Silencil Reviews: Does It Work for Tinnitus?
The ear is one of the most critical organs in your body- the organ for hearing. Both the ears have a relatively complex structure, where the entire canal is divided into three sections. Every single part participates in the transference of the sound vibrations collected by the ear lobe till they reach the optic nerve ends in the innermost ear chamber.
Now, often you will find people complaining about a ringing sound in their ears, which only escalates during sleeping or in the absence of external sound waves. This medical condition is referred to as Tinnitus, which affects the ears and the cerebrum's sensory part.
Several different supplements are present for treating Tinnitus, some of which are effective, whereas some will not help you even by the slightest. However, one supplement that has shown tremendous results for curing Tinnitus's symptoms and restoring the brain's normal activity is the Silencil.
For your convenience and more knowledge, we will discuss every fundamental thing about the Silencil supplement, starting with its benefits to the ingredients, and so on.
Who Should Use Silencil?
This supplement is solely made for those who have mild to complex Tinnitus symptoms like loss of hearing, the constant ringing of ears, dynamic imbalance of the body, etc.
For ensuring that you can take Silencil, first, you need to do some audio tests to understand that the problems you are facing are indeed the symptoms of tinnitus itself. Once this fact is established, you can start taking this dietary supplement as it consists of essential vitamins and other compounds that will remove the underlying cause of the disease.
The supplement should not be given to children without a doctor's recommendations. If you are above eighteen years, you can take Silencil easily. Also, make sure you do not have any chronic disease or allergies.
Click here to Get the Best Deal on Silencil from the Official Website.
Silencil Reviews: Overview of the Supplement
Silencil is a dietary supplement specifically made for people suffering from varying degrees of tinnitus. It consists of several essential ingredients that will help alleviate the consequences of the tinnitus symptoms, starting with the numbness of the sensory cells responsible for hearing to the constant ringing sound in the ears.
Twenty-eight different ingredients are present in this supplement, each of which works in a coordinated manner to reverse the symptoms and repair the damage that has been imparted on the hearing cells. Some of these ingredients also boost immunity to help your body fight against any infection that might trigger the tinnitus and worsen the condition.
The formula for Silencil was developed in trusted GMP-laboratories, under the supervision of reputed and expert scientists and chemists. It was designed to ensure that Silencil will have no side effects. This is an all-natural supplement, which means it doesn't have any kind of additives, preservatives, parabens, or any other chemical that might affect the health adversely.
Pros and Cons of Using Silencil
Silencil has claimed that it helps a person suffering from tinnitus in various ways. Before you learn about this supplement, it will be best if you know the pros and cons of the substance. This way, you will have a better understanding of the supplement and other relevant facts.
- Free of artificial additives and preservatives
The supplement does not contain artificial chemicals, starting with additives to preservatives and confectioners sugars.
- Develops the brain's health
Silencil is not just any supplement. It works on the damaged part of the brain and restores the normal functioning.
- Made in an FDA approved facility
The drug is prepared in a trusted lab in the USA which maintains all the FDA protocols. At every step, the supplement is clinically tested by experts.
Using the Silencil supplement will not cause a dent in your pocket as the supplement is quite affordable. So, any person suffering from tinnitus can purchase this product with ease.
- Improves the health
The twenty-eight ingredients present in the supplement will help your immune system become stronger, thereby gaining more potential to keep you healthy.
- Can only be purchased on the Official Website
Unlike other supplements, you won't find Silencil in a medicine shop or any other website. You will have to buy the product directly from the Official Website of Silencil.
- Delayed results
Since it's a supplement, you won't experience any immediate results. The results will start showing only after a couple of days of regularly taking the capsules as per the recommended dosage.
What's Included in Silencil?
The Silencil supplement comes in a bottle. You can use this bottle for thirty days. Sixty capsules are there inside the bottle, which you will have to take as per the recommended dosage. All the certifications and approvals are present on the label in the form of a logo. If you study the label properly, you will see the concentration of all the ingredients with which the supplement is made.
The pills are of medium size, and hence, can be taken easily with water. Make sure you close the bottle properly after taking out the capsule. The rest of the pills should come in close contact with air continuously.
How Does Silencil Work?
If you want to learn the details of the working mechanism of the Silencil supplement, you might have to learn a lot of biology and chemistry prior to that. But since we are discussing this supplement's review, let's just stick to the basic working mechanism.
