Tofu is one of those foods that sparks debate. Some can't rave enough about its versatility and health benefits. Others think it is a genetically-modified poison to be avoided at all costs. This may leave you wondering whether tofu should be a part of your diet or not.
This article takes a detailed look at tofu and its health effects, both good and bad.
What is Tofu?
Tofu is a food made of condensed soy milk that is pressed into solid white blocks. It originated in China and the process is quite similar to how cheese is made.
Rumor has it that a Chinese cook discovered tofu more than 2,000 years ago by accidentally mixing a batch of fresh soy milk with nigari.
Nigari is what remains when salt is extracted from seawater. It is a mineral-rich coagulant used to help tofu solidify and keep its form.
This is what fresh tofu looks like:
Most of the world's soybeans are currently grown in the U.S. and a very large proportion is genetically modified.
However, if you're worried about it, simply opt for non-GMO, organic tofu brands.
Bottom Line: Tofu is made from condensed soy milk, in a process similar to how cheese is made. Whether made from GMO soybeans or not, tofu is generally considered safe for human consumption.
Tofu Contains Many Nutrients
One 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving of tofu contains:
- Protein: 8 grams.
- Carbs: 2 grams.
- Fiber: 1 gram.
- Fat: 4 grams.
- Manganese: 31 percent of the RDI.
- Calcium: 20 percent of the RDI.
- Selenium: 14 percent of the RDI.
- Phosphorus: 12 percent of the RDI.
- Copper: 11 percent of the RDI.
- Magnesium: 9 percent of the RDI.
- Iron: 9 percent of the RDI.
- Zinc: 6 percent of the RDI.
However, the micronutrient content of tofu can vary, depending on the coagulant used to make it. Nigari adds more magnesium, while precipitated calcium increases the calcium content.
Bottom Line: Tofu is low in calories, but high in protein and fat. It also contains many important vitamins and minerals.
Tofu Also Contains Antinutrients
Like most plant foods, tofu contains several antinutrients.
- Phytates: Phytates can reduce the absorption of minerals such as calcium, zinc and iron.
- Lectins: Lectins are proteins that can cause nausea and bloating when uncooked, improperly cooked or eaten in excess.
However, soaking or cooking soybeans can inactivate or eliminate some of these antinutrients.
Sprouting soybeans before making tofu reduces phytates by up to 56 percent and trypsin inhibitors by up to 81 percent, while also increasing protein content by up to 13 percent (2).
Fermentation can also reduce anti-nutrients. For this reason, make sure to add fermented probiotic soy foods to your diet, such as miso, tempeh, tamari or natto.
Bottom Line: Tofu contains antinutrients like trypsin inhibitors, phytates and lectins. It is possible to degrade these antinutrients, which increases the nutritional value of tofu.
Tofu Contains Beneficial Isoflavones
Soybeans contain natural plant compounds called isoflavones.
These isoflavones function as phytoestrogens, meaning that they can attach to and activate estrogen receptors in the body.
This produces effects similar to the hormone estrogen, although they are weaker.
Many of the health benefits of tofu are attributed to the high isoflavone content.
Bottom Line: All soy-based products contain isoflavones, which are believed to have various health benefits.
Tofu May Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease
Only a few studies specifically look at tofu's effects on heart health.
We also know that soy isoflavones can reduce blood vessel inflammation and improve their elasticity (5).
One study found that supplementing with 80 mg of isoflavones per day for 12 weeks improved blood flow by 68 percent in patients who were at risk of stroke (6).
Taking 50 grams of soy protein per day is also associated with improved blood fats and an estimated 10 percent lower risk of heart disease (7).
What's more, in post-menopausal women, high soy isoflavone intake was linked to several heart protective factors. These included improvements to body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin and HDL cholesterol (8).
Animal studies have shown that saponins improve blood cholesterol and increase the disposal of bile acids, both of which can help lower heart disease risk (10).
Bottom Line: Whole soy foods like tofu can improve several markers of heart health. This may lead to a reduced risk of heart disease.
Tofu is Linked to Reduced Risk of Some Cancers
Studies have looked into the effects of tofu on breast, prostate and digestive system cancers.
