What Is Sole Water, and Does It Have Benefits?
Countless health claims circulate around this product, and proponents suggest that it can help you lose weight, balance your hormones, decrease muscle cramps, and improve sleep.
While these benefits sound impressive, there is no research to back them up.
This article examines sole water, its purported benefits, and whether you should drink it.
What is Sole Water?
This is typically done by adding pink Himalayan salt to a glass jar until it's a quarter of the way full, then filling the rest of the jar with water and letting it sit for 12–24 hours.
If all of the salt dissolves, more is added until it no longer dissolves. At this point, the water is considered fully saturated.
Most proponents of sole water recommend drinking 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of this mixture in an 8-ounce (240-ml) glass of room-temperature water every day to reap a multitude of health benefits.
It's suggested that this beverage balances your body's positively and negatively charged ions, such as sodium and other minerals, which let necessary elements and signals in and out of cells (2 Trusted Source).
Some people claim that sole water helps promote an optimal ion balance, thus maintaining fluid levels and overall health. Nonetheless, this theory has never been tested (3 Trusted Source).
Additionally, several unsubstantiated claims about the health benefits of sole water are related to the mineral content of pink Himalayan salt.
Sole water is water that has been fully saturated with pink Himalayan salt. Proponents assert that drinking this water balances ion levels and provides a number of health benefits.
Does Sole Water Have Health Benefits?
Advocates of sole water suggest that it can benefit digestion, lower blood pressure, improve sleep, prevent muscle cramps, and more.
However, sole water's effects have not been tested by scientific research.
Boasts a Lot of Minerals, But Not in High Amounts
Most of the claims surrounding sole water involve its mineral content.
Like other salts, pink Himalayan salt is mostly composed of sodium chloride, which helps maintain fluid balance and blood pressure in your body.
Unlike other salts, it is extracted by hand and doesn't contain additives or undergo much processing. Therefore, pink Himalayan salt boasts over 84 minerals and other elements, such as iron, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. These minerals give it a pink color (4).
While this may seem like an impressive number of nutrients, the amounts of each mineral in Himalayan salt are very low.
For example, Himalayan salt is only 0.28% potassium, 0.1% magnesium, and 0.0004% iron — negligible compared to the amounts of these minerals that you get from whole foods (4).
You would have to drink large amounts of sole water, thereby consuming excess sodium, for it to be considered a good source of these nutrients.
In reality, sole water does not affect your body in the same way as fruits, vegetables, and other foods that are high in these minerals.
Proponents also suggest that this drink improves bone health and energy levels due to its iron and calcium contents, even though its amounts of these nutrients are negligible (7 Trusted Source, 8 Trusted Source).
Sodium's Effect on Sleep
Since pink Himalayan salt is mostly sodium chloride (salt), sole water is higher in sodium than it is in other minerals.
However, due to the large size of its crystals, pink Himalayan salt is slightly lower in sodium than regular table salt.
Keep in mind that sole water likely contains significantly less sodium than pure pink Himalayan salt since it's made by diluting salt in water.
Nevertheless, this drink still packs sodium. Because sodium is critical for proper sleep and adequate hydration, sole water proponents claim that it can improve sleep and hydration — though there is no research to back up these claims (11 Trusted Source).
One 3-day study from the 1980s in 10 young men determined that a diet of less than 500 mg of sodium per day led to sleep disruptions (12 Trusted Source).
Notably, this is an extremely low amount of salt. Most people consume much more than the recommended 2,300 mg of salt on a daily basis (13 Trusted Source).
Even though this study is dated, included a very small sample size, and did not specifically assess pink Himalayan salt, proponents still cite it as evidence that sole water aids sleep.
What's more, other studies have found the opposite to be true. Their results indicate that poor sleep may be associated with increased salt intake (14 Trusted Source).
Sodium and Hydration
Sodium plays an essential role in maintaining fluid balance in your body. In fact, inadequate sodium intake can lead to dehydration and water loss, especially if combined with heavy exercise and sweating (15 Trusted Source, 16 Trusted Source).
Since adequate sodium intake is necessary to maintain proper hydration, proponents of sole water suggest that it can help keep you hydrated.
However, drinking sole water is not a more effective way to meet your sodium needs than consuming salt or foods that naturally have sodium. In fact, sole water contains less sodium than regular table salt.
Plus, most people already consume more than the recommended 2,300 mg of sodium per dayand don't need to add more to their diet. Excessive sodium intake is linked to several health issues, including high blood pressure (13 Trusted Source, 17 Trusted Source).
