9 Facts That Will Change How You Think About Sharks
By Jen Sawada
Sharks have been around for 400 million years, before the time of the dinosaurs, but there's much more to them than big teeth and summer blockbusters. Consider these facts, which will change what you think about sharks.
No Need to Fear the World’s Biggest Shark
Whale sharks are gentle giants of the ocean, often growing as long as 40 feet. They swim with their mouths open to filter-feed on small fish, invertebrates and plankton. While whale sharks aren't seen on Shark Week as often as jagged-toothed great whites are, they do attract large audiences of divers—contributing about $47.5 million worldwide each year.
Some Sharks Can Walk
There's a shark species found off the coast of Indonesia that doesn't just swim around. It gets from place to place by walking on the ocean floor.
Rays Are Flat Sharks
Though they look different, rays are closely related to sharks—so closely, in fact, that they're often referred to as flat sharks. These species have cartilage skeletons and float through the water thanks to their oil-rich liver—not the swim bladder on which other fish rely. Mobula rays, pictured above and manta rays have received protections through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
This Shark Has Many Names—Just Don’t Call Him ‘Jaws’
You've heard of a great white shark, but what about a white or blue pointer? Turns out, they're all the same species! In Australia, the world's most famous shark is called a white pointer, while in South Africa, it's a blue pointer.
Greenland Sharks Are the World’s Longest-Living Vertebrate
NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program
Last year, scientists discovered a Greenland shark estimated to be 400 years old. That makes this species the oldest known living vertebrate. These slow-growing sharks don't reach reproductive age until around 150, so it's fortunate that they have a long life span to make up for lost time.
Many Sharks Give Birth Like Mammals
Have you ever seen a shark give birth? This may come as a surprise, but many shark species give birth to live young instead of laying eggs. That makes them more like mammals than other fish. Researchers released a video in 2015 of what they think is the first thresher shark birth caught on camera.
Blue Sharks Top the Fin Trade
These sleek indigo sharks are found in nearly all the world's oceans—and are also the most caught. About 20 million blue sharks are killed every year, most of them for their fins. This heavy fishing has caused their numbers to drop sharply. Fortunately, Samoa and Sri Lanka have proposed giving blue sharks protections through the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). Other shark species that could receive protections through CMS this year are whale sharks, dusky sharks, wedgefish, guitarfish and angel sharks.
Sharks Prove You Can Go Home Again
There's no place like home. There's no place like home. Sharks don't have ruby slippers to help them get home, but some species have an amazing innate ability called philopatry, the tendency to return to where they started their lives. Female lemon sharks, for example, swim all the way back to where they were born in The Bahamas to give birth to their young. The island chain is one of 15 shark sanctuaries worldwide, where sharks are safe from commercial fishing.
There Are Some Very Surprising Sharks in the Sea
It's a coral! It's a carpet! It's a … shark? The tasseled wobbegong is one of the more unusual sharks in the ocean, but this bottom-dweller isn't the only unexpected species swimming around reefs. There are more than 500 species of sharks in the world's oceans—and there may be many more that scientists still have not identified.
Jen Sawada is an officer for Pew's global shark conservation campaign, managing efforts to encourage countries in the Pacific and Caribbean to adopt domestic measures to protect sharks, including creating shark sanctuaries.
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A Game of Jenga<p>Think of it as a game of Jenga and the planet's climate system as the tower. For generations, we have been slowly removing blocks. But at some point, we will remove a pivotal block, such as the collapse of one of the major global ocean circulation systems, for example the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), that will cause all or part of the global climate system to fall into a planetary emergency.</p><p>But worse still, it could cause runaway damage: Where the tipping points form a domino-like cascade, where breaching one triggers breaches of others, creating an unstoppable shift to a radically and swiftly changing climate.</p><p>One of the most concerning tipping points is mass methane release. Methane can be found in deep freeze storage within permafrost and at the bottom of the deepest oceans in the form of methane hydrates. But rising sea and air temperatures are beginning to thaw these stores of methane.</p><p>This would release a powerful greenhouse gas into the atmosphere, 30-times more potent than carbon dioxide as a global warming agent. This would drastically increase temperatures and rush us towards the breach of other tipping points.</p><p>This could include the acceleration of ice thaw on all three of the globe's large, land-based ice sheets – Greenland, West Antarctica and the Wilkes Basin in East Antarctica. The potential collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet is seen as a key tipping point, as its loss could eventually <a href="https://science.sciencemag.org/content/324/5929/901" target="_blank">raise global sea levels by 3.3 meters</a> with important regional variations.</p><p>More than that, we would be on the irreversible path to full land-ice melt, causing sea levels to rise by up to 30 meters, roughly at the rate of two meters per century, or maybe faster. Just look at the raised beaches around the world, at the last high stand of global sea level, at the end of the Pleistocene period around 120,0000 years ago, to see the evidence of such a warm world, which was just 2°C warmer than the present day.</p>
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The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation has a major effect on the climate. Praetorius (2018)
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