Tofu and Breast Cancer
It seems that exposure to soy during childhood and adolescence may be most protective, but that's not to say that intake later in life is not beneficial (15).
In fact, research shows that women who ate soy products at least once a week throughout adolescence and adulthood had a 24 percent lower risk of developing breast cancer, compared to those who ate soy during adolescence alone (16).
One often-heard criticism of tofu and other soy products is that they may increase breast cancer risk. However, a two-year study in which post-menopausal women consumed two servings of soy per day failed to find an increased risk (17).
Tofu and Cancers of the Digestive System
One study observed that higher intakes of tofu were linked to a 61 percent lower risk of stomach cancer in men (21).
Interestingly, a second study reported a 59 percent lower risk in women (22).
What's more, a recent review of 633,476 participants linked higher soy intake to a 7 percent lower risk of cancer of the digestive system (23).
Tofu and Prostate Cancer
A third review agrees with this, but adds that the beneficial effects of isoflavones may depend on the amount consumed and type of gut bacteria present (26).
Bottom Line: Research indicates that soy has a protective effect against breast, digestive and prostate cancers.
Tofu May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes
In one study of healthy post-menopausal women, 100 mg of soy isoflavones per day reduced blood sugar levels by 15 percent and insulin levels by 23 percent (29).
For diabetic post-menopausal women, supplementing with 30 grams of isolated soy protein lowered fasting insulin levels by 8.1 percent, insulin resistance by 6.5 percent, LDL cholesterol by 7.1 percent and total cholesterol by 4.1 percent (30).
In another study, taking isoflavones each day for a year improved insulin sensitivity and blood fats, while reducing the risk of heart disease (31).
However, these findings are not universal. A recent review of 24 human studies found that intact soy protein—as opposed to isoflavone supplements or protein extracts—was more likely to lower blood sugar (32, 33).
Bottom Line: Tofu may have positive effects on blood sugar control, but more studies are needed to confirm this link.
Other Potential Health Benefits of Tofu
Due to its high isoflavone content, tofu may also have benefits for:
- Bone health: Scientific data suggests that 80 mg of soy isoflavones per day may reduce bone loss, especially in early menopause (34, 35).
- Brain function: Soy isoflavones may have a positive influence on memory and brain function, especially for women over 65 (36).
- Menopause symptoms: Soy isoflavones may help reduce hot flashes. However, not all studies agree (37, 38, 39, 40, 41).
- Skin elasticity: Taking 40 mg of soy isoflavones per day significantly reduced wrinkles and improved skin elasticity after 8–12 weeks (42).
- Weight loss: In one study, taking soy isoflavones for 8–52 weeks resulted in an average weight loss of 10 lbs (4.5 kg) more than a control group (43).
Bottom Line: Due to its high isoflavone content, tofu may have benefits for a variety of health conditions. However, more research is needed.
Tofu May Cause Problems for Some People
Eating tofu and other soy foods every day is generally considered to be safe. That being said, you may want to moderate your intake if you have:
- Kidney or gallbladder stones: Tofu contains a good amount of oxalates, which may worsen oxalate-containing kidney or gallbladder stones.
- Breast tumors: Due to tofu's weak hormonal effects, some doctors tell women with estrogen-sensitive breast tumors to limit their soy intake.
- Thyroid issues: Some professionals also advise individuals with poor thyroid function to avoid tofu due to its goitrogen content.
However, not all researchers agree. Some even say that consuming soy foods like tofu can benefit people with kidney stones (44).
Bottom Line: Eating tofu is safe for most people. If you're worried about negative health effects, then double-check with your healthcare provider.
How to Select Tofu or Make Your Own
Tofu can be purchased in bulk or individual packages, refrigerated or not.
You can also find it dehydrated, freeze-dried, jarred or canned.
Generally, not a lot of processing is necessary to make tofu, so choose varieties that have short nutrition labels.
You can expect to see ingredients like soybeans, water, coagulants (such as calcium sulfate, magnesium chloride or delta gluconolactone) and maybe some seasoning.
