy" target="_blank">comes from the United States, Argentina and Brazil</a>, the bean usually travels some distance before it's consumed. But the argument that the <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/protecting-paraguays-forests-from-cows-and-soy-farms/a-16700031" target="_blank">rainforest is being cut down for tofu makes little sense</a>, because 80% of the world's soy production is actually used as animal feed. </p><p><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/eu-reaps-healthy-yield-from-us-china-soybean-spat/a-44923688" target="_blank">Farmers in Europe are now also growing soy</a>, although the conditions aren't ideal — the beans come from the subtropics, and so need a warm, humid environment to thrive. Soybeans require less water than meat production, but don't score as well on that front compared to some other legumes. </p>
2. Lupins<p><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/6-of-the-most-sustainable-meat-alternatives/a-53425695?maca=en-VAM_volltext_ecowatch-28485-html-copypaste" target="_blank">Meat alternatives made from sweet lupins</a> are becoming more popular in Germany, with shredded lupin or lupin steak no longer a rarity on supermarket shelves. Lupins are most commonly used, however, as a substitute for milk, yogurt or eggs. They're also used in gluten-free baking products because they contain no gluten.</p><p>Lupins have an impressively high amount of protein: the plant's dried beans contain at least 40%, as well as various vitamins and minerals. Unlike soybeans, lupins can cope with a dry climate and grow well in lime and sandy soils. That means conditions in Europe are better suited to lupins than soybeans.</p>
3. Beans and Beyond<p><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/can-pulses-conquer-palates-and-save-the-planet/a-19277439" target="_blank">Beans, lentils and peas also have protein in spades</a>. In their dry form, green peas contain around 23%, but that amount shrinks to 8% during cooking. Most types of beans contain 8-10% protein after cooking — more than half that of pork. These legumes aren't available as sausages or cutlets — at least not yet anyway. Still, a bean-based chili sin carne promises a decent amount of protein, as does a spread made from brown lentils instead of Leberwurst, or liver pate. Add green spelt grain, spelt or oat-flakes (17% protein) to this spread, and it becomes even healthier, as well as tasty. That's because these cereals, nuts and seeds are ideal for the absorption of protein.</p><p>All legumes, including soybeans and lupins, have a positive effect on the soil they grow in. They hardly need any fertilizer, since they draw nitrogen from the air with the help of nodule bacteria. They also enrich the earth with humus.</p>
4. Seitan – Wheat Protein<p>This meat substitute consists of wheat gluten. Its slightly fibrous texture means it is mainly used for ready-made meat alternatives. It's produced by mixing flour and water into a dough, followed by repeated rinsing to remove starch until only the protein mass remains. </p><p>As with tofu, a large amount of the vitamins and minerals are lost during this process. And then there are the many flavorings and thickeners that often get added. One advantage Seitan has over soy, though, is that the wheat or spelt it comes from can be grown in many parts of the world.</p>
5. Sunflower Seeds<p>This type of "ground meat" comes from the remnants of sunflower seeds after they've been pressed to extract oil. It contains large amounts of protein, all the essential amino acids and many B vitamins.</p><p>All nuts and seeds generally have a very high protein content. Hemp seeds top the list with more than 31%, closely followed by pumpkin seeds, peanuts (26%), almonds (21%) and sunflower seeds (19%). Nuts and seeds also contain valuable unsaturated fatty acids. This also makes them a good source of energy, in their unpressed form.</p>
6. Quorn<p>This meat substitute, known as Quorn, is made from fermented mold fungus, with added vitamins and egg protein. </p><p>Vegetarians can enjoy it fried, for example, but for vegans this highly processed product isn't an option. Still, its climate footprint is likely smaller than that of a steak, if only because the production of eggs doesn't consume as many resources as that of meat. </p>
The B12 Problem<p>Despite all the advantages that come with plant-based meat substitutes, one essential nutrient is missing: vitamin B12. Only animal products can provide sufficient bioavailable levels of it. The <a href="https://www.dge.de/en/" target="_blank">German Nutrition Society</a> recommends an intake of 3 micrograms per day. That's the equivalent of about 100 grams of beef or salmon, 150 grams of cheese, or half a liter of whole milk. That means those who don't eat animal products have to resort to food supplements to get their daily B12 dose.</p>
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Some Vegans May Live Longer<p>Research examining the link between plant-based diets and longevity has produced mixed results.</p><p>One large review of vegans and vegetarians in the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, and Japan suggests that they have a 9% lower risk of death from all causes, compared with omnivores.</p><p>Another study examined Seventh Day Adventists in North America. The <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/seventh-day-adventist-diet" target="_blank">Seventh Day Adventist diet</a> is typically plant-based, rich in whole foods, and free of alcohol and caffeine — although some may incorporate small amounts of eggs, dairy, or meat.</p><p>The study suggested that vegetarians and vegans may benefit from a 12% lower risk of death, compared with people who eat meat.</p><p>When separated from the rest, vegans had a 15% lower risk of dying prematurely from all causes, indicating that a vegan diet may indeed help people live longer than those who adhere to vegetarian or omnivorous eating patterns.</p><p>However, other studies in vegetarians in the United Kingdom and Australia report that they're no more likely to live longer than non-vegetarians.</p><p>Thus, there's no definitive link between veganism and lifespan.</p><p>Furthermore, most studies group <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/vegan-vs-vegetarian" target="_blank">vegetarians and vegans</a> together, making it difficult to determine the exact effects of each diet on a person's life expectancy. Therefore, more research is needed solely on vegan diets before strong conclusions can be made.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Some scientific reviews suggest that vegetarian and vegan diets may help people live longer, but these findings aren't universal. As such, more comprehensive studies are necessary.</p>
