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Why Shiitake Mushrooms Are Good For You

Health + Wellness
AnnaPustynnikova / iStock / Getty Images

By Kerri-Ann Jennings, MS, RD

Shiitake mushrooms are one of the most popular mushrooms worldwide.


They are prized for their rich, savory taste and diverse health benefits.

Compounds in shiitake may help fight cancer, boost immunity and support heart health.

This article explains everything you need to know about shiitake mushrooms.

What Are Shiitake Mushrooms?

Shiitake are edible mushrooms native to East Asia.

They're tan to dark brown, with caps that grow between 2 and 4 inches (5 and 10 cm).

While typically eaten like vegetables, shiitake are fungi that grow naturally on decaying hardwood trees.

Around 83% of shiitake are grown in Japan, although the United States, Canada, Singapore, and China also produce them (1).

You can find them fresh, dried, or in various dietary supplements.

Summary

Shiitake mushrooms are brown-capped mushrooms used around the world for food and as supplements.

Nutrition Profile of Shiitake Mushrooms

Shiitake are low in calories. They also offer good amounts of fiber, as well as B vitamins and some minerals.

The nutrients in 4 dried shiitake (15 grams) are (2):

  • Calories: 44
  • Carbs: 11 grams
  • Fiber: 2 grams
  • Protein: 1 gram
  • Riboflavin: 11% of the Daily Value (DV)
  • Niacin: 11% of the DV
  • Copper: 39% of the DV
  • Vitamin B5: 33% of the DV
  • Selenium: 10% of the DV
  • Manganese: 9% of the DV
  • Zinc: 8% of the DV
  • Vitamin B6: 7% of the DV
  • Folate: 6% of the DV
  • Vitamin D: 6% of the DV

In addition, shiitake contain many of the same amino acids as meat (3).

They also boast polysaccharides, terpenoids, sterols, and lipids, some of which have immune-boosting, cholesterol-lowering, and anticancer effects (4).

The amount of bioactive compounds in shiitake depends on how and where the mushrooms are grown, stored, and prepared (3).

Summary

Shiitake mushrooms are low in calories. They also offer many vitamins, minerals, and other health-promoting compounds.

How Are They Used?

Shiitake mushrooms have two main uses — as food and as supplements.

Shiitake as Whole Foods

You can cook with both fresh and dried shiitake, although the dried ones are slightly more popular.

Dried shiitake have an umami flavor that's even more intense than when fresh.

Umami flavor can be described as savory or meaty. It's often considered the fifth taste, alongside sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.

Both dried and fresh shiitake mushrooms are used in stir-fries, soups, stews, and other dishes.

Shiitake as Supplements

Shiitake mushrooms have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. They're also part of the medical traditions of Japan, Korea, and Eastern Russia (4).

In Chinese medicine, shiitake are thought to boost health and longevity, as well as improve circulation.

Studies suggest that some of the bioactive compounds in shiitake may protect against cancerand inflammation (4).

However, many of the studies have been done in animals or test tubes rather than people. Animal studies frequently use doses that far exceed those that people would normally get from food or supplements.

In addition, many of the mushroom-based supplements on the market have not been tested for potency (5).

Although the proposed benefits are promising, more research is needed.

Summary

Shiitake have a long history of use, both as a food and in supplements.

May Aid Heart Health

Shiitake mushrooms may boost heart health. For example, they have three compounds that help lower cholesterol (3, 6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source):

  • Eritadenine. This compound inhibits an enzyme involved in producing cholesterol.
  • Sterols. These molecules help block cholesterol absorption in your gut.

One study in rats with high blood pressure found that shiitake powder prevented an increase in blood pressure (8Trusted Source).

A study in lab rats fed a high-fat diet demonstrated that those given shiitake developed less fat in their livers, less plaque on their artery walls, and lower cholesterol levels than those that didn't eat any mushrooms (9Trusted Source).

Still, these effects need to be confirmed in human studies before any solid conclusions can be made.

