A loudspeaker on a coral reef. Tim Gordon / University of Exeter<p>So a team of researchers from the University of Exeter and the University of Bristol in the UK, and Australia's James Cook University and the Australian Institute of Marine Science spent October to December of 2017 in the <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/great-barrier-reef" target="_self">Great Barrier Reef</a> trying to see if they could replicate these healthy reef sounds in damaged environments.<br></p><p><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2019/12/01/scientists-used-loudspeakers-make-dead-coral-reefs-sound-healthy-fish-flocked-them/?fbclid=IwAR0Ny2b3DK_qz34i2AlxXc1PHVzaRaDIBPlbd_21Bd9LUTkYFMLw53v2nbA" target="_blank">The Washington Post</a> explained their process:</p><blockquote>At the start of fish recruitment season, when fish spawn and mature, the team built 33 experimental reef patches out of dead coral on open sand about 27 yards from the naturally occurring reef. They then fixed underwater loudspeakers to the center of the patches, angling them upward to ensure the sound was distributed evenly in all directions.<br><br>Over 40 nights, the team played recordings from a healthy reef in some of the patches. In other patches, they used dummy speakers that emitted no sounds, and they left a third group of patches untouched.</blockquote>
Tim Gordon deploys an underwater loudspeaker on a coral reef. Harry Harding / University of Bristol<p>The result? The reef patches that broadcasted the healthy reef sounds attracted double the number of fish as the other patches, and the fish species drawn to them were 50 percent more diverse. That diversity included species from every section of the food web, from plankton eaters to predators, which is important for reef health.</p><p>"Reefs become ghostly quiet when they are degraded, as the shrimps and fish disappear, but by using loudspeakers to restore this lost soundscape, we can attract young fish back again," Simpson said in the press release.</p><p>The scientists called this process "acoustic enrichment" and think it could be one tool for helping reef ecosystems recover more quickly.</p><p>"Of course, attracting fish to a dead reef won't bring it back to life automatically, but recovery is underpinned by fish that clean the reef and create space for corals to regrow," Australian Institute of Marine Science fish biologist and study author Dr. Mark Meekan said in the press release.</p>
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Erica Cirino
Visit a coral reef off the coast of Miami or the Maldives and you may see fields of bleached white instead of a burst of colors.
Climate Change Threats<p>Though reefs cover less than 1 percent of Earth's surface, they support more than a million different species, including many types of algae — like sea grasses and sea lettuces — and a broad range of animals from starfish to shrimp to sharks, as well as people. Experts estimate that corals pull <a href="https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/coral07_importance.html" target="_blank">$375 billion</a> into the global economy every year, mainly by fostering tourism, supporting fisheries, and contributing to medicine and storm protection.</p><p>Despite their value corals have been in decline for decades. Scientists responded by initiating the first reef-restoration efforts about 50 years ago. Since then restoration efforts have been tailored to meet the needs of corals prioritized at specific times and places. In the 1970s, as coastal development boomed, scientists focused on expanding corals' habitat by strategically placing shipwrecks, concrete pipes, tires and other manmade structures underwater on which corals could grow. By the early 2000s, scientists had become more interested in addressing other localized risks to reefs — such as overfishing, irresponsible tourism and invasive species.</p><p>But climate change poses an even more far-reaching threat.</p><p>Bleaching — a precursor to coral death caused by stressors including warming waters — has left nary a reef unscathed around the world. Most corals thrive in temperatures between 73-84 degrees Fahrenheit. Oceans naturally undergo seasonal warming, which leads to temperature fluctuations high enough to bleach some corals. In the past corals could recover from bleaching events once waters cooled. Scientists say it takes 15 to 25 years for a reef to recover from serious bleaching and become healthy enough to support a rich host of marine life. But today, with the relentless and extreme warming our oceans now face, corals are running out of possible recovery time. It's becoming much harder for them to make a comeback.</p><img lazy-loadable="true" src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjYyMDAzMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMTM4MTc0NX0.4yY0nPy9P2wVxS7-oQelaw25JhphOkf_kbxXGoam8k8/img.jpg?width=980" id="44834" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="313ce486f8f995a433918e52e6494828" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
A major coral bleaching event on part of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia.
Oregon State University / CC BY-SA 2.0
Secret Weapon # 1: The Public<p>To stem this tide, restoration efforts now mostly involve growing corals in undersea nurseries and transplanting them onto dying reefs that are losing coral. Like saplings being replanted in a fallen forest, young corals can help regenerate an ecosystem that's becoming barren.</p><p>But the work can be expensive and labor-intensive. According to researchers it can cost <a href="https://datadryad.org/stash/dataset/doi:10.5061/dryad.rc0jn" target="_blank">more than $150,000</a> to restore one reef — a small fortune in low-income coastal communities that may struggle to find funding.</p><p>That's why restoration efforts have grown increasingly reliant on the help of citizen scientists. This has significantly reduced the high price tag of restoration by replacing paid labor with volunteers — without any noticeable decline in success. Research shows the growth and survival rate of the corals planted by citizen scientists is <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1617138117301504" target="_blank">almost identical</a> to corals planted by experts. When handled properly, the corals replanted by volunteers survive at a rate of at least 80 percent, and often exceeds 90 percent, said Dalton Hesley, a senior research associate at the University of Miami Benthic Ecology and Coral Restoration Lab, who led that study.</p><p>"Replanting is an investment," Hesley said. "These corals should, in theory, live indefinitely, and you should expect to see growth over the years."</p><img lazy-loadable="true" src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjYyMDAzNi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0MjQwODgwMX0.TpiaDcCidHgwJlZoyH_dYLp9Iuq0d38-Yh34jbwroHs/img.jpg?width=980" id="f7520" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fa1108fd8244c77a8b6657041c5892a5" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
A healthy staghorn coral colony two years after it was planted on a reef in the Florida Keys.