Why Do Some Vegans Live Longer?<p>Researchers theorize that vegans who live longer than average tend to do so for two main reasons involving both diet and lifestyle.</p><p><strong>Vegan Diets Are Often Rich in Nutritious Compounds</strong></p><p>Veganism eliminates all animal-based foods, including meat, dairy, eggs, and products derived from them. This usually results in a diet that's rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds.</p><p>Research suggests that diets loaded with these plant foods may help people live longer. The same can be said about diets low in red and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/why-processed-meat-is-bad" target="_blank">processed meats</a>.</p><p>Moreover, vegan diets tend to pack plenty of fiber, plant protein, and antioxidants.</p><p>Diets rich in these nutrients are believed to safeguard against obesity, type 2 diabetes, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cancer-and-diet" target="_blank">cancer</a>, and heart disease — which could promote increased life expectancy.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29566200" target="_blank"></a></p><p><strong>Vegans Tend to Have Healthier Lifestyles</strong></p><p>As a group, vegans may be more likely to pursue a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/27-health-and-nutrition-tips" target="_blank">health-conscious lifestyle</a> compared with the general population.</p><p>For instance, research shows that vegans may be less likely to smoke or drink alcohol. They also appear more likely to maintain a normal body mass index (BMI), exercise regularly, and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/avoiding-junk-food" target="_blank">avoid overly processed junk foods</a>.</p><p>Experts believe that this increased health consciousness may help explain why some vegans live longer than non-vegans.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong>Vegan diets tend to be rich in nutrients that may protect against illnesses and boost your lifespan. Many people who follow this eating pattern also make lifestyle choices, such as exercising regularly and avoiding processed foods, that may aid longevity.</p>
Not All Vegans Live Longer<p><br>It's important to remember that not all vegan diets are rich in nutrients. In fact, some vegans may rely heavily on sugary, processed foods — which could negatively affect longevity.</p><p>Notably, studies that rate plant-based diets based on their relative amounts of processed versus nutritious foods suggest that only robust, well-planned plant-based diets are linked to an extended lifespan and lower risk of disease.</p><p>A healthy vegan diet is typically defined as one that's rich in minimally processed plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, with very few processed junk foods.</p><p>Meanwhile, a poorly planned vegan diet may rely heavily on sweets, processed items, and other foods that are technically vegan but very poor in nutrients.</p><p>For instance, one study claims that plant-based diets as a whole may lower your risk of dying from heart disease by 8%. However, nutritious plant-based diets lower this risk by 25% — while unhealthy ones increase it by 32%.</p><p>Another suggests that improving the quality of a plant-based diet over 12-years may reduce the likelihood of dying prematurely by 10%. Conversely, reducing its quality over the same period may result in a 12% higher risk of premature death.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31401846" target="_blank"></a></p><p>This may explain why a recent review found that while vegetarians are more likely to live longer than the general population, their life expectancy is no higher than that of similarly health-conscious meat eaters.</p><p>However, few studies directly compare the effects of healthy or unhealthy vegan diets to healthy or unhealthy omnivorous ones. Overall, more research is needed.</p><p><strong>SUMMARY</strong>Poorly planned vegan diets likely don't offer the same health benefits as nutritious versions of the diet. Nutrient-poor vegan diets may even lower your life expectancy.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>Vegan diets are linked to numerous health benefits, including a lower risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/heart-healthy-foods" target="_blank">heart disease</a>. Some evidence indicates that they may also help you live longer.</p><p>Yet, like most diets, vegan diets vary in quality. This may partly explain why vegans don't always outlive non-vegans.</p><p>If you're vegan and looking to maximize any <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/13-habits-linked-to-a-long-life" target="_blank">longevity-promoting effects</a>, replace processed foods in your diet with whole plant foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds.</p>
Oat milk is quickly becoming one of the more popular plant-based milks for everything from breakfast cereal to baking.
Many Brands Are Contaminated With Gluten<p>Gluten is a group of proteins found in wheat, rye, and barley.</p><p>While it's safe for most people to eat, it inflames and damages the lining of the small intestine in people with <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/celiac-disease-symptoms" target="_blank">celiac disease</a> and possibly those with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Thus, anyone with these conditions must strictly avoid gluten.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28810029" target="_blank"></a></p><p>Oats are <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/gluten-in-oats" target="_blank">naturally gluten-free</a>. However, because they're often grown near wheat and processed in facilities that also handle wheat products, they're frequently cross-contaminated with gluten.</p><p>Thus, oat milk is likewise susceptible to contamination.</p><p>A Canadian study in 133 oat samples discovered that 88% were contaminated with more than 20 parts per million (ppm) of gluten — the general cutoff for a food to be considered gluten-free.</p><p>That said, one of the varieties was certified gluten-free and tested negative for gluten.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118497/" target="_blank"></a></p><p>When researchers in the United States assessed 78 foods labeled gluten-free, 20.5% had gluten levels over 20 ppm.</p><p>Keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) doesn't analyze foods for gluten content. Instead, it's up to manufacturers to test the products themselves.</p><p>Some manufacturers use third-party testing labs to ensure that their products are under the threshold for gluten. These have a certification — usually shown as a small stamp on the packaging — that ensures the product is indeed gluten-free.</p><p>If you can't consume gluten, you should only buy oat milk that's certified gluten-free.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Although naturally gluten-free, oats are frequently cross-contaminated with gluten. Therefore, there's a good chance that your oat milk isn't gluten-free unless it's certified as such.</p>