Most Other Benefits Are Not Supported by Research
Additionally, proponents often claim that sole water:
- improves digestion
- assists in detox and balances pH in your body
- balances blood sugar
- improves bone health
- boosts energy levels
- acts as an antihistamine that fights allergic reactions
Notably, no research backs up these assertions because sole water has not been studied in humans.
These supposed benefits are often attributed to its mineral content, though this drink harbors minuscule amounts of nutrients. While some suggest that sole water can balance positive and negative ions in your body, this theory has never been tested or proven (3 Trusted Source).
Though sole water is marketed as high in health-promoting minerals, it contains negligible amounts of these nutrients. It provides sodium but is not a better source of it than regular salt.
Should You Drink Sole Water?
Since sole water is made from only water and pink Himalayan salt, it should not cause negative side effects in a healthy person who consumes it in small amounts.
However, as no research substantiates its supposed benefits, it should not be considered a health beverage.
Plus, drinking a lot of sole water on top of a diet that contains adequate or excessive sodium may cause you to consume too much sodium.
It's difficult to assess how much sodium sole water contains, but it's likely high in salt.
As the standard American diet is rich in processed foods that are loaded with added sodium, additional sodium from sole water could be harmful. In fact, most Americans already consume more than the recommended amount of sodium (13 Trusted Source).
Excess sodium intake is linked to high blood pressure, osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other chronic diseases (18 Trusted Source).
If you don't need to watch your sodium intake and are interested in sole water, this drink is unlikely to be harmful if consumed in small amounts. Just keep in mind that it has no proven benefits.
Even though the salt in sole water is diluted, this beverage may be an unnecessary source of sodium for those with adequate or excessive sodium intake. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, avoid sole water.
How to Make Your Own Sole Water
To make your own sole water, fill a glass jar a quarter of the way with pink Himalayan salt.
Then top off the jar with water, seal it with a lid, shake it, and let it sit for 12–24 hours. If all of the salt dissolves after you let it sit, add small amounts of salt until it no longer dissolves. At this point, the water is fully saturated.
When you want to try it, drop 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of sole water into 1 cup (240 ml) of water. It's important to note that no recommended dosage exists due to a lack of research.
Even though sole water isn't likely harmful, it's also unnecessary and has no proven benefits. People who are on sodium-restricted diets or already consuming enough salt should avoid this drink.
To make your own sole water, combine pink Himalayan salt with water in a glass jar until the salt no longer dissolves. Drink 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of this mixture mixed into 1 cup (240 ml) of plain water.
The Bottom Line
Sole water is a drink made from pink Himalayan salt and water. It's often touted as a natural aid for sleep, energy, and digestion.
In reality, it's low in nutrients, and research on its benefits is lacking.
Since most people already consume too much salt, it's likely best to avoid sole water.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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Timeline for Australia's waste export ban. Australian Government
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<div id="e0008" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="ffc07febbf5d2d585ad06d3f43e2be56"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1290667833999929344" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">🚨Breaking News: The President has just signed the bipartisan #GreatAmericanOutdoorsAct. It will help: 🏗️ Restore… https://t.co/RPefKPMn7S</div> — Fix Our Parks (@Fix Our Parks)<a href="https://twitter.com/FixOurParksUS/statuses/1290667833999929344">1596554165.0</a></blockquote></div>
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By Andrew J. Whelton and Caitlin R. Proctor
In recent years wildfires have entered urban areas, causing breathtaking destruction.