FWC Fish and Wildlife Research Institute / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Secret Weapon # 2: Genetics<p>"On first glance replanting may seem like a distraction from mitigating climate change, which is what we have to do if we want to save reefs," said Andersen. But she says restoration can give corals a better chance — especially when they're coupled with recent efforts to supercharge replanting by <a href="https://www.newsdeeply.com/oceans/articles/2017/08/28/race-to-decode-coral-dna-to-save-worlds-reefs-from-extinction" target="_blank">genetically identifying</a> the most diverse and resilient species.</p><p>A well-planned, diverse reef is probably the best remedy to bleaching, Andersen said.</p><p>"I've heard of hundreds of restoration projects around the world, but none that have failed," she said. "But if one happened to fail, I would assume its leaders failed to create enough coral diversity."</p><p>Hesley agreed: "With high diversity there's strength."</p><p>Thousands of species of hard and soft corals have been identified to date, and each of these species has varying levels of resistance to stressors. Even within a species, scientists have identified different <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/21/10586" target="_blank">gene patterns</a> that can convey different benefits.</p><p>"Some corals grow very quickly, some are less prone to disease, some bleach less, some are hardier during storms, for example," Hesley said. "There's not one coral species or individual that excels across the board, so we must focus on creating high levels of coral diversity."</p><p>Larger-scale reef restoration projects, like the <a href="http://rescueareef.rsmas.miami.edu/" target="_blank">program</a> Hesley is involved in at the University of Miami, keep track of coral genetics using DNA analysis, ensuring coral diversity. Smaller-scale programs in rather remote places, like Andersen's project in the Maldives, often do not have in-house access to labs and genetics testing, which can be prohibitively expensive.</p><p>Andersen said these challenges require her to go through a complex research process and collaboration with coral geneticists on a different atoll to pinpoint the most and least resilient coral species. Then, she must carefully remove fragments of coral from reefs known to have survived past bleaching events so that they can be used to spawn more hardy corals. After that, she monitors the donor reef and fragments to ensure they stay healthy. These preliminary parts of the replanting process, which require permits and extraordinary precision, are left up to the professionals.</p><img lazy-loadable="true" src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjYyMDAzNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwNDQ4NjkyNn0.EJgvphllBv-4WXC6n2Q98AJJ1x5UNydcM2c7Ah-ITA0/img.jpg?width=980" id="cf825" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="0b5fd81aa53152e76daf921add21a303" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Choosing coral parent colonies to aid reef restoration efforts.
FWC Fish and Wildlife Research Institute / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Promise and Challenges<p>When it comes to giving dying corals another shot, Hesley acknowledged that coral reef restoration is not a perfect solution. He said finding adequate funding, staff and volunteer labor, and addressing the root causes of reef decline — climate change and local stressors to reef health — are lingering challenges.</p><p>However, Anderson said the benefits of reef restoration, especially those powered by citizen scientists, are strong compared to their drawbacks. This has led to projects cropping up on reefs all around the world, developed by scientists hired by research institutions and hotels alike.</p><p>One of the most exciting she's seen is a citizen-science restoration project led by Peter Harrison of Southern Cross University in Australia, who has developed a backpack-sized inflatable coral spawn catcher and nursery pool in which baby corals can grow until they're big enough to be replanted.</p><p>Of course, even volunteers can only do so much. Harrison has also pioneered use of robots to swiftly distribute baby corals onto nearly 7.5 acres of damaged reefs, doing a job in just six hours that would take several human hands at least a week. If perfected, it could put volunteer seeding efforts effectively out of business.</p><p>But there's always a role for people willing to help. After corals are propagated, whether it's by hand or machine, citizen scientists can help care for them in undersea nurseries.</p><p>All of this requires careful planning. Andersen emphasizes the importance of establishing clearly defined goals for restoration, based around a community's needs and available resources. Another aspect of a successful restoration effort, she said, is an effective and accessible training program that primes citizen scientists on how to participate and, ultimately, care about the future of corals.</p><p>And that ties into the fundamental reason why citizen science still matters: because restoration buys time for corals. Experts at the Smithsonian Research Institute have <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0988-x" target="_blank">found</a> that the more living coral a reef has when exposed to highly acidic waters, the more likely it is to survive, instead of bleaching and dying.</p><p>Meanwhile, the efforts help to connect people to something that otherwise might stay out of sight and out of mind beneath the surface of the ocean.</p><p>"I don't think a lot of people who get involved in restoration initially have that emotional attachment to coral reefs simply because they haven't had a chance to care about them," Andersen said. "Restoration gives them the opportunity to make a connection, to really understand how dire the situation is, and to do something that can help."</p>
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Historically, it hasn't always been possible to grow fresh vegetables throughout the year.
