Scientists Closer to Solving Mystery Behind Major Shark Die-Off in San Francisco Bay
By Mia Nakaji Monnier
Hundreds of sharks have died in the waters off Northern California over the past few months, and scientists still have more questions than answers. In an article for National Geographic, Eric Simons told the story of these mysterious shark strandings through the eyes of Mark Okihiro, a senior fish pathologist with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.
When Okihiro and one of his graduate students found a bacteria by the name of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum in the brains of stranded thresher sharks, their discovery turned out to be one missing piece in a larger puzzle.
The same pathogen—which is found more often in the bellies of healthy salmon and trout—had recently been found in washed-up mako and salmon sharks.
Then, earlier this year, Okihiro received a leopard shark corpse in the mail.
This shark's brain showed that it had also died of an infection—and since leopard sharks are closely related to thresher, mako and salmon sharks, Okihiro expected carnobacterium to be the culprit. But instead, the killer turned out to be a fungus.
Now, his working hypothesis is that all those sharks who appeared to have died of Carnobacterium (which is, after all, harmless to other fish) actually died of a fungal infection, possibly picked up in the stagnant waters of marshes and lagoons.
But Okihiro and his colleagues agree that more research needs to be done before they can reach this conclusion for sure. They hope to learn more about sharks' microbiomes (the mix of microorganisms, like bacteria, that live in their bodies) so they can say with more certainty which microbes are healthy and typical for sharks, and which cause them harm.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Azula.
By Itai Vardi
A recent intensification in protests against Williams Partners' planned Atlantic Sunrise pipeline in Pennsylvania prompted a state senator to propose legislation aimed at limiting demonstrations.
Last month, Pennsylvania Sen. Scott Martin (R-Norman) announced his intention to introduce legislation that would pass the costs of law enforcement responding to protests onto the demonstrators. Martin also helped introduce a different bill that would criminalize protests at natural gas facilities.
The so-called "first and last mile" problem is one of the biggest hurdles with public transportation. How do you encourage more people to take Earth-friendlier commutes when their homes are miles away from the train or bus station?
One solution, as this Estonian electric scooter company proposes, is to simply take your commute with you—literally. Tallinn-based Stigo has developed a compact e-scooter that folds to the size of a rolling suitcase in about two seconds.
[Editor's note: I'm still in shock after hearing the news that Lucia Grenna passed away in her sleep last week. When we first met in April of 2014 at a Copenhagen hotel, I was immediately taken by here powerful presence. We spent the next couple days participating in a Sustainia climate change event where Lucia presented her audacious plans to connect people to the climate issue. I had the chance to partner with Lucia on several other projects throughout the years and work with her incredible Connect4Climate team. I was always in awe of her ability to "make the impossible possible." Her spirit will live on forever. — Stefanie Spear]
It is with a heavy heart that Connect4Climate announces the passing of its founder and leading light, Lucia Grenna. Lucia passed peacefully in her sleep on June 15, well before her time. We remember her for her leadership and extraordinary ability to motivate people to take on some of the greatest challenges of our time, not least climate change.
By Stacy Malkan
Neil deGrasse Tyson has inspired millions of people to care about science and imagine themselves as participants in the scientific process. What a hopeful sign it is to see young girls wearing t-shirts emblazoned with the words, "Forget princess, I want to be an astrophysicist."
As Trevor Noah noted during The Daily Show episode last night (starts at 2:25), the real reason Trump has these rallies is to "get back in front of his loyal crowds and feed of their energy." Noah believes that "Trump supporters are so on board with their dude he can say anything and they'll come along for the ride."
By Katie O'Reilly
Two years ago—long before coal became one of the most dominant and controversial symbols of the 2016 presidential election—Bloomberg Philanthropies approached production company RadicalMedia with the idea of creating a documentary exploring the U.S. coal mining industry. Last spring, they brought on Emmy-nominated director Michael Bonfiglio, tasked with forging a compelling story out of the multitudes of facts, statistics and narratives underlying the declining industry.