Even though it contains twenty-eight different ingredients, each of which functions separately, the supplement's overall working is the same. So, let's look at how Silencil acts on tinnitus and reduces the symptoms.
Tinnitus is mainly caused when several toxins accumulate and infect the sensory neurons present in the cerebrum. So, Silencil first works on removing those toxins and freeing the brain from the harmful effects. This reduces any further damage, so your body will focus on healing the brain cells.
2. Works on protecting the brain
Several ingredients are present in this supplement that acts as a protective shield for your vulnerable brain. Tinnitus leaves the brain cells fragile, and hence they need proper protection, which Silencil offers brilliantly.
3. Improvement in cognitive senses
The vitamins and potassium will improve the brain cells' cognitive functioning. As a result, your focus and concentration will improve, allowing your brain to heal properly since it won't suffer too much stress.
4. Restoring of the neurons' health
Once all these conditions are met, Silencil starts working to improve the neurons' overall health and restoring their normal functionality.
The entire working mechanism is a combined effect of every single ingredient present in the supplement. That's why it takes some time for the results to show as the ingredients first work on the underlying causes and then on the superficial ones.
Click here to Learn more about how Silencil works on the Official Website.
As we have discussed earlier, Silencil has a total of twenty-eight ingredients, which aid in the overall development of the brain and the underlying causes of tinnitus. However, we will not discuss the entire list since some ingredients are common with other health supplements.
Here, we will talk about only those ingredients that effectively treat the Tinnitus and reduce the ears' ringing sound.
The oat straws contain flowers, oat buds, and leaves, all of which are added to Silencil. For a long time, this particular ingredient has been used in medical science for treating several diseases related to the brain. The straws are rich in various phytonutrients, which reduce stress levels, thereby producing a calming effect on the brain. Also, its stimulating property will help to improve the functioning of the brain cells.
The hawthorn berry is known for the abundance of antioxidants. These proactive molecules help reduce the inflammation in the body, thereby relieving the brain cells of any internal swellings. Also, antioxidants reduce the concentration of free radicals. This further helps in the prevention of early aging of the neurons. Studies show that hawthorn berry is considered one of the most beneficial ingredients of Silencil.
Belonging to the mint family, this particular plant is extensively used in the American medicines and supplements, including Silencil. The plant is rich in antioxidants, especially those that prevent the early aging of the cells, including the neurons. Several studies have shown that the components present in the skullcap can boost the mood and alleviate tension. This promotes the healing process of damaged brain cells.
One of the significant vitamins required by your body is Vitamin B. This particular micronutrient is further divided into several categories, all of which work effectively in protecting the brain from injuries or internal infections. The vitamins work on improving the immunity system, allowing your body to alleviate any bacterial or viral infection in the brain. Also, the micronutrient enhances the mood, which is indeed a great help for treating tinnitus symptoms.
Out of all the minerals required for maintaining the normal homeostasis of your body, one ingredient essential for the brain's health is potassium. This particular mineral improves the neurons' health and allows them to transmit the neurological impulses at the normal rate. Potassium works expertly on the sensory neurons responsible for interpreting the sound waves.
This particular Arctic herb is said to be the hub of bioactive compounds as it contains several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and so on. The two most essential antioxidants that are present in this Asian herb are the rosavin and salidroside. These compounds' presence helps your body fight the signs of early aging, thereby preventing the neurons from degenerative diseases. Several other studies have shown that this compound is extremely good in alleviating depression and mental fatigue symptoms. As a result, it boosts your brain's energy and speeds up the healing process.
This herbal ingredient has a plethora of benefits in treating tinnitus. For instance, chamomile boosts sleep and allows your brain to relax. Because of this, the healing process of the brain cells speeds up. The antioxidants present in the herb will boost the immunity power due to which your body will alleviate the infections in your brain. The abundant antioxidants present in the compound will prevent the neurons' aging, thereby treating tinnitus effectively.
This compound in Silencil produces inhibitory effects and prevents the adverse action of the binding of glutamate neurotransmitters to the brain cells. This part provides a calming and relaxing effect on the brain cells, allowing them to recuperate from any damage. A study has stated that another major function that L-theanine has in our body is to enhance the release of the relaxing neurotransmitter, which has anti-anxiety effects.
Ashwagandha is one of the ancient herbs that have been used in making medicines for various diseases. It has antimutagenic compounds that will prevent brain cancer or the signs of early aging of the neurons. Even though it hasn't been proved yet completely, doctors and scientists have reason to believe that this particular herb can treat anxiety and depression in many people. As a result, when combined with other therapeutic and calming herbs, Ashwagandha can treat tinnitus.