1. Nutrient Dense<p>Kimchi is packed with nutrients while being low in calories.</p><p>On its own, Chinese cabbage — one of the main ingredients in kimchi — boasts vitamins A and C, at least 10 different minerals, and over 34 amino acids.</p><p>Since kimchi varies widely in ingredients, its exact nutritional profile differs between batches and brands. All the same, a 1-cup (150-gram) serving contains approximately.</p><ul><li><strong>Calories:</strong> 23</li><li><strong>Carbs:</strong> 4 grams</li><li><strong>Protein:</strong> 2 grams</li><li><strong>Fat:</strong> less than 1 gram</li><li><strong>Fiber:</strong> 2 grams</li><li><strong>Sodium:</strong> 747 mg</li><li><strong>Vitamin B6:</strong> 19% of the Daily Value (DV)</li><li><strong>Vitamin C:</strong> 22% of the DV</li><li><strong>Vitamin K:</strong> 55% of the DV</li><li><strong>Folate:</strong> 20% of the DV</li><li><strong>Iron:</strong> 21% of the DV</li><li><strong>Niacin:</strong> 10% of the DV</li><li><strong>Riboflavin:</strong> 24% of the DV</li></ul><p>Many green vegetables are good sources of nutrients like vitamin K and riboflavin. Because kimchi often comprises several green veggies, such as <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-cabbage" target="_blank">cabbage</a>, celery, and spinach, it's typically a great source of these nutrients.</p><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods-high-in-vitamin-k" target="_blank">Vitamin K</a> plays an important role in many bodily functions, including bone metabolism and blood clotting, while riboflavin helps regulate energy production, cellular growth, and metabolism.</p><p>What's more, the fermentation process may develop additional nutrients that are more easily absorbed by your body.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p>Kimchi has an excellent nutritional profile. The dish is low in calories but packed with nutrients like iron, folate, and vitamins B6 and K.</p>
2. Contains Probiotics<p>The lacto-fermentation process that kimchi undergoes makes it particularly unique. Fermented foods not only have an extended shelf life but also an enhanced taste and aroma.</p><p>Fermentation occurs when a starch or sugar is converted into an alcohol or acid by organisms like yeast, mold, or bacteria.</p><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/lacto-fermentation" target="_blank">Lacto-fermentation</a> uses the bacterium <em>Lactobacillus</em> to break sugars down into lactic acid, which gives kimchi its characteristic sourness.</p><p>When taken as a supplement, This bacterium itself may have several benefits, including treating conditions like hayfever and certain types of diarrhea.</p><p>Fermentation also creates an environment that allows other friendly bacteria to thrive and multiply. These include <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/11-super-healthy-probiotic-foods" target="_blank">probiotics</a>, which are live microorganisms that offer health benefits when consumed in large amounts.</p><p>In fact, they're linked to protection from or improvements in several conditions, including:</p><ul><li>certain types of <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/cancer">cancer</a></li><li>the common cold</li><li>constipation</li><li>gastrointestinal health<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30197628" target="_blank"></a></li><li>heart health </li><li><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/mental-health" rel="noopener noreferrer">mental health</a><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448230" target="_blank"></a></li><li>skin conditions<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28802302" target="_blank"></a></li></ul><p>Keep in mind that many of these findings are related to high-dose probiotic supplements and not the amounts found in a normal serving of kimchi.</p><p>The probiotics in kimchi are believed to be responsible for many of its benefits. Nonetheless, more research is needed on the specific effects of probiotics from fermented foods.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>Fermented foods like kimchi offer probiotics, which may help prevent and treat several conditions.</p>
3. May Strengthen Your Immune System<p>The <em>Lactobacillus</em> bacterium in kimchi may <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/foods-that-boost-the-immune-system" target="_blank">boost your immune health</a>.</p><p>In a study in mice, those injected with <em>Lactobacillus</em> <em>plantarum</em> — a specific strain that's common in kimchi and other fermented foods — had lower levels of TNF alpha, an inflammatory marker, than the control group.</p><p>Because TNF alpha levels are often elevated during infection and disease, a decrease indicates that the immune system is working efficiently.</p><p>A test-tube study that isolated <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> from kimchi likewise demonstrated that this bacterium has immune-enhancing effects.</p><p>Though these results are promising, human research is needed.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>A specific strain of <em>Lactobacillus</em> found in kimchi may boost your immune system, though further research is necessary.</p>
4. May Reduce Inflammation<p>Probiotics and active compounds in kimchi and other fermented foods may help fight inflammation.</p><p>For example, a mouse study revealed that HDMPPA, one of the principal compounds in kimchi, improved blood vessel health by <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/13-anti-inflammatory-foods" target="_blank">suppressing inflammation</a>.</p><p>In another mouse study, a kimchi extract of 91 mg per pound of body weight (200 mg per kg) given daily for 2 weeks lowered levels of inflammation-related enzymes.</p><p>Meanwhile, a test-tube study confirmed that HDMPPA displays anti-inflammatory properties by blocking and suppressing the release of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/6-foods-that-cause-inflammation" target="_blank">inflammatory compounds</a>.</p><p>However, human studies are lacking.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>HDMPPA, an active compound in kimchi, may play a large role in reducing inflammation.</p>