Once opened, tofu blocks need to be rinsed prior to being used.
Leftovers can be stored in the refrigerator, covered with water. Stored this way, tofu can be kept for up to one week—just make sure you change the water often.
Tofu can also be frozen, in its original package, for up to five months.
Finally, making your own tofu is also a possibility. All you need are soybeans, lemon and water. If you'd like to give it a try, check out this simple video:
Bottom Line: Tofu can be found in a variety of shapes and forms. Homemade tofu is also surprisingly easy to make.
Tofu is a Healthy Food
Tofu is high in protein and many healthy nutrients.
Eating tofu may protect against a variety of health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes and even certain cancers.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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Google's New Timelapse Shows 37 Years of Climate Change Anywhere on Earth, Including Your Neighborhood
Google Earth's latest feature allows you to watch the climate change in four dimensions.
The new feature, called Timelapse, is the biggest update to Google Earth since 2017. It is also, as far as its developers know, the largest video taken of Earth on Earth. The feature compiles 24 million satellite photos taken between 1984 and 2020 to show how human activity has transformed the planet over the past 37 years.
"Visual evidence can cut to the core of the debate in a way that words cannot and communicate complex issues to everyone," Google Earth Director Rebecca Moore wrote in a blog post Thursday.
Moore herself has been directly impacted by the climate crisis. She was one of many Californians evacuated because of wildfires last year. However, the new feature allows people to witness more remote changes, such as the melting of ice caps.
"With Timelapse in Google Earth, we have a clearer picture of our changing planet right at our fingertips — one that shows not just problems but also solutions, as well as mesmerizingly beautiful natural phenomena that unfold over decades," she wrote.
Some climate impacts that viewers can witness include the melting of 12 miles of Alaska's Columbia Glacier between 1984 and 2020, Fortune reported. They can also watch the disintegration of the Pine Island Glacier in Antarctica. The changes are not limited to the impacts of global warming, however.
Moore said the developers had identified five themes, and Google Earth offers a guided tour for each of them. They are:
- Forest change, such as deforestation in Bolivia for soybean farming
- Urban growth, such as the quintupling of Las Vegas sprawl
- Warming temperatures, such as melting glaciers and ice sheets
- Sources of energy, such as the impacts of coal mining on Wyoming's landscape
- Fragile beauty, such as the flow of Bolivia's Mamoré River
However, the feature also allows you to see smaller-scale change. You can enter any location into the search bar, including your local neighborhood, CNN explained. The feature does not offer the detail of Street View, Gizmodo noted. It is intended to show large changes over time, rather than smaller details like the construction of a road or home.
The images for Timelapse were made possible through collaboration with NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey's Landsat satellites and the European Union's Copernicus program and Sentinel satellites. Carnegie Mellon University's CREATE Lab helped develop the technology.
To use Timelapse, you can either visit g.co/Timelapse directly or click on the Ship's Wheel icon in Google Earth, then select Timelapse. Moore said the feature would be updated annually with new images of Earth's alterations.
"We hope that this perspective of the planet will ground debates, encourage discovery and shift perspectives about some of our most pressing global issues," she wrote.
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By Asher Rosinger
Imagine seeing a news report about lead contamination in drinking water in a community that looks like yours. It might make you think twice about whether to drink your tap water or serve it to your kids – especially if you also have experienced tap water problems in the past.
In a new study, my colleagues Anisha Patel, Francesca Weaks and I estimate that approximately 61.4 million people in the U.S. did not drink their tap water as of 2017-2018. Our research, which was released in preprint format on April 8, 2021, and has not yet been peer reviewed, found that this number has grown sharply in the past several years.
Other research has shown that about 2 million Americans don't have access to clean water. Taking that into account, our findings suggest that about 59 million people have tap water access from either their municipality or private wells or cisterns, but don't drink it. While some may have contaminated water, others may be avoiding water that's actually safe.
Water insecurity is an underrecognized but growing problem in the U.S. Tap water distrust is part of the problem. And it's critical to understand what drives it, because people who don't trust their tap water shift to more expensive and often less healthy options, like bottled water or sugary drinks.