Gluten-Free Oat Milk Options<p>If you don't have a health reason that requires you to avoid gluten, any kind of oat milk is safe to drink.</p><p>However, if you follow a gluten-free diet, you should <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-to-read-food-labels" target="_blank">read labels carefully</a> to find products that are certified gluten-free.</p><p>Oatly is one oat milk brand whose U.S. products are certified gluten-free. Planet Oat, Califia Farms, and Elmhurst all state that their oat milk is gluten-free but don't have third-party certification.</p><p><strong>Homemade Version</strong></p><p>Gluten-free oat milk is also easy to make yourself, using only two ingredients — certified gluten-free oats and water. Here's a basic recipe:</p><ol><li>Soak 1 cup (80 grams) of certified gluten-free oats in water — enough to cover them — for about 15 minutes.</li><li>Drain the oats and blend with up to 4 cups (945 mL) of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/7-health-benefits-of-water" target="_blank">water</a> for about 30 seconds. Use less water if you prefer a thicker beverage.</li><li>Strain the mixture through a fine-mesh strainer.</li><li>Chill before serving.</li></ol><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Several brands offer gluten-free oat milk. Nonetheless, if you can't find certified products, you can make your own oat milk with certified gluten-free oats and water.</p>
How is Oat Milk Made?<p>Oat milk is made by soaking whole oats in water, milling the softened mixture, and straining the liquid from the solids. The manufacturer may add other ingredients like sweeteners or vitamins before the drink is homogenized to make it creamy and milk-like.<span></span></p><p>Oats are a particularly good source of beta glucan, a soluble fiber that gives oat milk its thick consistency and may boost heart health by lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol. Notably, studies suggest that oat beverages have this same effect.</p><p>A 1-cup (240-mL) serving of oat milk provides:</p><ul><li><strong>Calories:</strong> 120</li><li><strong>Protein: </strong>3 grams</li><li><strong>Fat: </strong>5 grams</li><li><strong>Carbs:</strong> 16 grams</li><li><strong>Fiber:</strong> 2 grams</li></ul><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Oat milk is made by soaking and milling oats, then separating the liquid. Oat milk's creamy texture is owed to its beta glucan, a healthy type of soluble fiber.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>While oats are a gluten-free grain, many are cross-contaminated with gluten — meaning that not all oat milks are gluten-free.</p><p>If you have celiac disease or <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/gluten-sensitivity-is-real" target="_blank">gluten sensitivity</a>, you should only buy oat milk that's certified gluten-free by a third-party organization.</p><p>Otherwise, you can make this thick, creamy <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/best-milk-substitutes" target="_blank">plant-based milk</a> at home using certified gluten-free oats and water.</p>
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While meat processing facilities shut down and cause shortages in the beef and pork supply chains, Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods are seeing a spike in sales during the coronavirus pandemic, as The Hill reports.
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Now might be a good time to go vegetarian.
As meat-processing plants close across the country to stop the new coronavirus from spreading among employees, industry leaders and experts are warning of meat shortages in the nation's grocery stores.
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Despite what some people may think, there are many ways to get enough protein on a vegan or vegetarian diet.
However, not all plant-based proteins are complete proteins, meaning protein sources that contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids.
1. Quinoa<p>Quinoa is an ancient grain that looks similar to couscous but has a crunchy texture and nutty flavor.</p><p>As it doesn't grow from grasses like other cereals and grains, it's technically considered a pseudocereal and naturally gluten-free.</p><p>One cup (185 grams) of cooked <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/11-proven-benefits-of-quinoa" target="_blank">quinoa</a> provides approximately 8 grams of protein.</p><p>In addition to being a complete protein, quinoa provides more magnesium, iron, fiber, and zinc than many common grains.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114306" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>You can use quinoa in place of rice in most recipes. It can also be simmered in a plant source milk for a creamy, protein-rich breakfast porridge.</p><p>Though most supermarkets have quinoa in stock, buying it online may offer you a wider selection and possibly better prices.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Quinoa is a gluten-free grain that contains 8 grams of protein per 1 cooked cup (185 grams). It's also a good source of several minerals, including magnesium, iron, and zinc.</p>
2. Tofu, Tempeh, and Edamame<p>Tofu, tempeh, and edamame are all made from soybeans and make for excellent plant-based protein sources.<span></span></p><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-tofu" target="_blank">Tofu</a> is made from coagulated soy milk that's pressed into white blocks and comes in a variety of textures, including silken, firm, and extra-firm. As it's quite bland, tofu tends to take on the flavor of the foods with which it's cooked.</p><p>A 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of tofu provides approximately 8 grams of protein. It also offers 15% of the Daily Value (DV) for calcium, as well as smaller amounts of potassium and iron.</p><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/tempeh" target="_blank">Tempeh</a> is much chewier and nuttier than tofu and made from fermented soybeans, which are often combined with other seeds and grains to form a firm, dense cake.</p><p>Meanwhile, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/edamame-benefits" target="_blank">edamame</a> beans are whole, immature soybeans that are green and have a slightly sweet, grassy flavor. They're usually steamed or boiled and can be enjoyed on their own as a snack. Alternatively, they can be added to salads, soups, or grain bowls.</p><p>Three ounces (85 grams) of tempeh contain 11 grams of protein. This serving is also a good source of fiber and iron and contains potassium and calcium.<a href="https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/390236/nutrients" target="_blank"></a></p><p>A 1/2 cup (85 grams) of whole edamame provides 8 grams of protein along with a good amount of fiber, calcium, iron, and vitamin C.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Tofu, tempeh, and edamame are all derived from whole soybeans and excellent sources of complete protein. A 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of edamame or tofu provides 8 grams of protein, while the same serving of tempeh has 11 grams.<br></p>