5. May Slow Aging<p>Chronic inflammation is not only associated with numerous illnesses, but it also accelerates the aging process.</p><p>Yet, kimchi possibly prolongs cell life by <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/13-habits-linked-to-a-long-life" target="_blank">slowing this process</a>.</p><p>In a test-tube study, human cells treated with kimchi demonstrated an increase in viability, which measures overall cell health — and showed an extended lifespan regardless of their age.</p><p>Still, overall research is lacking. Many more studies are needed before kimchi can be recommended as an <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/anti-aging-foods" target="_blank">anti-aging treatment</a>.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>A test-tube study indicates that kimchi may slow the aging process, though more research is necessary.</p>
6. May Prevent Yeast Infections<p>Kimchi's probiotics and healthy bacteria may help <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/5-diet-tips-against-candida" target="_blank">prevent yeast infections</a>.</p><p>Vaginal yeast infections occur when the <em>Candida</em> fungus, which is normally harmless, multiplies rapidly inside the vagina. Over 1.4 million women in the United States are treated for this condition each year.</p><p>As this fungus may be developing resistance to antibiotics, many researchers are looking for natural treatments.</p><p>Test-tube and animal studies suggest that certain strains of <em>Lactobacillus</em> fight <em>Candida</em>. One test-tube study even found that multiple strains isolated from kimchi displayed antimicrobial activity against this fungus.</p><p>Regardless, further research is necessary.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p>Probiotic-rich foods like kimchi may help prevent yeast infections, though research is in the early stages.</p>
7. May Aid Weight Loss<p>Fresh and fermented kimchi are both low in calories and may boost <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/weight-loss" target="_blank">weight loss.</a><span></span></p><p>A 4-week study in 22 people with excess weight found that eating fresh or fermented kimchi helped reduce body weight, body mass index (BMI), and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/best-ways-to-burn-fat" target="_blank">body fat</a>. Additionally, the fermented variety decreased blood sugar levels.</p><p>Keep in mind that those who ate fermented kimchi displayed significantly greater improvements in blood pressure and body fat percentage than those who ate the fresh dish.</p><p>It's unclear which properties of kimchi are responsible for its weight loss effects — though its low calorie count, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/22-high-fiber-foods" target="_blank">high fiber content</a>, and probiotics could all play a role.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>Though the specific mechanism isn't known, kimchi may help reduce body weight, body fat, and even blood pressure and blood sugar levels.</p>
8. May Support Heart Health<p>Research indicates that kimchi may reduce your risk of <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/tag/heart-disease" rel="noopener noreferrer">heart disease</a>.</p><p>This may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties, as recent evidence suggests that inflammation may be an underlying cause of heart disease.</p><p>In an 8-week study in mice fed a high cholesterol diet, fat levels in the blood and liver were lower in those given kimchi extract than in the control group. In addition, the kimchi extract appeared to suppress fat growth.</p><p>This is important because the accumulation of fat in these areas may contribute to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/heart-healthy-foods" target="_blank">heart disease</a>.</p><p>Meanwhile, a weeklong study in 100 people found that eating 0.5–7.5 ounces (15–210 grams) of kimchi daily significantly decreased blood sugar, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/13-foods-that-lower-cholesterol-levels" target="_blank">total cholesterol</a>, and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels — all of which are risk factors for heart disease.</p><p>All the same, more human research is needed.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>Kimchi may lower your risk of heart disease by reducing inflammation, suppressing fat growth, and decreasing cholesterol levels.</p>
9. Easy to Make at Home<p>Though preparing fermented foods may seem like a daunting task, making kimchi at home is fairly simple if you adhere to the following steps:</p><ol><li>Gather ingredients of your choice, such as cabbage and other fresh vegetables like carrot, radish, and onion, plus ginger, garlic, sugar, salt, rice flour, chili oil, chili powder or pepper flakes, fish sauce, and saeujeot (fermented shrimp).</li><li>Cut and wash the fresh vegetables alongside the ginger and garlic.</li><li>Spread salt in between the layers of cabbage leaves and let it sit for 2–3 hours. Turn the cabbage every 30 minutes to evenly distribute the salt. Use a ratio of 1/2 cup (72 grams) of salt to every 6 pounds (2.7 kg) of cabbage.</li><li>To remove the excess salt, rinse the cabbage with water and drain in a colander or strainer.</li><li>Mix the rice flour, sugar, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/11-proven-benefits-of-ginger" target="_blank">ginger</a>, garlic, chili oil, pepper flakes, fish sauce, and saeujeot into a paste, adding water if necessary. You can use more or less of these ingredients depending on how strong you want your kimchi to taste.</li><li>Toss the fresh vegetables, including the cabbage, into the paste until all of the veggies have been fully coated.</li><li>Pack the mixture into a large container or jar for storage, making sure to seal it properly.</li><li>Let the kimchi ferment for at least 3 days at room temperature or up to 3 weeks at 39 F (4 C).</li></ol><p>To make a version that's suitable for vegetarians and vegans, simply leave out the fish sauce and saeujeot.