Stronger Soot Standards Can Prevent 35,700 Deaths Annually
Up to 35,700 premature deaths can be prevented in the U.S. every year if the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) strengthens the health standards for fine particulate matter—also known as soot—according to a new report, Sick of Soot: How the EPA Can Save Lives by Cleaning Up Fine Particle Pollution, prepared by the American Lung Association, Clean Air Task Force and Earthjustice.
Soot, technically known as PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less), is generated by coal-fired power plants, diesel and other vehicles, agricultural burning, wood stoves and industrial combustion. Though the pollution particles in soot are tiny—1/30th the width of a human hair—they can have a huge impact on human health. Research links them to premature death, heart attacks, stroke, worsened asthma and possibly cancer and developmental and reproductive harm.
The Clean Air Act requires that the EPA set national air quality standards for soot at levels that protect public health with a margin of safety. To adequately protect children, seniors and people with lung disease, heart disease, and diabetes from these dangers, Sick of Soot shows that the EPA should tighten the current standard to an annual level of 11 μg/m3 coupled with a daily standard of 25 μg/m3 and a daily level of 25 μg/m3 coupled with a daily standard of 25 μg/m3.
Cleaning up the air to meet the standards outlined above could spare the nation every year from as many as:
- 35,700 premature deaths
- 2,350 heart attacks
- 23,290 visits to the hospital and emergency room
- 29,800 cases of acute bronchitis
- 1.4 million cases of aggravated asthma
- 2.7 million days of missed work or school due to air pollution-caused ailments
The ten metropolitan areas that would benefit most are:
- Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif. – prevents 4,230 premature deaths annually
- New York-Newark-Edison, N.Y.-N.J.-Pa. – prevents 3,290 premature deaths annually
- Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis. – prevents 2,240 premature deaths annually
- Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, Pa.-N.J.-Del.-Md. – prevents 1,550 premature deaths annually
- Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, Calif. – prevents 1,360 premature deaths annually
- Pittsburgh, Pa. – prevents 1,270 premature deaths annually
- Detroit-Warren-Livonia, Mich. – prevents 970 premature deaths annually
- Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, Ga. – prevents 930 premature deaths annually
- Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, Ohio – prevents 780 premature deaths annually
- Cincinnati-Middletown, Ohio-Ky.-Ind. – prevents 650 premature deaths annually
The economic benefits associated with reduced exposure to soot are estimated to reach as much as $281 billion annually.
Concern about the health impacts of soot pollution is the reason that Earthjustice—on behalf of the American Lung Association, Environmental Defense Fund and National Parks Conservation Association—petitioned the U.S. Court of Appeals Nov. 16 for the D.C. Circuit to set a deadline for the EPA to issue stronger soot standards. In early 2009, the same court found that the EPA's current soot standards did not adequately protect public health and ordered the agency to update them. In the nearly three years since that decision, however, the EPA has yet to propose any new standards. A coalition of 10 states filed a companion petition with the court Nov. 16 as well.
The estimates in Sick of Soot come from Health Benefits of Alternative PM2.5 Standards—a report prepared by Donald McCubbin, Ph.D., a recognized expert on the health benefits associated with reducing air pollution who developed the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) for the EPA. The analysis in this detailed report was developed using the BenMAP model, the same program that the EPA uses in its own analyses of air pollution standards.
Proposal Long Overdue
The Clean Air Act directs the EPA to review the national standards every five years by taking into account the latest scientific research to ensure public health is adequately protected. The EPA has failed to meet that deadline and the Lung Association, National Parks Conservation Association and Earthjustice have begun legal steps to require the EPA to complete the review.
Since 2006, when the EPA completed its last review, new scientific data have emerged that clearly indicate soot still poses a major threat to public health. The current standards of 15 μg/m3 coupled with a daily standard of 25 μg/m3 (annual) and 35 μg/m3 coupled with a daily standard of 25 μg/m3 (daily) fail to provide that protection and must be strengthened.
"The EPA has the legal responsibility to follow science and the law and protect all Americans from harm caused by soot pollution," said Janice Nolen, assistant vice president, National Policy and Advocacy for the American Lung Association. "Soot is the deadliest of the widespread air pollutants and poses a huge risk to people who suffer from lung and heart disease. Kids, seniors, asthmatics and other vulnerable populations deserve the strong standards recommended by Sick of Soot."