I'm a human biologist and have studied water and health for the past decade in places as diverse as Lowland Bolivia and northern Kenya. Now I run the Water, Health, and Nutrition Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University. To understand water issues, I talk to people and use large datasets to see whether a problem is unique or widespread, and stable or growing.
An Epidemic of Distrust
According to our research, there's a growing epidemic of tap water distrust and disuse in the U.S. In a 2020 study, anthropologist Sera Young and I found that tap water avoidance was declining before the Flint water crisis that began in 2014. In 2015-2016, however, it started to increase again for children.
Our new study found that in 2017-2018, the number of Americans who didn't drink tap water increased at an alarmingly high rate, particularly for Black and Hispanic adults and children. Since 2013-2014 – just before the Flint water crisis began – the prevalence of adults who do not drink their tap water has increased by 40%. Among children, not consuming tap has risen by 63%.
To calculate this change, we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey that releases data in two-year cycles. Sampling weights that use demographic characteristics ensure that the people being sampled are representative of the broader U.S. population.
Racial Disparities in Tap Water Consumption
Communities of color have long experienced environmental injustice across the U.S. Black, Hispanic and Native American residents are more likely to live in environmentally disadvantaged neighborhoods, with exposure to water that violates quality standards.
Our findings reflect these experiences. We calculated that Black and Hispanic children and adults are two to three times more likely to report not drinking their tap water than members of white households. In 2017-2018, roughly 3 out of 10 Black adults and children and nearly 4 of 10 Hispanic adults and children didn't drink their tap water. Approximately 2 of 10 Asian Americans didn't drink from their tap, while only 1 of 10 white Americans didn't drink their tap water.
When children don't drink any water on a given day, research shows that they consume twice as many calories from sugary drinks as children who drink water. Higher sugary drink consumption increases risk of cavities, obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. Drinking tap water provides fluoride, which lowers the risk of cavities. Relying on water alternatives is also much more expensive than drinking tap water.
A4: Choosing to drink fluoridated tap water over sugar-sweetened beverages to quench thirst is vital to protecting… https://t.co/3tm8wuWjeZ— Oral Health Watch (@Oral Health Watch)1600795750.0
What Erodes Trust
News reports – particularly high-visibility events like advisories to boil water – lead people to distrust their tap water even after the problem is fixed. For example, a 2019 study showed that water quality violations across the U.S. between 2006 and 2015 led to increases in bottled water purchases in affected counties as a way to avoid tap water, and purchase rates remained elevated after the violation.
The Flint water crisis drew national attention to water insecurity, even though state and federal regulators were slow to respond to residents' complaints there. Soon afterward, lead contamination was found in the water supply of Newark, New Jersey; the city is currently replacing all lead service lines under a legal settlement. Elsewhere, media outlets and advocacy groups have reported finding tap water samples contaminated with industrial chemicals, lead, arsenic and other contaminants.
Many other factors can cause people to distrust their water supply, including smell, taste and appearance, as well as lower income levels. Location is also an issue: Older U.S. cities with aging infrastructure are more prone to water shutoffs and water quality problems.
It's important not to blame people for distrusting what comes out of their tap, because those fears are rooted in history. In my view, addressing water insecurity requires a two-part strategy: ensuring that everyone has access to clean water, and increasing trust so people who have safe water will use it.
As part of his proposed infrastructure plan, President Joe Biden is asking Congress for $111 billion to improve water delivery systems, replace lead pipelines and tackle other contaminants. The plan also proposes improvements for small water systems and underserved communities.
These are critical steps to rebuild trust. Yet, in my view, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency should also provide better public education about water quality testing and targeted interventions for vulnerable populations, such as children and underserved communities. Initiatives to simplify and improve water quality reports can help people understand what's in their water and what they can do if they think something is wrong with it.
Who delivers those messages is important. In areas like Flint, where former government officials have been indicted on charges including negligence and perjury in connection with the water crisis, the government's word alone won't rebuild trust. Instead, community members can fill this critical role.
Another priority is the 13%-15% of Americans who rely on private well water, which is not regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. These households are responsible for their own water quality testing. Public funding would help them test it regularly and address any problems.