Summary

Several compounds in shiitake help lower cholesterol and may reduce your risk of heart disease.

May Boost Your Immune System

Shiitake may also help strengthen your immune system.

One study gave people two dried shiitake daily. After one month, their immune markers improved and their inflammation levels dropped (10Trusted Source).

This immune effect might be partly due to one of the polysaccharides in shiitake mushrooms (11Trusted Source).

While people's immune systems tend to weaken with age, a mouse study found that a supplement derived from shiitake helped reverse some age-related decline in immune function (12Trusted Source).

Summary

Eating shiitake mushrooms regularly may help boost your immune system.

Contain Compounds With Potential Anticancer Activity

Polysaccharides in shiitake mushrooms may also have an anticancer effect (13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).

For example, the polysaccharide lentinan helps fight tumors by activating your immune system (15, 16Trusted Source).

Lentinan has been shown to inhibit the growth and spread of leukemia cells (17Trusted Source).

In China and Japan, an injectable form of lentinan is used alongside chemotherapy and other major cancer treatments to improve immune function and quality of life in people with gastric cancer (18Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source).

However, evidence is insufficient to determine whether eating shiitake mushrooms has any effect on cancer.

Summary

Lentinan is a polysaccharide in shiitake mushrooms that may help fight cancer.

Other Potential Benefits

Shiitake mushrooms may also help fight infections and promote bone health.

Promising Antibacterial and Antiviral Effects

Several compounds in shiitake have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal effects (18Trusted Source, 20).

As antibiotic resistance is growing, some scientists think it's important to explore the antimicrobial potential of shiitake (21Trusted Source).

That said, while isolated compounds show antimicrobial activity in test tubes, eating shiitake is unlikely to have any effect on viral, bacterial, or fungal infections in people.

May Strengthen Your Bones

Mushrooms are the only natural plant source of vitamin D.

Your body needs vitamin D to build strong bones, yet very few foods contain this important nutrient.

The vitamin D levels of mushrooms vary depending on how they're grown. When exposed to UV light, they develop higher levels of this compound.

In one study, mice fed a low-calcium, low-vitamin-D diet developed symptoms of osteoporosis. In comparison, those given calcium and UV-enhanced shiitake had higher bone density (22Trusted Source).

However, keep in mind that shiitake provide vitamin D2. This is an inferior form compared with vitamin D3, which is found in fatty fish and some other animal foods.

Summary

Compounds in shiitake have antimicrobial properties, though you're unlikely to gain benefits from eating the mushrooms themselves. Shiitake with higher vitamin D levels may improve your bone density.

Possible Side Effects

Most people can safely consume shiitake, although some side effects may occur.

In rare cases, people can develop a skin rash from eating or handling raw shiitake (23Trusted Source).

This condition, called shiitake dermatitis, is thought to be caused by lentinan (24Trusted Source).

In addition, using powdered mushroom extract over a long period may cause other side effects, including stomach upset and sensitivity to sunlight (25Trusted Source, 26Trusted Source).

Some also claim that mushrooms' high purine levels can cause symptoms in people with gout. Nonetheless, research suggests that eating mushrooms is linked to a lower risk of gout (27Trusted Source).

Summary

Shiitake may cause some side effects, such as skin rashes. Shiitake extract may also cause digestive problems and increased sensitivity to sunlight.

How to Cook With Shiitake

Mushrooms have a distinct umami flavor, which can be especially helpful when making vegetarian dishes.

Shiitake mushrooms are often sold dried. Before cooking, soak them in hot water to soften them.

To select the best specimens, look for ones sold whole rather than sliced. The caps should be thick with deep, white gills.

When cooking with fresh shiitake mushrooms, remove the stems, which remain tough even after cooking. Save the stems in the freezer for making veggie stock.

You can cook shiitake as you would any other mushroom. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Sauté shiitake with greens and serve with a poached egg.
  • Add them to pasta dishes or stir-fries.
  • Use them to make a flavorful soup.
  • Roast them for a crispy snack or side dish.