</p><p>If you prefer fresh over fermented kimchi, just stop after step 6.</p><p>If you choose fermentation, you'll know that it's ready to eat once it starts to smell and taste sour — or when small bubbles begin to move through the jar.</p><p>After fermentation, you can refrigerate your kimchi for up to 1 year. It will continue to ferment but at a slower rate due to the cool temperature.</p><p>Bubbling, bulging, a sour taste, and a softening of the cabbage are all perfectly normal for kimchi. However, if you notice a foul odor or any <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/is-moldy-food-dangerous" target="_blank">signs of mold</a>, such as a white film atop the food, your dish has spoiled and should be thrown out.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>Kimchi can be made at home using a few simple steps. Typically, it needs to ferment 3–21 days depending on the surrounding temperature.</p>
Does kimchi have any downsides?<p>In general, the biggest safety concern with kimchi is food poisoning.</p><p>Recently, this dish has been linked to <em>E. coli</em> and norovirus outbreaks.</p><p>Even though fermented foods don't typically carry foodborne pathogens, kimchi's ingredients and the adaptability of pathogens means that it's still vulnerable to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods-that-cause-food-poisoning" target="_blank">foodborne illnesses</a>.</p><p>As such, people with compromised immune systems may want to practice caution with kimchi.</p><p>Although people with high blood pressure may have concerns about this dish's <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods-high-in-sodium" target="_blank">high sodium content</a>, a study in 114 people with this condition showed no significant relationship between kimchi intake and high blood pressure.</p><h4>Summary</h4><p><strong></strong>Kimchi has very few risks. Nonetheless, this dish has been tied to outbreaks of food poisoning, so people with compromised immune systems may want to use extra caution.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>Kimchi is a sour Korean dish often made from cabbage and other vegetables. Because it's a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/8-fermented-foods" target="_blank">fermented food</a>, it boasts numerous probiotics.</p><p>These healthy microorganisms may give kimchi several health benefits. It may help regulate your immune system, promote <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-to-lose-weight-as-fast-as-possible" target="_blank">weight loss</a>, fight inflammation, and even slow the aging process.</p><p>If you enjoy cooking, you can even make kimchi at home.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><a href="https://www.healthline.com/" target="_blank"><em>Healthline</em></a><em>. For detailed source information, please view the original article on </em><em><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-kimchi#The-bottom-line" target="_blank">Healthline</a></em><em>.</em></p>
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Six months: That's how much time Mexico now has to report on its progress to save the critically endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus) from extinction.
Demonstrators with The Animal Welfare Institute hold a rally to save the vaquita, the world's smallest and most endangered porpoise, outside the Mexican Embassy in DC on July 5, 2018.
SAUL LOEB / AFP / Getty Images<p>Next, <a href="https://fronterasdesk.org/content/1204916/conservationists-fishermen-unsatisfied-mexicos-efforts-protect-endangered-porpoise" target="_blank">600 Mexican antipoaching troops</a> are scheduled to arrive in the region soon to enforce a "zero tolerance" fishing policy in the vaquita's habitat.</p><p>But those troops may find themselves in the midst of a renewed struggle with local fishermen. Mexico has paid shrimp fishermen to stay out of vaquita habitat since 2015, but those compensation funds reportedly stopped arriving last December, after President Andrés Manuel López Obrador took office. With fishermen now struggling to feed their families, their leaders say fleets could resume operation any day. "We know about the vaquita, and we've done what we can, but we have needs and we have to work," Lorenzo Garcia, president of the region's largest fishermen's federation, told <a href="https://fronterasdesk.org/content/1189691/without-government-aid-fishermen-return-vaquitas-habitat" target="_blank"><em>Fronteras</em></a>.</p><p>Even with the imminent arrival of Mexican soldiers, the resumption of gillnet shrimp fishing in the Gulf of California represents a major shift in vaquita conservation efforts. Will it push the tiny porpoises closer to disappearing? The world will be watching.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from our media associate <a href="https://therevelator.org/saving-vaquita-new-promises-threats/" target="_blank">The Revelator</a>.</em></p>
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An oil spill in the endangered Ganges river dolphin breeding grounds located in southeast Bangladesh has been called a "major disaster" by environmentalists, reports Agence-France Presse (AFP).
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Anyone planning to serve shrimp with their champagne this New Year's Eve should check their receipts.
By Thomas Cronin
When you think about fearsome predators in the ocean, the first thing that pops into your mind is probably a shark. Sure, sharks are ok, with their sleek, menacing shape and their gaping jaws with rows of jagged teeth. But if you were a fish living on a coral reef or cruising along the shore over the sands of a tropical island, you would fear a far more terrifying predator.
By Pam Radtke Russell in New Orleans
Local TV weather forecasters have become foot soldiers in the war against climate misinformation. Over the past decade, a growing number of meteorologists and weathercasters have begun addressing the climate crisis either as part of their weather forecasts, or in separate, independent news reports to help their viewers understand what is happening and why it is important.
