Category 5 Super Typhoon Hagibis on Target for Japan
Japan has suffered a brutal stretch this summer — deadly heat waves and downpours and a typhoon that blew through Tokyo leaving travelers stranded. Now the worst seems to approaching this weekend as a super typhoon is on track to batter the country's main island on Saturday, potentially causing grave damage, as the New York Times reported.
The U.S. Joint Typhoon Warning Center has classified Hagibis as a "super typhoon," which is the equivalent of a category five hurricane — by far the strongest of the 2019 season. A storm with sustained winds of 150 miles per hour is considered a super typhoon. Hagibis, which is about 900 miles away from Japan, has sustained winds of 160 mph. The winds are expected to die down to about 90 mph when the storm strikes Japan, but it will include heavy rains, according to Brandon Bukunt, a meteorologist with the National Weather Service in Tiyan, Guam, as the New York Times reported.
Japan is still reeling from Typhoon Faxai in September, which severely damaged Japan's Chiba prefecture and knocked out power to 900,000 homes. That storm left 13,000 people stranded at Tokyo's Narita International Airport.
Tokyo's Typhoon Faxai: 3 Dead, 40 Injured, 900K Homes Without Power https://t.co/lJiHYqr5pk #Typhoon… https://t.co/mI7aszrBaj— Renewable Search (@Renewable Search)1568050147.0
Hagibis is expected to hit Japan's central and eastern regions, including Tokyo. To prepare sports events and domestic flights have been canceled. Sandbags have been distributed to minimize the damage of potential storm surges, as the AP reported.
Organizers of the Rugby world cup have already cancelled two matches for Saturday. A marathon in the northern part of the country has been canceled, and a Formula One race in the central part of the country, according to the AP.
It is a testament to Hagibis power that Japan, the third-most typhoon-prone country in Asia, which sees on average 11 typhoons approaching and two direct hits every year, is taking outsized preparations for the storm. Not only is Hagibis the strongest typhoon of the season, it is enormous, means the wind and the rains will arrive earlier than the storm and last longer than other typhoons, as Japan's national broadcaster NHK reported.
The storm also coincides with a time when the sea levels will be high. The combination of the high tide, giant waves and storm surges could trigger significant coastal flooding, according to NHK.
"If it hits Tokyo Bay like some of the current forecasts are saying, then it's going to be a multibillion dollar disaster," said Jeff Masters, a meteorologist with the magazine Scientific American, as the New York Times reported.
Japan celebrates Sports Day on Monday, which means it has a three-day holiday weekend. While the holiday usually sees a lot of travel, this year will be different. Airlines and train services anticipate cancellations. East Japan Railway Co. said it might suspend services on most local lines and bullet trains around Tokyo before the typhoon arrives. All Nippon Airways said it is grounding all domestic flights Saturday in and out of Tokyo's Haneda and Narita international airports. All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines will closely monitor the storm and may cancel flights as early as Friday, according to the AP.
Local offices in Chiba prefecture, which is still rebuilding from Typhoon Faxai started to distribute free sandbags to protect against anticipated flooding. The city also warned residents to expect power outages from typhoon damage and to stock up on food and water, while making sure their cell phones were fully charged, as the AP reported.
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Where Does the Deficiency Begin?<p>Nobody knows exactly how much vitamin D a person actually needs. The question of when a deficiency starts is correspondingly controversial. However, vitamin D is becoming increasingly popular.Not only is the pseudo-scientific literature on the "sun vitamin" experiencing an upswing, but the number of published studies has also increased enormously in recent years. For example, in 2019 <a href="https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/40/4/1109/5126915" target="_blank">a study found that</a> Vitamin D is responsible for keeping the skeleton functional and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and various types of cancer. <br></p>
An All-Rounder<p>Vitamin D levels in the body rise and fall according to sun exposure. If sufficient UV rays reach the skin, the body is able to produce the vitamin itself. However, the human body only derives an estimated 10 to 20 percent of its daily requirement from food.</p><p>The vitamin D that we synthesize from sunlight or food is not biologically active at first. Before the kidneys can produce the biologically active form of the vitamin, known as calcitriol, and release it into the blood, some metabolic processes must take place beforehand.</p><p>In addition, many organs have receptors to which the precursor of calcitriol binds. Further, this substance is also present in blood.</p><p>From this precursor, the organs then produce calcitriol themselves, which the body then uses for countless other processes in the body. This form of vitamin D thus regulates insulin secretion, inhibits tumor growth, and promotes the formation of red blood cells as well as the survival and activity of macrophages, which are important for the <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2502/htm" target="_blank">immune system.</a></p>
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Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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