Benefits of Using Silencil
With all the essential 28 ingredients in place, it would be an understatement to say that this dietary supplement is perfect for treating only tinnitus. Along with acting on the constant ringing sound in the ears, Silencil also simultaneously works on the body's health and immune system.
If you are hesitating about this product, we think it would be best to get a clear description of the supplement's health benefits.
May help prevent brain and ear infections
One of the significant benefits you can enjoy after regularly taking the supplement is a protective ear and brain against infections. Several ingredients in Silencil prevent bacteria and viruses from attacking the brain cells and the ear. This further lowers the chances of Tinnitus.
May reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression
Over time, the brain suffers more internal damages than physical ones. This is because your lifestyle, physical health, and other surrounding factors directly affect your psychological health, thereby causing the brain to slow down the rejuvenation process. This is further observed in people suffering from anxiety, depression, excess stress, and so on. Silencil helps eliminate the levels of the psychological disturbances, thereby allowing your brain to heal itself rapidly.
Increases the immune power of your body
Many people suffer from a weak immune system, which results in many diseases like viral infections, skin problems, nerve problems, etc. In many medical studies, it has been observed that a weak immune system is one of the major reasons for Tinnitus's occurrence. This is where the Silencil comes into the roleplay. It contains several vitamins and minerals that strengthen the immune system and quicken its response to any adversity in your body.
May help repair brain cell damage
One of the major consequences of having Tinnitus is that the cerebrum's sensory neurons get damaged. So, unless you are working on repairing the damage imparted to the neurons, your body won't get relief from Tinnitus. Silencil accelerates your body's natural healing process, thereby allowing the damaged neurons to get revived once again.
Protects the brain from other neurological diseases
Not only the Silencil supplement treats Tinnitus, but also it makes sure that your brain remains guarded all the time against other kinds of neurological diseases like Alzheimer's.
Side Effects of Using Silencil
After years of intense studies, it has been concluded that this particular natural supplement does not produce any side effects or adverse response in the patients' bodies consuming the capsules.
But, the only known side effect to date occurs when you take too much of the supplement. Taking more than the suggested serving may cause
- distorted vision
- mild symptoms related to lack of concentration and focus
This is why it's better to consult a doctor before you start taking any supplement regularly.
Who Should Refrain From Using Silencil?
The supplement is not perfect for different age groups, and hence there are certain instructions you need to follow.
- Breastfeeding mothers for pregnant women should always avoid taking the supplement at any cost unless prescribed by the doctor.
- The Silencil supplement is not made for kids or teenagers below 18 years of age. Also, the maximum age for which a person can take this supplement is eighty years.
- If you are suffering from any chronic disease, make sure you are consulting your doctor first and then place an order for the new bottle.
Where to Buy Silencil & Guarantees?
The company itself sells Silencil, and you can only order it from the Official Website. Three different buying options are there, including the package of a single bottle, three bottles, and six bottles.
- One bottle for a month: $69 each and pay for a small shipping fee
- Three bottles for three months: $59 each with no shipping charges
- Six bottles for six months: $49 each with no shipping charges
Since the bulk orders do not involve any shipping fee, most people opt for the 3-month or 6-month supply.
You can either pay through your credit or debit card at the time of making the final purchase. If you are not satisfied with the product and the outcomes, you can seek customer service and return it.
When it comes to the guarantee, you do get a 60 days money-back guarantee regardless of the packaging you go for. It is applicable from the date of purchase. It would help if you get in touch with the customer support team to gather information about your refund.
Silencil Review: Closing Thoughts
Over the years, Silencil has proven to be one of the best friends for people suffering from ringing ears and damaged brain cells. So, if you are facing the same problem, consult a doctor immediately and get started with the supplement for one month.
Buy it from the official website to be sure about the quality and authenticity.
Click here to Get the Best Discount on Silencil from the Official Website.
By Jim Palardy
As 2021 dawns, people, ecosystems, and wildlife worldwide are facing a panoply of environmental issues. In an effort to help experts and policymakers determine where they might focus research, a panel of 25 scientists and practitioners — including me — from around the globe held discussions in the fall to identify emerging issues that deserve increased attention.