‘You have the chance to shift the public view a little’<h4> <a href="https://twitter.com/KeithCarson?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor" target="_blank">Keith Carson</a>, <a href="https://www.newscentermaine.com/" target="_blank">WLBZ/WCSH</a>, Maine</h4><p>At the beginning of his career, Carson wasn't fully onboard with the idea that climate crisis was occurring and it was caused by humans. Carson began working in the field in 2006. Today, though, he says: "Frankly it's getting harder and harder to deny it scientifically." And now he knows how easy it is now for anyone to twist facts and create even more divisiveness.</p><p>These days, Carson regularly shares information about the climate crisis and other scientific topics with viewers through a nightly science segment called "Brain Drops".</p><p>For Carson, the issue is bigger than just climate change. "If people are going to dismiss science and the scientific process, it opens the door for other regressions," in scientific thinking.</p><p>Carson talks about climate change with his viewers about once every two weeks. "I think it's important to do, but not to hammer it daily. It's against human nature to change minds, and hammering it home daily would make some people dig in more." He approaches the topic like many of his colleagues do, by simply presenting the facts about what is happening.</p><p>Weathercasters, he says, have a unique opportunity because they are an integral, well liked part of the community, "and you have the chance to shift opinion a little".</p><p>While Carson does get some pushback from viewers, most of those who comment on his climate reporting are not his viewers, he says.</p>
From stories on breweries to ranchers: find a way to relate<h4><a href="https://twitter.com/Elisa_Raffa?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor" target="_blank">Elisa Raffa</a>, of <a href="https://www.ozarksfirst.com/weather/" target="_blank">KOLR10/KOZL</a>, Springfield, Missouri</h4><p>Raffa, a self-described science geek, believes her job is to educate her viewers about how climate change will impact them. She's done stand-alone news segments about how climate change will impact fishing in local lakes, a local coffee shop and a local brewery. One piece detailed how ranchers must be more careful with their cattle as black vultures move into the region because of warming temperatures.</p><p>"It gets people to look at climate change outside of the political realm," she says.</p><p>Raffa is careful to ask objective questions about things such as precipitation and temperature, and rarely outwardly underscores climate change as the problem. Her sources usually do that themselves. That hits home with viewers who see climate change from a relatable perspective.</p><p>"Climate change will impact us in so many ways, and I love teaching my viewers and helping them learn how they can prepare and adapt and be more resilient," she said.</p><p>In addition to her special reports, Raffa talks about the climate crisis in subtle ways during her forecasts. She highlighted a recent uptick in morning high temperatures hoping to show her viewers that overnight temperatures are increasing.</p><p>"This is what I signed up for," she said. "This is a science issue. It's my duty to communicate this to the public. If I don't, who is going to?"</p>
‘I used to be more subtle … but now we see more effects’<h4><a href="https://twitter.com/jorgetweather?lang=en" target="_blank">Jorge Torres</a>, <a href="https://www.kob.com/kob-tv/jorge-torres/3075716/" target="_blank">KOB-TV</a>, Albuquerque, New Mexico</h4><p>Over his career, Torres, chief meteorologist at KOB, has become bolder in addressing climate change. "In the beginning I was more subtle, but as more and more facts become apparent, I am more open now saying this is human induced. For me the biggest aspect is carbon dioxide," he says. "We are seeing that increasing globally and we are seeing the effects locally."</p><p>Earlier this year, Torres did <a href="https://www.kob.com/albuquerque-news/4-investigates-the-future-of-water-in-new-mexico-/5449672/" target="_blank">an extensive news piece on the issue of water in New Mexico</a> and how smaller snow pack will impact the state's water supply. Temperatures are getting warmer and warmer as well, he says, a fact that he points out during his daily forecasts.</p><p>"Whenever the weather story allows me to say," something about the climate crisis, he does, but he ensures it is in the proper context.</p><p>The bottom line is that he wants viewers to be open-minded about it. "Don't just hear something and dismiss it."</p>
The forecaster quoting Bubba Gump<h4><a href="https://twitter.com/WGRZHeather?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor" target="_blank">Heather Waldman</a>, <a href="https://www.wgrz.com/" target="_blank">WGRZ</a>, Buffalo, New York</h4><p>As the trusted "station scientist", Waldman says that talking about the climate crisis is a natural fit for her and other weathercasters. "It fits in our identity."</p><p>Waldman and her station have unveiled a series of short, entertaining and informative videos called "the climate minute", that are online and are scheduled to run this week on TV.</p><p> Weather presenter Heather Waldman talks global heating in 'The Climate Minute' – video</p><p>The one-minute videos are time-consuming to produce because while Waldman uses information from Climate Matters, she also does her own research, reading IPCC and other reports.</p><p>She says she decided on short one-minute videos because she doesn't want to lose the audiences' attention.</p><p>"The audience isn't going to pay attention to anything for more than a couple of minutes and we use succinct, catchy images. The goal to find some sort of thing, where people say oh, this will have an impact – this is affecting me right now."</p><p>On an upcoming piece on how ocean acidification is affecting shrimp populations, she is using Bubba Gump shrimp quotes to keep it fun.</p><p>"Intrinsically we have the responsibility to present not just weather facts but climate facts – we don't want to pontificate, but we want to make them actionable and entertaining."</p>
By Elizabeth L. Bennett
In recent years Asia's otters have been subject to intense poaching, primarily for their pelts. Markets in East Asia greatly value their smooth, dense, water-adapted fur. At same time the poaching of live otters for sale in the pet trade has become an emerging crisis. Even in Japan's famous cat cafés, otters have proven to be attractive alternatives to felines. The small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus), with its charming reputation, is especially vulnerable to such trade.