Public distrust of tap water in the U.S. reflects decades of policies that have reduced access to reliable, safe drinking water in communities of color. Fixing water lines is important, but so is giving people confidence to turn on the tap.
Asher Rosinger is an assistant professor of biobehavioral health, anthropology, and demography and director of the Water, Health, and Nutrition Laboratory at Penn State University.
Disclosure statement: Asher Rosinger receives funding from the National Science Foundation on an unrelated project. This work was supported by the Ann Atherton Hertzler Early Career Professorship funds, and the Penn State Population Research Institute (NICHD P2CHD041025). The funders had no role in the research or interpretation of results.
Reposted with permission from The Conversation.
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A new report promoting urgent climate action in Australia has stirred debate for claiming that global temperatures will rise past 1.5 degrees Celsius in the next decade.
Australia's Climate Council released the report on Thursday. The council is an independent organization of climate scientists and experts on health, renewable energy and policy who work to inform the Australian public on the climate crisis. But their latest claim is causing controversy.
"Multiple lines of evidence show that limiting global warming to 1.5°C above the preindustrial level, without significant overshoot and subsequent drawdown, is now out of reach due to past inaction," Dr. Kevin Trenberth of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Prof. Christopher Field of the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment wrote in the foreword. "The science is telling us that global average temperature rise will likely exceed 1.5°C during the 2030s, and that long-term stabilization at warming at or below 1.5°C will be extremely challenging."
The report is titled "Aim high, go fast: Why emissions need to plummet this decade," and as the name suggests, it is ultimately concerned with urging more robust climate action on the part of the Australian government. The report calls for the country to reduce emissions by 75 percent by 2030 and reach net zero by 2035 in order to achieve the long-term goals of the Paris agreement, which means limiting warming to well below two degrees Celsius.
"The world achieving net zero by 2050 is at least a decade too late and carries a strong risk of irreversible global climate disruption at levels inconsistent with maintaining well-functioning human societies," the authors wrote.
The report further argues that global temperatures are likely to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius in the 2030s based on existing temperature increases; locked-in warming from emissions that have already occurred; evidence from past climate changes and the percentage of the carbon budget that has already been used.
The report isn't a call to give up on the Paris agreement. It is possible that global temperatures could swell past 1.5 degrees Celsius but still be reduced by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Even if temperatures do exceed 1.5 degrees, every degree of warming that can be prevented makes a difference.
"Basically we can still hold temperature rise to well below 2C and do that without overshoot and drawdown," Will Steffen, lead report author from the Australian National University's Climate Change Institute, told Australia's ABC News. "Every tenth of a degree actually does matter — 1.8C is better than 1.9C, and is much better than 2C."
However, some outside scientists question both the accuracy and effectiveness of the report's claim. Both Adjunct Professor Bill Hare from Murdoch University and Dr. Carl-Freidrich Schleussner from Humboldt University told ABC News they have been trying to contact the Climate Council about its 1.5 overshoot claim for months. They said that it went against other major reports, including the UN Environment Program Gap Report and the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on 1.5˚C.
"The big challenge their report reinforces is the need for urgent action to get on that 1.5C pathway, [so] it's very paradoxical to me that they've chosen to attack that target," Dr. Hare told ABC News.
However, Scientist Andy Pitman from the Center of Excellence for Climate Extremes at the University of New South Wales told The Guardian that the report's assessment was correct.
"It's simply not possible to limit warming to 1.5C now," he said. "There's too much inertia in the system and even if you stopped greenhouse gas emissions today, you would still reach 1.5C [of heating]."
However, one aspect everyone agreed on involved the importance of lowering emissions as soon as possible.
"[There is] absolute fundamental agreement on the task at hand, which is to get emissions to plummet," Simon Bradshaw, report author and Climate Council head of research, told The Guardian.
French winemakers are facing devastating grape loss from the worst frost in decades, preceded by unusually warm temperatures, highlighting the dangers to the sector posed by climate change.