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By Elliott Negin
What a difference an election makes. Thanks to the Biden-Harris victory in November, the next administration is poised to make a 180-degree turn to again address the climate crisis.
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By Suresh Dhaniyala and Byron Erath
A fast-spreading variant of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 has been found in at least 10 states, and people are wondering: How do I protect myself now?
Airborne Particles Are Still the Biggest Problem<p>The <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-it-matters-that-the-coronavirus-is-changing-and-what-this-means-for-vaccine-effectiveness-152383" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">SARS-CoV-2 variants</a> are believed to spread primarily through the air rather than on surfaces.</p><p>When someone with the coronavirus in their respiratory tract coughs, talks, sings or even just breathes, infectious respiratory droplets can be expelled into the air. These droplets are tiny, predominantly in the range of <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021850211001200?casa_token=KtyrsEfbeqcAAAAA:vv10sSxm33tzg0EQvNMIFtV7GCu5gE9QAzuyzHKr2_4Cl0OFkUJoGwzn4d0ZnEWS19NsOTuH" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">1-100 micrometers</a>. For comparison, a human hair is about 70 micrometers in diameter.</p><p>The larger droplets fall to the ground quickly, rarely traveling farther than 6 feet from the source. The bigger problem for disease transmission is the tiniest droplets – those less than 10 micrometers in diameter – which can remain suspended in the air as aerosols for <a href="https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/50/5/693/325466" target="_blank">hours at a time</a>.</p>
<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="bb67b83dcafe589f350daf3df60fa29d"><iframe lazy-loadable="true" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/UNCNM7AZPFg?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
What Can You Do to Stay Safe?<p>1) Pay attention to the type of face mask you use, and how it fits.</p><p>Most off-the-shelf face coverings are not 100% effective at preventing droplet emission. With the new variant spreading more easily and likely infectious at lower concentrations, it's important to select coverings with materials that are most effective at stopping droplet spread.</p><p>When available, N95 and surgical masks consistently perform the best. Otherwise, face coverings that use <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352431620301802?casa_token=-Dj6nGBAm24AAAAA:qq9BpbzCKaPDFcV73ohA2fCnhE_Zlkss6Bei3kUwq9QYndhHj0Vafbbd-ef_855lx6knDfUt" target="_blank">multiple layers of material</a> are preferable. Ideally, the material should be a tight weave. High thread count cotton sheets are an example. Proper fit is also crucial, as gaps around the nose and mouth can <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c03252" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">decrease the effectiveness by 50%</a>.</p><p>2) Follow social distancing guidelines.</p><p>While the current social distancing guidelines are not perfect – <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-a-smoky-bar-can-teach-us-about-the-6-foot-rule-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-145517" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">6 feet isn't always enough</a> – they do offer a useful starting point. Because aerosol concentrations levels and infectivity are highest in the space immediately surrounding anyone with the virus, increasing physical distancing can help reduce risk. Remember that people are infectious <a href="https://medical.mit.edu/faqs/COVID-19#faq-10" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">before they start showing symptoms</a>, and they many never show symptoms, so don't count on seeing signs of illness.</p><p>3) Think carefully about the environment when entering an enclosed area, both the ventilation and how people interact.</p><p>Limiting the size of gatherings helps reduce the potential for exposure. Controlling indoor environments in other ways can also be a highly effective strategy for reducing risk. This includes <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-a-smoky-bar-can-teach-us-about-the-6-foot-rule-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-145517" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">increasing ventilation rates</a> to bring in <a href="https://theconversation.com/keeping-indoor-air-clean-can-reduce-the-chance-of-spreading-coronavirus-149512" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">fresh air and filtering existing air</a> to dilute aerosol concentrations.</p><p>On a personal level, it is helpful to pay attention to the types of interactions that are taking place. For example, many individuals shouting can create a higher risk than one individual speaking. In all cases, it's important to minimize the amount of time spent indoors with others.</p><p>The CDC has warned that B.1.1.7 could <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7003e2.htm?s_cid=mm7003e2_w" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">become the dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant</a> in the U.S. by March. Other fast-spreading variants have also been found in <a href="https://virological.org/t/genomic-characterisation-of-an-emergent-sars-cov-2-lineage-in-manaus-preliminary-findings/586" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Brazil</a> and <a href="https://www.who.int/csr/don/31-december-2020-sars-cov2-variants/en/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">South Africa</a>. Increased vigilance and complying with health guidelines should continue to be of highest priority.</p>
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By Tara Lohan
A key part of the United States' clean energy transition has started to take shape, but you may need to squint to see it. About 2,000 wind turbines could be built far offshore, in federal waters off the Atlantic Coast, in the next 10 years. And more are expected.