Summary

You can cook with either rehydrated, dried, or fresh shiitake mushrooms. They add a delicious, savory flavor to foods.

The Bottom Line

Shiitake have a long history of use, both as a food and a supplement.

While the research on the health benefits of these mushrooms is promising, very few human studies exist.

However, shiitake are low in calories and contain many vitamins, minerals, and bioactive plant compounds.

Overall, they're an excellent addition to your diet.

Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.

EcoWatch Daily Newsletter

Protestors marched outside the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey on Monday, August 26, during the MTV Video and Music Awards to bring attention to the water crisis currently gripping the city. Karla Ann Cote / NurPhoto / Getty Images

By Will Sarni

It is far too easy to view scarcity and poor quality of water as issues solely affecting emerging economies. While the images of women and children fetching water in Africa and a lack of access to water in India are deeply disturbing, this is not the complete picture.

The city of Flint, Michigan, where dangerous levels of pollutants contaminated the municipal water supply, is a case in point — as is, more recently, the city of Newark, New Jersey.

The Past is No Longer a Guide to the Future

We get ever closer to "day zeros" — the point at when municipal water supplies are switched off — and tragedies such as Flint. These are not isolated stories. Instead they are becoming routine, and the public sector and civil society are scrambling to address them. We are seeing "day zeros" in South Africa, India, Australia and elsewhere, and we are now detecting lead contamination in drinking water in cities across the U.S.

"Day zero" is the result of water planning by looking in the rear-view mirror. The past is no longer a guide to the future; water demand has outstripped supplies because we are tied to business-as-usual planning practices and water prices, and this goes hand-in-hand with the inability of the public sector to factor the impacts of climate change into long-term water planning. Lead in drinking water is the result of lead pipe service lines that have not been replaced and in many cases only recently identified by utilities, governments and customers. An estimated 22 million people in the US are potentially using lead water service lines. This aging infrastructure won't repair or replace itself.

One of the most troubling aspects of the global water crisis is that those least able to afford access to water are also the ones who pay a disproportionately high percentage of their income for it. A report by WaterAid revealed that a standard water bill in developed countries is as little as 0.1 percent of the income of someone earning the minimum wage, while in a country like Madagascar a person reliant on a tanker truck for their water supply would spend as much as 45 percent of their daily income on water to get just the recommended daily minimum supply. In Mozambique, families relying on black-market vendors will spend up to 100 times as much on water as those reached by government-subsidized water supplies.

Finally, we need to understand that the discussion of a projected gap between supply and demand is misleading. There is no gap, only poor choices around allocation. The wealthy will have access to water, and the poor will pay more for water of questionable quality. From Flint residents using bottled water and paying high water utility rates, to the poor in South Africa waiting in line for their allocation of water — inequity is everywhere.

Water Inequity Requires Global Action — Now.

These troubling scenarios beg the obvious question: What to do? We do know that ongoing reports on the 'water crisis' are not going to catalyze action to address water scarcity, poor quality, access and affordability. Ensuring the human right to water feels distant at times.

We need to mobilize an ecosystem of stakeholders to be fully engaged in developing and scaling solutions. The public sector, private sector, NGOs, entrepreneurs, investors, academics and civil society must all be engaged in solving water scarcity and quality problems. Each stakeholder brings unique skills, scale and speed of impact (for example, entrepreneurs are fast but lack scale, while conversely the public sector is slow but has scale).

We also urgently need to change how we talk about water. We consistently talk about droughts happening across the globe — but what we are really dealing with is an overallocation of water due to business-as-usual practices and the impacts of climate change.

We need to democratize access to water data and actionable information. Imagine providing anyone with a smartphone the ability to know, on a real-time basis, the quality of their drinking water and actions to secure safe water. Putting this information in the hands of civil society instead or solely relying on centralized regulatory agencies and utilities will change public policies.

Will Sarni is the founder and CEO of Water Foundry.

Note: This post also appears on the World Economic Forum.

Reposted with permission from our media associate Circle of Blue.

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