3. Amaranth<p>Amaranth is another pseudocereal that's a complete source of protein.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977093/" target="_blank"></a></p><p>Once considered a staple food in Incan, Mayan, and Aztec cultures, it has become a popular <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/9-gluten-free-grains" target="_blank">gluten-free grain</a> alternative.</p><p>Amaranth is a versatile grain that can be boiled for a side dish or porridge, or popped in a skillet to add texture to granola bars or salads. Similarly to quinoa, it has a delicate, nutty taste and retains its crunch even when cooked.</p><p>When ground into a flour, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/amaranth-health-benefits" target="_blank">amaranth</a> can also be used in gluten-free baking.</p><p>One cup (246 grams) of cooked amaranth provides approximately 9 grams of protein. It's also an excellent source of manganese, magnesium phosphorus, and iron.</p><p>In fact, 1 cup (246 grams) of cooked amaranth provides more than 100% of the DV for manganese, an essential mineral that's important for brain health.</p><p>If you can't find amaranth locally, you can buy it online.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Amaranth is a gluten-free pseudocereal that provides 9 grams of protein per 1 cooked cup (246 grams). It also provides more than 100% of the DV for manganese.</p>
4. Buckwheat<p>While it's not as high in protein as quinoa or amaranth, buckwheat is another pseudocereal that's a plant-based source of complete protein.</p><p>Nutty in flavor, the hulled kernels, or groats, can be cooked similarly to oatmeal or <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/gluten-free-flours" target="_blank">ground into a flour</a> and used in baking. In Japanese cooking, buckwheat is most commonly consumed in the form of noodles, which are called soba.</p><p>One cup (168 grams) of cooked buckwheat groats provides approximately 6 grams of protein.<a href="https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/170686/nutrients" target="_blank"></a></p><p>This pseudocereal is also a good source of many essential minerals, including phosphorus, manganese, copper, magnesium, and iron.<a href="https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/170686/nutrients" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>You can buy buckwheat in specialty stores or online.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Buckwheat is another gluten-free grain that's a source of complete protein, with 6 grams of protein per 1 cooked cup (168 grams).</p>
5. Ezekiel Bread<p>Ezekiel bread is made from sprouted whole grains and legumes, including barley, soybeans, wheat, lentils, millet, and spelt.</p><p>Two slices (68 grams) of the bread contain 8 grams of protein.</p><p>Unlike most breads, the combination of whole grains and legumes in <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/ezekiel-bread" target="_blank">Ezekiel bread</a> provides all nine essential amino acids.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24583381" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>Plus, studies suggest that sprouting grains and legumes increases their amino acid content, especially their content of the amino acid lysine.</p><p>For an extra protein boost, use Ezekiel bread to make a vegan BLT sandwich with tempeh instead of bacon, or toast the bread and top it with peanut butter and chia seeds.</p><p>You can look for Ezekiel bread at your local supermarket or shop for it online.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Ezekiel bread is made from sprouted whole grains and legumes and contains all nine essential amino acids. Just two slices (68 grams) provide 8 grams of filling protein.</p>
6. Spirulina<p>Spirulina is a type of blue-green algae that's a popular supplement among those on vegan and vegetarian diets.</p><p>While it can be purchased as tablets, the powdered form of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/10-proven-benefits-of-spirulina" target="_blank">spirulina</a> can be easily added to smoothies, granola bars, soups, and salads for a boost of nutrition.</p><p>Just 1 tablespoon (7 grams) of dried spirulina provides 4 grams of protein.</p><p>In addition to being a source of complete protein, spirulina is rich in antioxidants and a good source of several B vitamins, copper, and iron.</p><p>If you would like to give spirulina a try, you can find it in specialty stores or online.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Spirulina, a supplement made from blue-green algae, is a source of complete protein. One tablespoon (7 grams) provides 4 grams of protein, as well as good amounts of B vitamins, copper, and iron.</p>
7. Hemp Seeds<p>Coming from the hemp plant <em>Cannabis sativa</em>, hemp seeds are members of the same species as marijuana, but they contain only trace amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana.</p><p><span></span>As a result, hemp seeds are unlikely to contain enough THC to cause a high feeling or any of the other psychoactive effects that are associated with marijuana.</p><p>However, there is concern that hemp seeds could become contaminated with TCH from other parts of the plant during harvesting or storing. Therefore, it's important to purchase seeds from trusted brands that test for THC.</p><p>Technically a nut, the edible whites inside of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/6-health-benefits-of-hemp-seeds" target="_blank">hemp seeds</a> are referred to as hemp hearts and incredibly nutritious.</p><p>In addition to being a source of complete protein, hemp hearts are particularly rich in the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).</p><p>Three tablespoons (30 grams) of raw, hulled hemp seeds boast an impressive 10 grams of protein and 15% of the DV for iron. They're also a good source of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and zinc.</p><p>Hemp hearts have a mild nutty flavor and can be sprinkled over yogurt or salads, added to smoothies, or included in homemade granola and energy bars.</p><p>These tasty seeds are widely available in stores and online.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Hemp seeds are often sold as hemp hearts and incredibly nutritious. In addition to providing 10 grams of protein in 3 tablespoons (30 grams), they're a good source of essential fatty acids, iron, potassium, and several other essential minerals.</p>
8. Chia Seeds<p>Chia seeds are tiny round seeds that are often black or white.</p><p>They're unique in that they can absorb liquid and form a gel-like substance. As a result, they can be used to make puddings and pectin-free jams. They're also commonly used as an egg substitute in vegan baking.</p><p>However, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/11-proven-health-benefits-of-chia-seeds" target="_blank">chia seeds</a> can also be used raw as a topping for oatmeal or salads, mixed into baked goods, or added to smoothies.</p><p>Two tablespoons (28 grams) of chia seeds provide 4 grams of protein. They're also a good source of omega-3s, iron, calcium, magnesium, and selenium.</p><p>If you would like to give chia seeds a try, stock up at your local supermarket or online.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Chia seeds are tiny round seeds that contain all nine essential amino acids. Two tablespoons (28 grams) contain 4 grams of protein, as well as good amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and several essential minerals.</p>
