Water Protectors Sue Police for Brutality + Bernie Sanders Speaks Out on Treaty Rights Violations
By Nadia Prupis
Water protectors in North Dakota filed on Monday a class-action lawsuit against Morton County, Sheriff Kyle Kirchmeier and other law enforcement agencies for using excessive force the night of Nov. 20, when peaceful demonstrators were trapped on a bridge and assaulted with impact munitions.
Police spray a water cannon at peaceful water protectors on Nov. 20. Dark Sevier / Flickr
The lawsuit seeks to block the Morton County Sheriff's Department and other police agencies from using such weapons—including rubber bullets, water cannons, teargas grenades and other weapons—against the protectors. The suit, brought by the Water Protector Legal Collective, a project of the National Lawyers Guild, was filed on behalf of people injured on Nov. 20 and the early morning of Nov. 21 as police descended on the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) protest camps.
Among the plaintiffs is Jade Kalikolehuaokakalani Wool, who was hospitalized after two flash-bang grenades exploded near her, sending shrapnel into her head. Another, David Demo, who was filming the raid, was blasted with a water cannon and shot in the hand with a munition, breaking several bones and sending him to the hospital for reconstructive surgery. Israel Hoagland–Lynn was shot in the back of the head with a munition and needed 17 staples for the wound. Many others were also sprayed with water cannons, tear gassed, and shot with munitions, and several were hospitalized.
Water Cannons Fired at Water Protectors, Hundreds Injured https://t.co/eiyAnMMOZ1 @foeeurope @globalactplan— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1479811213.0
A judge will now decide whether to approve class-action status for the lawsuit.
In a declaration to the court, Vanessa Dundon, a Navajo Nation member from Arizona, described watching protectors removing barricades erected by police to prevent pipeline opponents from reaching other camps and the Standing Rock Sioux reservation in Bismarck and Mandan. As they worked to push the barriers out of the way, the police responded suddenly and aggressively, she said.
"I did not have time to move to avoid being hit by the [tear gas] canister," she said. "I instinctively closed my eyes and was struck in the right eye by the canister ... My eye was bleeding so much that I could not see and I was worried my eyeball was hanging out."
Water Protector Legal Collective lawyer Rachel Lederman said Monday, "The civil rights violations that night were deliberate and punitive. The Morton County Sheriff's Department's illegal use of force against the water protectors has been escalating. It is only a matter of luck that no one has been killed. This must stop."
Water protectors have been resisting the construction of the four-state, 1,170-mile-long oil pipeline since April, setting up long-term shelters along the project's route in North Dakota. The lawsuit came the same day Gov. Jack Dalrymple ordered the protectors' expulsion. On Monday afternoon, Dalrymple called for an "emergency evacuation" of the DAPL camps, citing cold weather. Standing Rock Sioux chairman David Archambault III called the order "a menacing action meant to cause fear."
North Dakota Gov. Orders Emergency Evacuation of Pipeline Protesters https://t.co/mqoYaVA4nC @greenpeaceusa @StandingRockST @Greenpeace @350— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1480393678.0
"[T]he most dangerous thing we can do is force well-situated campers from their shelters and into the cold," Archambault said. "If the true concern is for public safety than the Governor should clear the blockade and the county law enforcement should cease all use of flash grenades, high-pressure water cannons in freezing temperatures, dog kennels for temporary human jails, and any harmful weaponry against human beings."
Bernie Sanders on the Dakota Access Pipeline and Treaty Rights Violations by U.S. Government
While former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton remained silent on the ongoing fight against the $3.8 billion Dakota Access Pipeline at Standing Rock in North Dakota, Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders has been a vocal supporter of the water protectors. As winter sets in and the water protectors continue their struggle to stop the pipeline, Democracy Now!'s Amy Goodman asked Sanders about the Dakota Access Pipeline struggle at a sit-down interview at the Free Library of Philadelphia on Monday night.