Threats to Birds<p>One of the gravest threats facing birds is climate change, according to Audubon, which found that rising temperatures threaten <a href="https://www.audubon.org/2019climateissue" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">nearly two-thirds of North America's bird species</a>. That's why the impending development of offshore wind is a good thing, says Shilo Felton, a field manager in the organization's Clean Energy Initiative, but it also comes with dangers to birds that need to be better studied and mitigated.</p><p>The most obvious risk comes from birds colliding with spinning turbine blades. But offshore wind developments can also displace birds from foraging or roost sites, as well as migratory pathways.</p><p>Along the Atlantic Coast four imperiled species are of top concern to conservationists: the endangered piping plover, red knot, roseate tern and black-capped petrel, which is being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act.</p><p>"Those four species are of utmost importance to make sure that we understand the impacts," says Felton. "But beyond that there are many species that are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act that could potentially see more impacts from offshore wind."</p><p>Northern gannets, for example, are at risk not just for collision but <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308703197_Possible_impacts_of_offshore_wind_farms_on_seabirds_a_pilot_study_in_Northern_Gannets_in_the_southern_North_Sea" target="_blank">habitat displacement</a>.</p>
A northern gannet flying along Cape May, N.J. Ann Marie Morrison / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0<p>"There's <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320716303196" target="_blank">some evidence</a> that they just won't use areas where turbines are, but that also excludes them from key foraging areas," says Felton. Researchers are still studying what this may mean for the birds. But a <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113620305304" target="_blank">study</a> published in December 2020 conducted at Bass Rock, Scotland — home to the world's largest northern gannet colony — found that wind developments could reduce their growth rate, though not enough to cause a population decline.</p><p>Other birds, such as great cormorants and European shags, are <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320716303196" target="_blank">attracted to wind developments</a> and use the infrastructure to rest while opening up new foraging areas farther from shore.</p><p>"There's plenty of potential for a bird to use a wind farm and still to avoid the turbines themselves," says Felton.</p><p>Birds like pelicans, however, are less versatile in their movements and are at particular risk of collision because of their flight pattern, she says.</p><p>But how disruptive or dangerous offshore turbines will be along the East Coast isn't yet known.</p><p>Federal and state agencies, along with nongovernmental organizations, says Felton, have done good research to try to better understand those potential impacts. "But these are all theoretical, because we don't have a lot of offshore wind yet in the United States."</p>
Threats to Ocean Life<p>Birds aren't the only wildlife of concern. More development in ocean waters could affect a litany of marine species, some of which are already facing other pressures from overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction and climate change.</p><p>Scientists have found that marine mammals like whales and dolphins could be disturbed by the jarring sounds of construction, especially if pile driving is used to hammer the steel turbine platform into the seafloor.</p><p>The noises, though short-lived, could impede communication between animals, divert them from migration routes or cause them to seek less suitable areas for feeding or breeding. Research from Europe found that harbor porpoises, seals and dolphins may avoid development areas during construction. In most, but <a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045101" target="_blank">not all cases</a>, the animals were believed to have returned to the area following construction.</p><p>The biggest concern for conservation groups in the United States is the critically endangered North American right whale. There are fewer than 400 remaining, and the species' habitat overlaps with a number of planned wind development areas along the East Coast.</p><p>"Offshore wind is in no way the cause of the challenges the whales face, but it's going to be another pressure point," says John Rogers, senior energy analyst for the Union of Concerned Scientists.</p><p>Researchers aren't sure how right whales will respond to the noise from pile driving.</p><p>"But we are concerned, based on what we know about how whales react to other noise sources, that they may avoid [wind development] areas," says Kershaw.</p><p>And if that displacement causes them to miss out on important food resources, it could be dangerous for a species already on the brink.</p><p>There are a few other potential threats, too.</p><p>Ships associated with the development — more plentiful during construction — also pose a danger. In the past few years cargo ships, fishing boats and other vessels have caused half of all deaths of North Atlantic right whales.</p>