9. Nutritional Yeast<p>Nutritional yeast is a deactivated strain of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> that's grown specifically to be a food product.</p><p>Commercially, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/nutritional-yeast" target="_blank">nutritional yeast</a> is sold as a yellow powder or flakes and has a distinctive umami flavor that can be used to add a cheese-like flavor to vegan dishes, such as popcorn, pasta, or mashed potatoes.</p><p>A 1/4-cup (15-gram) serving of nutritional yeast provides 8 grams of complete protein.<a href="https://vegfaqs.com/nutritional-yeast-amino-acid-profile/" target="_blank"></a></p><p>When fortified, nutritional yeast can also be an excellent source of zinc, magnesium, copper, manganese, and all the B vitamins, including B12.<a href="https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/575722/nutrients" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>You can shop for nutritional yeast locally or online.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Nutritional yeast is a deactivated strain of yeast that imparts a cheesy, umami flavor to vegan dishes. Just 1/4 cup (15 grams) provides 8 grams of protein.</p>
10. Rice and Beans<p>Rice and beans are a classic pairing that's a source of complete protein.</p><p>Both <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/brown-vs-white-rice" target="_blank">brown and white rice</a> are low in lysine but high in methionine. In contrast, beans are high in lysine but low in methionine. As such, combining them allows you to get enough of each, as well as the remaining seven essential amino acids, to count as a complete protein.</p><p>One cup (239 grams) of rice and beans provides 12 grams of protein and 10 grams of fiber.</p><p>While you can enjoy the mixture on its own, rice and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/healthiest-beans-legumes" target="_blank">beans</a> can be topped with guacamole, salsa, and roasted vegetables for a simple, filling meal.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Together, rice and beans contain all nine essential amino acids to form a complete source of protein. Approximately 1 cup (239 grams) provides 12 grams of this nutrient.</p>
11. Pita and Hummus<p>A delicious Middle Eastern classic, pita and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/is-hummus-healthy" target="_blank">hummus</a> are another combination that provides all nine essential amino acids.</p><p>Similarly to rice, the wheat used to make pita is too low in lysine to be considered a complete protein source. However, chickpeas — the main ingredient in hummus — are rich in lysine.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998136/" target="_blank"></a></p><p>One medium-sized (57-gram) whole wheat pita with 2 tablespoons (30 grams) of hummus provides approximately 7 grams of protein.</p><p>In addition to serving as a snack, adding fried or baked ground chickpea balls known as <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/is-falafel-healthy" target="_blank">falafel</a> will further increase the protein content of your pita and hummus.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>The combination of pita and hummus is another classic pairing that constitutes a complete protein source. One medium-sized (57-gram) pita with 2 tablespoons (30 grams) of hummus provides 7 grams of protein.</p>
12. Peanut Butter Sandwich<p>A lunch box staple, natural <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/is-peanut-butter-bad-for-you" target="_blank">peanut butter</a> sandwiched between whole grain bread is another common combination that results in a complete protein source.</p><p>As mentioned earlier, wheat is low in lysine while pulses like peanuts make up for it by being high in lysine.</p><p>Two slices (62 grams) of whole wheat sandwich bread with 2 tablespoons (32 grams) of peanut butter provide approximately 14 grams of protein.</p><p>However, the exact amount of protein may vary depending on the brand of bread you buy.</p><p>When choosing a peanut butter, aim for a product with minimal ingredients, ideally only peanuts and maybe a bit of salt.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Wheat bread is low in lysine, but when combined with lysine-rich peanut butter, it becomes a complete protein source. One peanut butter sandwich provides approximately 14 grams of protein.</p>
13. Mycoprotein (Quorn)<p>Mycoprotein is a meat substitute product that's marketed under the name Quorn.</p><p>Made from a naturally occurring fungus called <em>Fusarium venenatum</em>, it's sometimes mixed with eggs or milk protein before being shaped into patties, cutlets, or strips. As a result, not all mycoprotein products are vegan.</p><p>Both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency have determined that <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/mycoprotein" target="_blank">mycoprotein</a> is safe enough to be sold to the public.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554455/" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>However, there are some concerns that the fungal ingredient in it can cause dangerous allergic reactions in some individuals.<a href="https://www.annallergy.org/article/S1081-1206(18)30218-7/fulltext" target="_blank"></a></p><p>Still, as it's a rich source of essential amino acids and low in sodium, sugar, and fat, it's a popular option for those looking for a plant-based alternative to chicken.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554455/" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>While the amount of protein varies by product, one 75-gram Quorn Chik'N patty contains 9 grams of protein.<a href="https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/388023/nutrients" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>If you want to give mycoprotein a try, you can find many Quorn products in stores and online.</p><p><strong><strong>Summary</strong></strong></p><p><strong><strong></strong></strong>Mycoprotein, a popular meat alternative, is sold under the brand name Quorn. While the amount of protein varies by product, one Quorn Chik'N patty provides about 9 grams of complete protein.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>Despite some concerns over being able to get adequate <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/protein-for-vegans-vegetarians" target="_blank">protein on a vegan or vegetarian diet</a>, many high protein, plant-based foods are available.</p><p>Furthermore, several of these foods even provide all nine essential amino acids and are therefore considered complete proteins.</p><p>To ensure you're meeting your amino acid needs on a vegan or vegetarian diet, try incorporating a variety of these complete protein sources or combinations of nearly complete choices into your plant-based diet.</p>
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By Shireen Kassam
Many of the important benefits of a plant-based diet – particularly for climate health and animals – are well known. Yet despite the science being very clear, there remains confusion about the impact on human health.