"An important share of the harvest has been lost. It's too early to give a percentage estimate, but in any case it's a tragedy for the winegrowers who have been hit," said Christophe Chateau, director of communications at the Bordeaux Wine Council, told CNN.
Climate change, caused by the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels, has pushed winegrowing seasons earlier, putting crops at higher risk of cold — and wildfires supercharged by climate change also threaten American vignerons and farmworkers as well.
"I think it's good for people to understand that this is nature, climate change is real, and to be conscious of the effort that goes into making wine and the heartbreak that is the loss of a crop," Jeremy Seysses of Domaine Dujac in Burgundy's Côte de Nuits told Wine Enthusiast.
As reported by Wine Enthusiast:
Last week, images of candlelit French vineyards flooded social media. Across the country, winemakers installed bougies, or large wax-filled metal pots, among the vines to prevent cold air from settling in during an especially late frost.
With temperatures in early April as low as 22°F, and following an unseasonably warm March, this year's frost damage may be the worst in history for French winegrowers. Every corner of France reports considerable losses, from Champagne to Provence, and Côtes de Gascogne to Alsace. As a result, there will likely be very little French wine from the 2021 vintage reaching U.S. shores.
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Climate change could make it harder to find a good cup of coffee, new research finds. A changing climate might shrink suitable areas for specialty coffee production without adaptation, making coffee taste blander and impacting the livelihoods of small farms in the Global South.
Published in Scientific Reports on Wednesday, the study focused on regions in Ethiopia, Africa's largest coffee-producing nation. Although studies have previously documented the impact of climate change on coffee production, what's less understood is how varying climates could change the flavors of specialty coffee, the researchers wrote.
The team aimed to fill this gap. Their results provide a glimpse into how future climate change could impact local regions and economies that rely on coffee cultivation, underscoring the value of local adaptation measures.
Researchers analyzed how 19 different climate factors, such as mean temperatures and rainfall levels, would affect the cultivation of five distinct specialty coffee types in the future, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) reported. Although researchers found that areas suitable for growing "average quality coffee" may actually increase over time with climate change, regions where specialty coffee is grown will shrink — a pending problem in light of the global demand for high-quality coffee.
"This is an issue not just for coffee lovers, but for local agricultural value creation," Abel Chemura, the study's lead author, told the PIK.
Coffee profiles rely on specific climate patterns for their unique flavors, levels of acidity and fragrances. But in a warmer climate, the coffee cherry — the fruit picked from a coffee plant — matures faster than the bean inside, making for a lower quality cup of coffee, the PIK reported.
For example, the sought-after Yirgacheffe variety of coffee, which is cultivated in southwestern Ethiopia, could lose more than 40 percent of its suitable growth area by the end of the century, PIK reported. This could impact small farms and threaten Ethiopia's economy, the researchers noted.
"If one or more coffee regions lose their specialty status due to climate change this has potentially grave ramifications for the smallholder farmers in the region," Christoph Gornott, co-author of the study, told the PIK. "If they were forced to switch to growing conventional, less palatable and bitter coffee types, they would all of the sudden compete with industrial production systems elsewhere that are more efficient." In a country where coffee exports account for nearly a third of all agricultural exports, "this could prove fatal," Gornott added.
Climate change impacts on coffee production are not unique to Ethiopia. In Columbia's mountainous coffee-growing regions, temperatures are warming by 0.5 degrees Fahrenheit every decade, according to Yale Environment 360. Extreme levels of precipitation, which are becoming more common, also impact production, as they spread insect and fungal diseases.
"In earlier times, the climate was perfect for coffee," one small farmer in Columbia told Yale Environment 360. "In the period of flowering, there was summer. During harvest, there was winter. But from 2008 onward, this changed and we now don't know when it will be summer, when the coffee will blossom."
But researchers say there are glimmers of hope, emphasizing the importance of local adaptation measures that are designed for particular climates and communities. For example, in regions where temperature is an important factor for specialty coffee cultivation, the researchers suggest improved agroforestry systems that could maintain canopy temperatures, a promising step toward sustaining the "availability and taste of one of the world's most beloved beverages and, more importantly, on economic opportunities in local communities of the Global South," Gornott concluded.