Smooth-coated otters at Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, India.
Manan Singh Mahadev / CC BY 2.0<p>Meanwhile international criminal networks traffic otter pelts with other valuable species, such as tiger and leopard. Unfortunately enforcement across the clandestine trade chain for otters tends to be much weaker than for their readily recognizable big cat fellow carnivores, despite the fact that the otter trade often occurs on a huge scale. One seizure by enforcement officials might result in the discovery of hundreds of pelts.</p><p>This week's decision by CITES parties to list both small-clawed and smooth-coated otters on Appendix I means that all international commercial trade in both species is now illegal. It gives governments in countries where the otters naturally live, as well as those in countries where they are trafficked and sold, additional legal tools to stop this devastating trade.</p><p>Much work still needs to be done. These and other otter species require additional protections at the national level to prevent domestic trade and further habitat loss. Existing otter cafés should switch back to domestic species such as cats to reduce consumer demand for more captive otters, and authorities should ensure that this happens. Enforcement of the new international trade rules will be critical to the species' survival.</p><p>That's why this week's action at CITES is important: It sends a message to the global community that these entirely wonderful animals are in trouble and need our help — and that does not mean cuddling them in our homes and cafés. It means leaving them, undisturbed, in their wild tropical habitats, with their own extended families — to dive for fish, play and thrive in their natural homes for decades to come.</p><p><em>The opinions expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of The Revelator, the Center for Biological Diversity or their employees.</em></p>
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gmnicholas / E+ / Getty Images
Kristan Porter grew up in a fishing family in the fishing community of Cutler, Maine, where he says all roads lead to one career path: fishing. (Porter's father was the family's lone exception. He suffered from terrible seasickness, and so became a carpenter.) The 49-year-old, who has been working on boats since he was a kid and fishing on his own since 1991, says that the recent warming of Maine's cool coastal waters has yielded unprecedented lobster landings.
Maine lobsters are normally brown, but about one in every two million is blue.
Richard Wood / Flickr
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By Elizabeth Pratt
- Hormel, Kellogg's, and Kroger are among the large companies now planning to offer "fake meat" products at grocery stores.
- Experts say the trend toward plant-based meats coincides with consumers' desires to eat less meat.
- However, experts urge consumers to closely check package labels as a product isn't necessarily healthy just because it's described as plant-based.
In grocery stores and fast-food outlets around the U.S., a revolution is taking place.
More Companies Jumping In<p>Traditional competitors are taking note.</p><p>Tyson Foods, well known for its chicken products, has introduced a new range of <a href="https://www.raisedandrooted.com/" target="_blank">plant-based nuggets</a>. Earlier this month, it also announced a <a href="https://www.tysonfoods.com/news/news-releases/2019/9/tyson-ventures-invests-new-wave-foods" target="_blank">new venture</a> to create plant-based shellfish. The company hopes to create a plant-based alternative to shrimp by 2020.</p><p>This fall, Kroger will be launching its own line of plant-based meats to appear alongside regular meats in stores.</p><p>Morningstar Farms, owned by Kellogg's, is also introducing a range of realistic plant-based meats under the name "Incogmeato."</p><p>Last week, Hormel Foods, famous for its Spam products, introduced a line of meat substitutes called <a href="https://www.hormelfoods.com/newsroom/press-releases/hormel-foods-announces-the-creation-and-launch-of-plant-forward-meat-alternative-happy-little-plants-brand-at-barclays-global-consumer-staples-conference/" target="_blank">Happy Little Plants</a>.</p>
Appealing to Consumers<p>The new products are a move Dana Hunnes, PhD, a senior dietitian at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, says will appeal to a growing number of people interested in plant-based diets.</p><p>"People want their cake and get to eat it, too," she told Healthline. "People want to eat meat but also want to eat it in a healthier/better-for-the-planet sort of way. These new fake meats are a perfect mixture of meaty flavor, meaty texture, and are good for the Earth."</p><p>"I think with younger generations going on the bandwagon of eating more plant-based and trying to protect the environment, as climate change is becoming ever more serious, these fake meats are the opportunity people have been looking for to still eat 'meat' without doing all the damage," Hunnes added.</p><p>Wright says that easily accessible fake meats may also decrease the amount of meat Americans are eating.</p><p>"The typical American diet is still primarily 'meat and potatoes' based. According to the <a href="https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/92609/ldp-m-297.pdf?v=7042.8" target="_blank">U.S. Department of Agriculture</a>, Americans consumed over 200 pounds of red meat and poultry in 2018. That translates into 10 ounces per day, which is twice the amount recommended by health agencies. Increased access to plant-based meats could help decrease the intake of meat while increasing vegetable consumption," she said.</p>