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History of the Plant-Based Movement<p>The term "vegan" was created in 1944 by Donald Watson — an English animal rights advocate and founder of The Vegan Society — to describe a person who avoids using animals for ethical reasons. <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-a-vegan" target="_blank">Veganism</a> refers to the practice of being vegan.<span></span></p><p>Veganism expanded to include a diet that excluded animal-derived foods, such as eggs, meat, fish, poultry, cheese, and other dairy products. Instead, a vegan diet includes plant foods like fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes.</p><p>Over time, veganism grew into a movement based not only on ethics and animal welfare but also environmental and health concerns, which have been validated by research.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991921/" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>People have become more aware of the negative effects of modern animal agriculture on the planet, as well as the potential negative health effects of eating a diet high in <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/why-processed-meat-is-bad" target="_blank">processed meat</a> and choosing saturated over unsaturated fats.</p><p>In the 1980s, Dr. T. Colin Campbell introduced the world of nutrition science to the term "plant-based diet" to define a low fat, high fiber, vegetable-based diet that focused on health and not ethics.</p><p>Today, surveys indicate that approximately 2% of Americans consider themselves vegan, the majority of whom fall into the Millennial generation.<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470702/" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>What's more, many people don't label themselves as being plant-based or vegan but are interested in reducing their animal consumption and trying foods that are popular on a plant-based or vegan diet.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>The plant-based movement began with veganism, a way of living that aims to avoid animal harm for ethical reasons. It has expanded to include people who make dietary and lifestyle choices to minimize harm to the environment and their health.</p>
Plant-Based vs. Vegan<p>Although a number of definitions are circulating, most people agree upon some specific differences between the terms "plant-based" and "vegan."</p><br><img lazy-loadable="true" src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjg3NjY5My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwNjI3MTk3OH0.Zl-CT8AFFGFw9BQb3jomo7lAtoDqnf_Yx6Fy5wqYeMY/img.png?width=980" id="52c8c" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c20bda16d08c7f8162cabc082b7585f4" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
You Can Be Both Plant-Based and Vegan<p>It's possible to be both plant-based and vegan, as these terms are not meant to divide people based on the lifestyle they choose.</p><p>Many people may start out as vegan, avoiding animal products in their diet primarily for ethical or <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-to-reduce-carbon-footprint" target="_blank">environmental reasons</a>, but then adopt a whole foods, plant-based diet to achieve their health goals.</p><p>On the other hand, some people may start out eating a whole foods, plant-based diet and then decide to expand into veganism by aligning the rest of their lifestyle, avoiding animal products in other non-food areas as well.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Being plant-based and vegan can go hand-in-hand. Some people may start out as one and adopt the intentions or ideas of the other approach, applying ethical, health, and environmental considerations to their lifestyle as a whole.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>Many people are choosing to reduce or eliminate the number of animal products they consume. While some people choose not to label their dietary choices, others consider themselves plant-based or vegan.</p><p>"Plant-based" typically refers to one who eats a diet based primarily on plant foods, with limited to no animal-derived products. A whole foods, plant-based diet means that <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/are-vegetable-and-seed-oils-bad" target="_blank">oils</a> and processed packaged foods are likewise excluded.</p><p>The term "vegan" extends to one's lifestyle choices beyond diet alone. A vegan lifestyle aims to avoid causing harm to animals in any way, including through products used or purchased.</p><p>Someone who is vegan also tends to take into account the potential negative environmental effects of animal products.</p><p>While these two terms are fundamentally different, they share similarities. Additionally, both are increasing in popularity and can be healthy ways of eating when planned properly.</p>
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Most Americans Don't Consider Environmental Impacts of Food Choices, but Are Willing to Eat More Plants, Study Finds
Recent books like We Are the Weather advocate for considering how our dietary choices affect the climate crisis, but new research shows that most Americans are not discussing the environmental impacts of their diets with friend and family, as Inverse reported.
On Valentine's Day, people celebrate all kinds of love. And chefs and foodies around the globe are showing how indulgence can often be both healthy for people and the planet. These innovators are making the case that flavorful, locally sourced plant-inspired dishes are perfect for special occasions — and also versatile for everyday mealtimes.
1. Alice Waters<p>Waters is a chef, author, and food advocate, and the founder and owner of Chez Panisse Restaurant in Berkeley, California. Waters is the author of 15 books, including New York Times bestsellers The Art of Simple Food I & II, and the memoir, Coming to My Senses: The Making of a Counterculture Cook. With the belief that chefs should pay attention to the wholesomeness of food — including how ingredients are sourced — Waters is credited with providing the foundation for the plant-forward movement. Waters' recipes and menus offer occasional lapses into indulgence perfect for Valentine's Day including sweet corn soup and winter squash tortellini.</p>
2. Ana Sortun<p>Ana Sortun is the chef at Oleana in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where her menu focuses on Turkish and Middle Eastern classics distilled down to their traditional elements. She is also the owner of Sofra Bakery in Cambridge and Sarma Restaurant in Somerville, Mass. Many of the vegetables used at Sortun's restaurants are grown locally — on her husband's farm. Sortun is well-regarded for her mastery of Mediterranean spices — her 2006 cookbook, simply called "Spice," is a bestseller. In her recipes for <a href="https://www.saveur.com/turkish-stuffed-eggplant-imam-bayildi-recipe/" target="_blank">imam bayildi (Turkish stuffed eggplant)</a> and <a href="https://oldwayspt.org/blog/chef-ana-sortun-oleana-shares-kitchen-secrets-and-new-cookbook" target="_blank">Syrian-style lentils with chard</a>, she homes in the one or two warming spices that will elevate the star vegetable without overpowering its natural flavor.</p>