"The findings detailed in Sick of Soot go beyond EPA's own analysis of this issue," said John Graham, Ph.D., a scientist at Clean Air Task Force. "We used more current air quality data and looked at the issue nationally, rather than just in the 15 urban areas that EPA typically examines. Because air quality has improved recently, the standards we are recommending should be easier for the nation to meet than might be predicted by the EPA's modeling. It's a win-win situation, and we hope the agency will strongly consider these findings as it makes its decision."
"Given the large number of lives at stake, it's clear that the EPA needs to act now," said Earthjustice attorney, David Baron. "Unfortunately, the agency has refused to respond to a 2009 federal court finding that its current standards fall far short of what scientists and doctors say is necessary to protect the public's health. It also just missed a five-year deadline for reviewing those deficient soot standards. The EPA needs to start moving in a different direction, and Sick of Soot points the way."
To download the report, click here.
For more information, click here.
American Lung AssociationNow in its second century, the American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease. With your generous support, the American Lung Association is “Fighting for Air” through research, education and advocacy. For more information about the American Lung Association, a Charity Navigator Four Star Charity and holder of the Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Guide Seal, or to support the work it does, call 1-800-LUNG-USA (1-800-586-4872) or visit www.Lung.org.
Clean Air Task Force is a nonprofit environmental organization with offices throughout the United States and in China that works to protect the earth’s atmosphere by improving air quality and reducing global climate change through scientific research, public advocacy, technological innovation and private sector collaboration. For more information please visit www.catf.us.
Earthjustice is a nonprofit public interest law firm dedicated to protecting the magnificent places, natural resources, and wildlife of this earth, and to defending the right of all people to a healthy environment. Learn more at earthjustice.org.
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By 2030, almost a third of all the energy consumed in the European Union must come from renewable sources, according to binding targets agreed in 2018. Sweden is helping lead the way.
Sweden is a world leader in renewable energy consumption. Swedish Institute/World Bank
Naturally Warm<p>54% of Sweden's power comes from renewables, and is helped by its geography. With plenty of moving water and 63% forest cover, it's no surprise the <a href="https://sweden.se/nature/energy-use-in-sweden/#" target="_blank">two largest renewable power sources</a> are hydropower and biomass. And that biomass is helping support a local energy boom.</p><p>Heating is a key use of energy in a cold country like Sweden. In recent decades, as fuel oil taxes have increased, the country's power companies have turned to renewables, like biomass, to fuel local 'district heating' plants.</p><p>In Sweden these trace their <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544217304140#fig3" target="_blank">origins back to 1948</a>, when a power station's excess heat was first used to heat nearby buildings: steam is <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/district-heating-system" target="_blank">forced along a network of pipes</a> to wherever it's needed. Today, there are around 500 district heating systems across the country, from major cities to small villages, providing heat to homes and businesses.</p><p>District heating used to be fueled mainly from the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544217304140" target="_blank">by-products of power plants</a>, waste-to-energy plants and industrial processes. These days, however, Sweden is bringing more renewable sources into the mix. And as a result of competition, this localized form of power is now the country's<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544217304140#fig3" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> home-heating market leader.</a></p>
Sweden is using smart grids to turn buildings into energy producers. Huang et al/Elsevier
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<div id="d7bf9" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="8757b138d5570bec9d6aad18074a429a"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1273556364263071744" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">Read more about Western Harbour and book a visit: https://t.co/ujSmVs9rNK 🏡🌳🌊 https://t.co/C5PuPziqIM</div> — Smart City Sweden (@Smart City Sweden)<a href="https://twitter.com/SmartCitySweden/statuses/1273556364263071744">1592474473.0</a></blockquote></div>
Scaling Up<p>A recent development by E.ON in Hyllie, a district on the outskirts of Malmö, southern Sweden, <a href="https://www.eonenergy.com/blog/2019/February/sweden-smart-city" target="_blank">has scaled up the smart grid principle</a>. Energy generation comes from local wind, solar, biomass and waste sources.</p><p>Smart grids then balance the power, react to the weather, deploying extra power when it's colder or putting excess into battery storage when it's warm. The system is not only more efficient, but bills have fallen.</p><p>Smart energy developments like those in Hyllie, Ludivika, and renewable-driven district heating, offer a radical alternative to the centralized energy systems many countries rely on today.</p><p>The EU's leaders have a challenge: how to generate 32% of energy from renewables by 2030. Sweden offers a vision of how technology and local solutions can turn a goal into a reality.</p>
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