Survivors left everything to flee the Camp Fire's path. Andrew Whelton / Purdue University
Wildfires and Water<p>Both the Tubbs and Camp fires destroyed fire hydrants, water pipes and meter boxes. Water leaks and ruptured hydrants were common. The Camp Fire inferno spread at a speed of one football field per second, chasing everyone – including water system operators – out of town.</p><p>After the fires passed, testing ultimately revealed widespread hazardous drinking water contamination. Evidence suggests that the toxic chemicals originated from a combination of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/aws2.1183" target="_blank">burning vegetation, structures and plastic materials</a>.</p>
Pipes, water meters and meter covers after wildfires destroyed them. Caitlin Proctor, Amisha Shah, David Yu, and Andrew Whelton/Purdue University
Dangerous Contamination Levels<p>Benzene was found at concentrations of 40,000 parts per billion (ppb) in drinking water after the Tubbs Fire and at more than 2,217 ppb after the Camp Fire. According to the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, children exposed to benzene for a single day can suffer <a href="https://engineering.purdue.edu/PlumbingSafety/resources/Benzene-Levels-in-Water.pdf" target="_blank">harm at levels as low as 26 ppb</a>.</p><p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends limiting children's short-term acute exposure to <a href="https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-03/documents/dwtable2018.pdf" target="_blank">200 ppb</a>, and long-term exposure to less than <a href="https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations" target="_blank">5 ppb</a>. The EPA regulatory level for what constitutes a hazardous waste is <a href="https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/tclp.pdf" target="_blank">500 ppb</a>.</p><p>In early 2019, California conducted contaminated water testing on humans by taking contaminated water from the Paradise Irrigation District and asking persons to smell it. The state found that even when people smelled contaminated water that had less than 200 ppb benzene, <a href="https://engineering.purdue.edu/PlumbingSafety/resources/Dissipatiion-of-Burn-Related-VOC-From-Water.pdf" target="_blank">at least one person reported nausea and throat irritation</a>. The test also showed that water contained a variety of other benzene-like compounds that first responders had not sampled for.</p><p>The officials who carried out this small-scale test did not appear to realize the significance of what they had done, until we asked whether they had had their action approved in advance by an institutional review board. In response, they asserted that such a review was not needed.</p><p>In our view, this episode is telling for two reasons. First, one subject reported an adverse health effect after being exposed to water that contained benzene at a level below the EPA's recommended one-day limit for children. Second, doing this kind of test without proper oversight suggests that officials greatly underestimated the potential for serious contamination of local water supplies and public harm. After the Camp Fire, together with the EPA, we estimated that some plastic pipes needed <a href="https://engineering.purdue.edu/PlumbingSafety/opinions/Final-HDPE-Service-Line-Decontamination-2019-03-18.pdf" target="_blank">more than 280 days</a> of flushing to make them safe again.</p>
Plastic pipes can be damaged by heat and fire contact. Andrew Whelton / Purdue University
Building Codes Could Make Areas Disaster-Ready<p>Our research underscores that community building codes are inadequate to prevent wildfire-caused pollution of drinking water and homes.</p><p>Installing one-way valves, called backflow prevention devices, at each water meter can prevent contamination rushing out of the damaged building from flowing into the larger buried pipe network.</p><p>Adopting codes that required builders to install fire-resistant meter boxes and place them farther from vegetation would help prevent infrastructure from burning so readily in wildfires. Concrete meter boxes and water meters with minimal plastic components would be less likely to ignite. Some plastics may be practically impossible to make safe again, since all types are susceptible to fire and heat.</p><p>Water main shutoff valves and water sampling taps should exist at every water meter box. Sample taps can help responders quickly determine water safety.</p>
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The Smell Test Doesn’t Work<p>Under no circumstance should people be told to <a href="https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/press_room/press_releases/2018/pr122418_voc.pdf" target="_blank">smell the water</a> to determine its safety, as was recommended for months after the Camp Fire. Many chemicals have no odor when they are harmful. Only testing can determine safety.</p><p>Ordering people to boil their water will not make it safe if it contains toxic chemicals that enter the air. Boiling just transmits those substances into the air faster. "Do not use" orders can keep people safe until agencies can test the water. Before such advisories are lifted or modified, regulators should be required to carry out a full chemical screen of the water systems. Yet, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/aws2.1183" target="_blank">disaster</a> after <a href="https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/ew/c5ew00294j" target="_blank">disaster</a>, government agencies have failed to take this step.</p><p>Buildings should be tested to find contamination. <a href="https://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2020/Q1/study-your-homes-water-quality-could-vary-by-the-room-and-the-season.html" target="_blank">Home drinking water quality can differ from room to room</a>, so reliable testing should sample both cold and hot water at many locations within each building.</p><p>While infrastructure is being repaired, survivors need a safe water supply. Water treatment devices sold for home use, such as refrigerator and faucet water filters, are not approved for extremely contaminated water, although product sales representatives and government officials may <a href="https://undark.org/2019/09/19/camp-fire-california-drinking-water-carcinogens/" target="_blank">mistakenly think</a> the devices can be used for that purpose.</p><p>To avoid this kind of confusion, external technical experts should be called in assist local public health departments, which can quickly become overwhelmed after disasters.</p>
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Preparing for Future Fires<p>The damage that the Tubbs and Camp fires caused to local water systems was preventable. We believe that urban and rural communities, as well as state legislatures, should establish codes and lists of authorized construction materials for high-risk areas. They also should establish rapid methods to assess health, prepare for water testing and decontamination, and set aside emergency water supplies.</p><p>Wildfires are coming to urban areas. Protecting drinking water systems, buried underground or in buildings, is one thing communities can do to prepare for that reality.</p>
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