3. Chloe Coscarelli<p>Vegan chef Chloe Coscarelli believes that vegetable-forward dishes can still be mouthwatering, rich, and playful. Now with four cookbooks and nearly a dozen television appearances, Coscarelli has become a prominent figure making the most of plants and their natural flavors. With recipes like <a href="https://chefchloe.com/recipes" target="_blank">chocolate layer cake</a>, <a href="https://chefchloe.com/recipes" target="_blank">blueberry cinnamon french toast</a>, and maple bacon benedict, home chefs can satisfy their sweet tooth and their savory cravings this holiday.</p>
4. Christina Arokiasamy<p>Chef Christina Arokiasamy, who was raised in Malaysia and now lives in Washington State, served as the first Malaysian food ambassador to the United States. Her family members have been spice merchants for five generations, and her show on the Cooking Channel, The Malaysian Kitchen, focused on traditional Malaysian flavors. Arokiasamy's recipes for <a href="https://themalaysiankitchen.com/2019/10/08/vegetarian-pineapple-fried-rice/" target="_blank">pineapple fried rice</a> and <a href="https://themalaysiankitchen.com/2019/10/08/goan-coconut-curry/" target="_blank">goan coconut curry</a> both highlight plant-based ingredients commonly found in Malaysia and blend sweet and savory elements.</p>
5. Daisuke Nomura<p>Chef Nomura is internationally praised for plant-forward takes on creative Japanese style cuisine. Having earned two Michelin stars, Nomura's recipes are sure to impress any loved one with plant-forward innovation, including his spin on an American Valentine's classic: instead of a beef steak, Nomura's recipe suggests an <a href="https://www.plantforward50.com/chefs/daisuke-nomura#recipe" target="_blank">onion steak</a> as a new way to embrace the overlooked ingredient's flavor using new and modern styles of cooking.</p>
6. Dan Barber<p>Dan Barber, Chef and Co-Owner of <a href="https://www.bluehillfarm.com/" target="_blank">Blue Hill</a> and <a href="https://www.bluehillfarm.com/dine/stone-barns" target="_blank">Blue Hill at Stone Barn</a> and the author of The Third Plate, was appointed by President Barack Obama to serve on the President's Council on Physical Fitness, Sports and Nutrition and has received multiple James Beard awards including Best Chef. In 2009 he was named one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people in the world. Barber is hailed for his plant-forward initiatives including his Row 7 seed company that breeds seeds for better flavor. Barber's plant-forward <a href="https://www.plantforward50.com/chefs/dan-barber#recipe" target="_blank">celery root recipes</a> open up new possibilities for the vegetable a rich broth, cozy tea, or even a hearty braised dish.</p>
7. Deborah Madison<p>Chef, cooking teacher, and author of 14 widely-recognized cookbooks Deborah Madison specializes in seasonal vegetable recipes. Through these recipes, Madison — recognized as the originator of the plant-forward trend — hopes to highlight farmers market produce and heritage varieties of vegetables. Having cooked at restaurants like Greens in San Francisco, Madison has surprised many non-vegetarian and non-vegan diners with bold flavors and filling meals. Dive into Madison's cozy <a href="https://www.latimes.com/food/recipes/la-fo-deborah-madison-in-my-kitchen-cookbook-20170206-story.html" target="_blank">lentil soup with berbere</a> or <a href="https://www.marthastewart.com/316404/beet-risotto" target="_blank">risotto with beets</a>, which add depth and color to a normally luxurious dish.</p>
8. Derek and Chad Sarno<p>Derek Sarno is Executive Chef and Director of Plant-Based Innovation at Tesco and co-founder of Wicked Healthy, a plant-forward blog founded with his brother Chad Sarno. The co-founders develop recipes that allow eaters to indulge with smokey, deep, and nearly guilt-causing flavors — all while maintaining a plant-forward diet and mission. Their recipes like <a href="https://wickedhealthyfood.com/2019/12/27/wicked-herby-crusted-roasted-butternut-squash-tenderloin/" target="_blank">roasted and herb-crusted butternut squash tenderloin</a> and coconut tartlets with <a href="https://wickedhealthyfood.com/2016/09/11/coconut-tartlet-with-clementine-sorbet-and-lavender-syrup/" target="_blank">clementine sorbet and lavender syrup</a> embrace the flavor of plants and their potential in classic Valentine's Day preparations.</p>
9. Erik Oberholtzer<p>Erik Oberholtzer is a chef, social entrepreneur, and food activist whose restaurant chain Tender Greens makes it easier for anyone to enjoy seasonal, plant-forward home cooking at affordable prices. And as a board member for The Rodale Institute and a Food Forever Champion, Oberholtzer supports regeneratively grown and biodiverse crops in diets around the world. His recipes for <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2BK-eGryp0" target="_blank">gazpacho</a> and <a href="https://www.epicurious.com/recipes/member/views/poached-salmon-salad-with-lettuce-and-asparagus-50185996" target="_blank">poached salmon salad</a> offer lighter takes on romantic meals.</p>
10. Hari Pulapaka<p>Hari Pulapaka is the Executive Chef and Owner of the acclaimed Cress Restaurant in DeLand, Florida, and is a tenured professor at Stetson University. Pulapaka's self-described cuisine is "globally inspired" and "vegetarian focused" and is intended to showcase food that "nourishes the body and frees the soul." In his forthcoming book Sinfully Vegetarian, Pulapaka will feature plant-forward recipes that leave eaters feeling spoiled and craving for more. Inspired by Pulapaka's menus and recipes, eaters can indulge in <a href="http://sinfullyvegetarian.com/" target="_blank">savory vegetable bread pudding</a>, beet-radish terrine with lentil-sesame hummus, or a Mediterranean and Middle East-inspired <a href="https://www.jamesbeard.org/recipes/meyer-lemon-ricotta-and-spinach-gnudi-with-green-garbanzo-bean-hummus-tomato-jam-and-spiced-almonds" target="_blank">ricotta and spinach gnudi</a>.</p>
11. Jody Adams<p>Jody Adams, a James Beard Foundation award-winning chef, highlights local vegetables at her restaurants in Boston, where her menus feature housemade pastas, roasted beets, and spanakopita. Adams — who holds a degree in anthropology from Brown University — put it best when she said, "It's the beautiful, raw ingredients that determine what food tastes like — not how fancy the kitchen is." Try something new in the kitchen this Valentine's Day, like making your own pasta: Adams' comforting recipes for <a href="https://www.bostonchefs.com/recipe/jody-adams-floppy-tomato-lasagna/" target="_blank">floppy tomato lasagna</a> and <a href="https://www.starchefs.com/chefs/JAdams/html/recipe_03.shtml" target="_blank">potato gnocchi gratin with wild mushrooms</a> guide you through the process.</p>