Are Fake Meats Healthy?<p>Some have raised concerns over the healthiness of fake meats.</p><p>The chief executive officer of Whole Foods says he <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/whole-foods-ceo-doesnt-think-much-of-plant-based-meat-alternatives" target="_blank">won't endorse</a> the products, citing the fact they're often highly processed.</p><p>It's a claim many of the experts who spoke with Healthline say is reasonable to keep in mind.</p><p>"Plant-based isn't always equivalent to healthy and I think that plant-based meats may be wearing a 'health halo,'" <a href="https://www.mcdanielnutrition.com/about-mcdaniel-nutrition/" target="_blank">Jennifer McDaniel</a>, MS, RDN, CSSD, LD, founder of McDaniel Nutrition Therapy, told Healthline. "If a consumer doesn't read the nutrition facts label or ingredient list, these plant-based meats may be misleadingly healthier than they actually are. It is important to remember that just because a food is plant-based doesn't mean it is healthy or healthier than its meat counterpart."</p><p>"Consumers should look for products that use more whole ingredients like beans, nuts, seeds, and vegetables compared to the more ultra-processed ingredients," she said.</p><p>"Overall, the less-processed forms of plant-based meat alternatives are ideal. Consumers should also compare sodium when choosing plant-based meats. In a chart comparing plant-based burgers to a beef burger, there was almost five times more sodium in the plant-based option versus the beef," she added.</p><p>Debbie Petitpain, MS, RDN, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, agrees. She says there are many ways people can incorporate healthy meat-free options in their own kitchen.</p><p>"Fake meats are no substitute for minimally processed, whole, plant foods," she told Healthline. "Plant proteins like beans, lentils, and soy including tofu and tempeh promote health and prevent chronic disease… it's easy to find recipes that use these foods or foods like eggplant, jackfruit, mushrooms, potatoes, cauliflower, and quinoa to replace meat in dishes from tacos to burgers, lasagna to chili. Your imagination is your only limitation."</p><p>But as more and more people introduce meat-free Monday and more plant-based options to their diets, she says it makes sense for companies to embrace changing attitudes toward meat.</p><p>"As the world's population explodes, the food supply will be stressed. Large food companies and food distributors play an integral role in the adaptations that will need to be made. It's simply good business sense to offer food options that will be key in this transition. Americans' appetite are changing — they're demanding and enjoying products made from plants that resemble foods, like meat, that are familiar to them," she said.</p>
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Clockwise from top left: A panther chameleon, a Harris's three spot moth caterpillar, a pale tussock caterpillar.
Simone Sbaraglia, Lance Featherstone, Nick Goodrum<p>Yet biodiversity and climate are inextricably linked. "We can't stabilize the climate without really addressing biodiversity, and we can't save biodiversity without staying below 1.5 degrees," says <a href="https://www.resolve.ngo/directory/EricDinerstein.htm?categories=51928" target="_blank">Eric Dinerstein</a>, a wildlife biologist at the nonprofit <a href="https://www.resolve.ngo/" target="_blank">RESOLVE</a>, referring to the maximum increase in global temperature (in degrees Celsius) that scientists agree most species <a href="https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/8/eaau9981" target="_blank">can survive</a>. "You can't solve one without the other."</p><p>Dinerstein and his colleagues recently laid out a plan in <em>Science Advances </em>to address biodiversity loss and climate change as quickly and as cheaply as possible. Their <a href="https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/4/eaaw2869/tab-pdf" target="_blank">Global Deal for Nature</a> calls for the creation of formal, line-in-the-sand protections for 50 percent of the planet's biomes by 2050.</p><p>Dinerstein and his coauthors go into great detail about how to achieve this goal, but the heart of the effort comes down to one simple idea: By saving plants and animals, we can save the world.</p>
A tiger in Kanha Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
James Warwick / www.JamesWarwick.co.uk<p>Dinerstein has spent much of his career studying tigers. In <a href="https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/57/6/508/236193" target="_blank">one study</a><a href="https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/57/6/508/236193" target="_blank">,</a> he determined that forested landscapes that still harbor functional tiger populations in India contain three times the carbon density of landscapes where humans have eradicated tigers. This is because areas that still have tigers are often much better managed and protected. "People tend to stay out of them more," Dinerstein says, "whereas once a forest has lost its tigers, people pretty much go in there all the time and start exploiting other species and cutting down firewood, and they become degraded more quickly."</p><p>Similar relationships are playing out in the oceans. For instance, seagrass meadows cover just 0.2 percent of the ocean floor, but they hold <a href="https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=242613" target="_blank">more than 10 percent</a> of all the carbon locked up in the sea, thanks to deep roots that can keep the plants in place for <a href="https://www.thebluecarboninitiative.org/about-blue-carbon" target="_blank">thousands of years</a>. Too many grazers, such as sea turtles and dugongs, however, can wipe out seagrass beds and the carbon storage services they provide.</p><p>But if you <a href="https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=242613" target="_blank">throw in a few tiger sharks</a>, the hungry herbivores are forced to nibble and move on, lest they end up as dinner themselves.</p><p>Believe it or not, Dinerstein says, coastal mangroves sequester much more carbon than almost any other habitat. They also serve as nurseries for a huge number of tropical fish species. And they protect coastlines from storm surges and erosion—"a threefold benefit," says Dinerstein. Unfortunately, shrimp farming and other commercial developments have already cleared away large swaths of mangrove habitat, most noticeably in <a href="https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mangroves/mangroves-under-threat-from-shrimp-farms-u-n-idUSBRE8AD1EG20121114" target="_blank">Asia and the South Pacific</a>.</p>
Every year the Gulf of Mexico hosts a human caused "dead zone." This year, it will approach record levels scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration — or NOAA — estimate, in a statement released Monday.