A juvenile right whale breaches against the backdrop of a ship near the St. Johns River entrance. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission / NOAA Research Permit #775-1600-10<p>And after construction, the noise from the spinning turbines will be present in the water at low decibels. "We don't quite know how the great whales will react to those sounds," says Jeremy Firestone, the director of the Center for Research in Wind at the University of Delaware.</p><p>Other marine mammals may also perceive the noise, but at low decibels it's unlikely to be an impediment, <a href="http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v309/p279-295/" target="_blank">research has found</a>.</p><p>And it's possible that wind development could help some ocean life. Turbine foundations can attract fish and invertebrates for whom hard substrates create habitat complexity — known as the "reef effect," according to researchers from the University of Rhode Island's <a href="https://dosits.org/animals/effects-of-sound/anthropogenic-sources/wind-turbine/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Discovery of Sound in the Sea</a> program. Exclusion of commercial fishing nearby may also help shelter fish and protect marine mammals from entanglements in fishing gear.</p>
Ensuring Safe Development<p>Despite the potential dangers, researchers have gathered a few best practices to help diminish and possibly eliminate some risks.</p><p>When it comes to ship strikes, the easiest thing is to slow boats down, mandating a speed of <a href="https://biologicaldiversity.org/w/news/press-releases/vessel-speed-limits-sought-protect-endangered-north-atlantic-right-whales-2020-08-06/" target="_blank">10 knots</a> in wind development areas, and using visual and acoustic monitoring for whales.</p><p>Adjusting operations to reduce boat trips between the shore and the wind development will also help. A new series of service operating vessels can allow maintenance staff to spent multiple days onsite, says Kershaw, cutting down on boat traffic.</p><p>For construction noise concerns, developers can avoid pile driving during times of the year when whales are present. And, depending on the marine environment, developers could use "quiet foundations" that don't require pile driving. These include gravity-based or suction caisson platforms.</p><p>Floating turbines are also used in deep water, where they're effectively anchored in place — although that poses its own potential danger. "We have concerns that marine debris could potentially become entangled around the mooring cables of the floating arrays and pose a secondarily entanglement risk to some species," says Felton, who thinks more research should be conducted before those become operational in U.S. waters — a process that's already underway in Maine, where a <a href="https://composites.umaine.edu/2020/08/05/diamond-offshore-wind-rwe-renewables-join-the-university-of-maine-to-lead-development-of-maine-floating-offshore-wind-demonstration-project/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">demonstration project is being built</a>.</p><p>If loud noises are unavoidable during construction, noise-reducing technologies such as bubble curtains can help dampen the sound. And scheduling adjacent projects to conduct similar work at the same time could limit the duration of disturbances.</p>
The foundation installation of the off shore wind farm Sandbank using a bubble curtain. Vattenfall / Ulrich Wirrwa / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0<p>Once turbines become operational, reducing the amount of light on wind platforms or using flashing lights could help deter some seabirds, NRDC <a href="https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/harnessing-wind-advance-wind-power-offshore-ib.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">researchers reported</a>. And scientists are exploring using ultrasonic noises and ultraviolet lighting to keep bats away. "Feathering," or shutting down the turbine blades during key migration times, could also help prevent fatalities.</p><p>"We need to make sure that offshore wind is the best steward it can be of the marine ecosystem, because we want and expect it to be a significant part of the clean energy picture in some parts of the country," says Rogers. "We also have to recognize that we're going to learn by doing, and that some of these things we're going to figure out best once we have more turbines in the water."</p><p>That's why environmental groups say it's important to establish baseline information on species before projects begin, and then require developers to conduct monitoring during construction and for years after projects are operational.</p><p>Employing an "adaptive management framework" will ensure that developers can adjust their management practices as they go when new information becomes available, and that those best practices are incorporated into the requirements for future projects.</p>
Putting Research Into Action<p>Advancing these conversations at the federal level during the Trump administration, though, has been slow going.</p><p>"We didn't really have any productive discussions with the administration in the last four years," says Kershaw.</p><p>And when it comes to birds, Felton says the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management's recently completed "draft cumulative environmental impact statement" covering offshore wind developments had a lot of good environmental research, but little focus on birds.</p><p>"Part of that comes from the current administration's interpretation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act," she says.</p><p>President Trump has been hostile to both wind energy <em>and</em> birds, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/05/climate/trump-migratory-bird-protections.html" target="_blank">and finished gutting the Migratory Bird Treaty Act</a> in his administration's the final days, removing penalties for companies whose operations kill migratory birds.</p><p>There's hope that the Biden administration will take a different approach. But where the federal government has been lacking lately, Kershaw says, they've seen states step up.</p><p>New York, for example, has established an <a href="https://www.nyetwg.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Environmental Technical Working Group</a> composed of stakeholders to advise on environmentally responsible development of offshore wind.