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By Katherine Kornei
Clear-cutting a forest is relatively easy—just pick a tree and start chopping. But there are benefits to more sophisticated forest management. One technique—which involves repeatedly harvesting smaller trees every 30 or so years but leaving an upper story of larger trees for longer periods (60, 90, or 120 years)—ensures a steady supply of both firewood and construction timber.
A Pattern in the Rings<p>The <a href="https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/coppice-standards-0" target="_blank">coppice-with-standards</a> management practice produces a two-story forest, said <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bernhard_Muigg" target="_blank">Bernhard Muigg</a>, a dendrochronologist at the University of Freiburg in Germany. "You have an upper story of single trees that are allowed to grow for several understory generations."</p><p>That arrangement imprints a characteristic tree ring pattern in a forest's upper story trees (the "standards"): thick rings indicative of heavy growth, which show up at regular intervals as the surrounding smaller trees are cut down. "The trees are growing faster," said Muigg. "You can really see it with your naked eye."</p><p>Muigg and his collaborators characterized that <a href="https://ltrr.arizona.edu/about/treerings" target="_blank">dendrochronological pattern</a> in 161 oak trees growing in central Germany, one of the few remaining sites in Europe with actively managed coppice-with-standards forests. They found up to nine cycles of heavy growth in the trees, the oldest of which was planted in 1761. The researchers then turned to a historical data set — more than 2,000 oak <a href="https://eos.org/articles/podcast-discovering-europes-history-through-its-timbers" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">timbers from buildings and archaeological sites</a> in Germany and France dating from between 300 and 2015 — to look for a similar pattern.</p>
A Gap of 500 Years<p>The team found wood with the characteristic coppice-with-standards tree ring pattern dating to as early as the 6th century. That was a surprise, Muigg and his colleagues concluded, because the first mention of this forest management practice in historical documents occurred only roughly 500 years later, in the 13th century.</p><p>It's probable that forest management practices were not well documented prior to the High Middle Ages (1000–1250), the researchers suggested. "Forests are mainly mentioned in the context of royal hunting interests or donations," said Muigg. Dendrochronological studies are particularly important because they can reveal information not captured by a sparse historical record, he added.</p><p>These results were <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-78933-8" target="_blank">published in December in <em>Scientific Reports</em></a>.</p><p>"It's nice to see the longevity and the history of coppice-with-standards," said <a href="https://www.teagasc.ie/contact/staff-directory/s/ian-short/" target="_blank">Ian Short</a>, a forestry researcher at Teagasc, the Agriculture and Food Development Authority in Ireland, not involved in the research. This technique is valuable because it promotes conservation and habitat biodiversity, Short said. "In the next 10 or 20 years, I think we'll see more coppice-with-standards coming back into production."</p><p>In the future, Muigg and his collaborators hope to analyze a larger sample of historic timbers to trace how the coppice-with-standards practice spread throughout Europe. It will be interesting to understand where this technique originated and how it propagated, said Muigg, and there are plenty of old pieces of wood waiting to be analyzed. "There [are] tons of dendrochronological data."</p><p><em><a href="mailto:email@example.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Katherine Kornei</a> is a freelance science journalist covering Earth and space science. Her bylines frequently appear in Eos, Science, and The New York Times. Katherine holds a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California, Los Angeles.</em></p><p><em>This story originally appeared in <a href="https://eos.org/articles/tree-rings-reveal-how-ancient-forests-were-managed" target="_blank">Eos</a></em> <em>and is republished here as part of Covering Climate Now, a global journalism collaboration strengthening coverage of the climate story.</em></p>
Earth's ice is melting 57 percent faster than in the 1990s and the world has lost more than 28 trillion tons of ice since 1994, research published Monday in The Cryosphere shows.
By Jewel Fraser
Noreen Nunez lives in a middle-class neighborhood that rises up a hillside in Trinidad's Tunapuna-Piarco region.