12. Joe Yonan<p>Joe Yonan, the Washington Post's food and dining editor, thinks we should all eat more beans. In his new book, Cool Beans, Yonan shares 125 recipes that highlight the versatility of the wide world of protein-packed legumes. Many of the recipes, like <a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/vegetarian-recipes-hummus-ratatouille-margaritas-and-more-from-washington-posts-joe-yonan/" target="_blank">fusilli with white beans, cherry tomatoes, and corn sauce</a> or <a href="https://modernfarmer.com/2020/02/cook-this-cool-beans-by-joe-yonan/" target="_blank">falafel fattoush</a>, use ingredients you might already have canned in your pantry. Right in time for Valentine's Day, Yonan even serves dessert and drinks, with recipes like <a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/vegetarian-recipes-hummus-ratatouille-margaritas-and-more-from-washington-posts-joe-yonan/" target="_blank">chocolate, red bean, and rose brownies</a> and a <a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/vegetarian-recipes-hummus-ratatouille-margaritas-and-more-from-washington-posts-joe-yonan/" target="_blank">salty margarita sour</a>, topped with whipped chickpea aquafaba.</p>
13. John Fraser<p>Eating vegetarian or vegan, <a href="http://www.nixny.com/" target="_blank">according to chef John Fraser</a>, "should feel more celebration than sacrifice." That's why he opened Nix, which is now New York City's only Michelin-starred vegetarian restaurant. There, he serves dishes ranging from cauliflower tempura (<a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-dish-chef-john-fraser/" target="_blank">here's the recipe</a>) to kabocha squash dumplings, but his menu changes depending on what's seasonally available. Fraser shows that plant-forward dishes can be fun — he describes his <a href="https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/qkn9aw/potato-fry-bread-with-sour-cream-and-cucumbers" target="_blank">potato fry bread recipe</a> as "a zeppoli made love to a French fry and then got slathered in sour cream and vegetables."</p>
14. José Andrés<p>José Andrés is often credited with bringing the tapas-style dining concept to America. The founder of 31 restaurants and World Central Kitchen, which provides meals to those affected by natural disasters, wants to bring vegetables forward in American diets. By making vegetables the center of dishes, and relegating meat to side dishes or condiments, Andrés hopes to give plants the recognition they deserve for their role in eaters' health and happiness. Andrés's recent cookbook Vegetables Unleashed includes cozy, luxurious recipes like potatoes cooked in compost, vegetable paella, and fennel bouillabaisse.</p>
15. Makini Howell<p>Chef Makini Howell from Plum Bistro Seattle designs innovative dishes that reflect upon her experience being raised in a vegan family. With powerful flavors, Howell works hard to make plant-forward synonymous with delicious. Howell's recipes offer adventurous eaters an opportunity to integrate more spice into their Valentine's Day meal plans with a <a href="https://recipes.oregonlive.com/recipes/habanero-yam-soup" target="_blank">habanero yam soup</a> and <a href="https://www.hallmarkchannel.com/home-and-family/recipes/makini-howells-spicy-peach-tofu-and-tempeh-with-charred-purple-beans" target="_blank">spicy peach tofu and tempeh with charred purple beans</a>.</p>
16. Rich Landau and Kate Jacoby<p>Chefs Rich Landau and Kate Jacoby opened and operate a small restaurant group of vegan establishments in Philadelphia — including Vedge, V Street, and Wiz Kid — and Washington D.C.'s Fancy Radish. As James Beard-nominated chefs, Landau and Jacoby's passion for veganism injects love into their cooking; and similar plant lovers can feel inspired by their menus and recipes that explore rutabaga fondue, eggplant braciole, and even <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwExuSgTJ5M" target="_blank">potato scallops</a>.</p>
17. Romy Gill<p>When chef Romy Gill was growing up in India, meat was reserved for celebrations and special occasions — and even when she did eat meat, it was a side dish at most. So every recipe in her recent debut cookbook, Zaika, is vegan. "I wanted to show that in India, plant-based cuisine is something people don't do just for the sake of it—it's a way of life," <a href="https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/travel/2019/12/warming-dhals-zingy-salads-interview-romy-gill" target="_blank">she said</a>. Gill, who now lives in the U.K., cooks lighter fare with Indian flavors, like <a href="https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/recipes/red-cabbage-pomegranate-salad-romy-gill-cooking-instructions-a9008271.html" target="_blank">red cabbage and pomegranate salad</a> and <a href="https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/recipes/romy-gill-recipe-courgette-sabzi-indian-vegetarian-a8361056.html" target="_blank">courgette (zucchini) sabzi</a>, a childhood favorite.</p>
18. Selassie Atadika<p>Midunu, the name of chef Selassie Atadika's restaurant in Accra, Ghana, means "let us eat" in the Ewe language. Midunu represents "nomadic" dining, meaning meals are served pop-up style at a new location each time. Atadika said she is reminded that plant-forward cooking is healthier for humans and the planet when she looks at the traditional foodways of nomadic African groups. Now, at Midunu, Atadika sources much of her produce and grain from local farmers living off the land. Recipes like her <a href="https://www.plantforward50.com/chefs/selassie-atadika#recipe" target="_blank">gari foto</a> celebrate African ingredients like gari (made from dried cassava) and the spice prekese.</p>
19. Stéphanie Audet<p>Before Stéphanie Audet became a restaurant chef, she was a vegetarian food consultant, creating plant-based recipes and menus for restaurants. These skills have come in handy in her kitchens: A restaurant she opened in Hawaii was devoted entirely to raw indigenous ingredients. When she became the executive chef at LOV, in Montreal, Canada, in 2016, she created an entirely vegan menu that featured creative but approachable recipes like <a href="https://quench.me/mavericks/stephanie-audet-lov-maverick-chefs-2018/" target="_blank">coconut ceviche</a>. Recently, she moved to Lisbon, Portugal, where she opened Senhor Uva. At the natural food and wine bar, her small plates focus on seasonal and local vegetables.</p>
20. Tal Ronnen<p>The plant-based chef to the stars, Tal Ronnen earned his fame while cooking for Oprah Winfrey, Ellen DeGeneres, Arianna Huffington, and for the first-ever vegan dinner at the United States Senate. Ronnen's cookbook Crossroads is based on recipes from his Los Angeles restaurant of the same name, which opened in 2013 to showcase high-end vegan dining with Mediterranean flavors. With an inventive recipe for <a href="https://www.plantforward50.com/chefs/tal-ronnen#recipe" target="_blank">artichoke "oysters" with tomato bearnaise and kelp caviar</a>, Ronnen offers eaters a plant-forward alternative to the well-known seafood aphrodisiac this Valentine's Day.</p>
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