</p><p>The group is led by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, but it isn't limited to the Empire State. It's regional in focus and includes representatives from wind developers with leases between Massachusetts and North Carolina; state agencies from Massachusetts to Virginia; federal agencies; and science-based environmental NGOs.</p><p>New York's latest solicitation for clean energy projects includes up to 2,500 megawatts of offshore wind and <a href="https://www.nyetwg.com/announcements" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">requires developers</a> to contribute at least $10,000 per megawatt for regional monitoring of fisheries and other wildlife.</p><p>Environmental groups have also worked directly with developers, including an agreement with Vineyard Wind — an 800-megawatt project off the Massachusetts coast that could be the first utility-scale wind development in federal waters — to help protect North Atlantic right whales.</p><p>The agreement includes no pile driving from Jan. 1 to April 30, ceasing activities at other times when whales are visually or acoustically identified in the area, speed restrictions on vessels, and the use of noise reduction technology, such as a bubble curtain during pile driving.</p><p>"The developers signed the agreement with us, and then they incorporated, most, if not all of those measures into the federal permitting documents," says Kershaw. "The developers really did a lot of bottom up work to make sure that they were being very protective of right whales."</p><p>Environmental groups are in talks with other developers on agreements too, but Felton wants to see best practices being mandated at the federal level.</p><p>"It's the sort of a role that should be being played by the federal government, and without that it makes the permitting and regulation process less stable and less transparent," she says." And that in turn slows down the build out of projects, which is also bad for birds because it doesn't help us address and mitigate for climate change."</p><p>Kershaw agrees there's a lot more work to be done, especially at the federal level, but thinks we're moving in the right direction.</p><p>"I think the work that's been done so far in the United States has really laid the groundwork for advancing this in the right way and in a way that's protective of species and the environment," she says. "At the same time, it's important that offshore wind does advance quickly. We really need it to help us combat the worst effects of climate change."</p><p><em><a href="https://therevelator.org/author/taralohan/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Tara Lohan</a> is deputy editor of The Revelator and has worked for more than a decade as a digital editor and environmental journalist focused on the intersections of energy, water and climate. Her work has been published by The Nation, American Prospect, High Country News, Grist, Pacific Standard and others. She is the editor of two books on the global water crisis.</em></p><p><em style="">Reposted with permission from <a href="https://therevelator.org/offshore-wind-wildlife" target="_blank" style="">The Revelator</a>. </em></p>
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By Frank La Sorte and Kyle Horton
Millions of birds travel between their breeding and wintering grounds during spring and autumn migration, creating one of the greatest spectacles of the natural world. These journeys often span incredible distances. For example, the Blackpoll warbler, which weighs less than half an ounce, may travel up to 1,500 miles between its nesting grounds in Canada and its wintering grounds in the Caribbean and South America.
Blackpoll warbler. PJTurgeon / Wikipedia<p>We used this information to determine how the number of migratory bird species varies based on each city's level of <a href="https://www.britannica.com/science/light-pollution" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">light pollution</a> – brightening of the night sky caused by artificial light sources, such as buildings and streetlights. We also explored how species numbers vary based on the quantity of tree canopy cover and impervious surface, such as concrete and asphalt, within each city. Our findings show that cities can help migrating birds by planting more trees and reducing light pollution, especially during spring and autumn migration.</p>
Declining Bird Populations<p>Urban areas contain numerous dangers for migratory birds. The biggest threat is the risk of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1650/CONDOR-13-090.1" target="_blank">colliding with buildings or communication towers</a>. Many migratory bird populations have <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw1313" target="_blank">declined over the past 50 years</a>, and it is possible that light pollution from cities is contributing to these losses.</p><p>Scientists widely agree that light pollution can <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1708574114" target="_blank">severely disorient migratory birds</a> and make it hard for them to navigate. Studies have shown that birds will cluster around brightly lit structures, much like insects flying around a porch light at night. Cities are the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2029" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">primary source of light pollution for migratory birds</a>, and these species tend to be more abundant within cities <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.13792" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">during migration</a>, especially in <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103892" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">city parks</a>.</p>
Composite image of the continental U.S. at night from satellite photos. NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens, using Suomi NPP VIIRS data from Miguel Román, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center