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EcoWatch is a community of experts publishing quality, science-based content on environmental issues, causes, and solutions for a healthier planet and life.

By Daisy Simmons

Nevada City, California. Amidst a historic pandemic and social unrest, watching the accelerating impacts of climate change on the silver screen could create a sense of helplessness – or deepen the resolve to act. Emphasizing the latter, "Resilient by Nature" was the official theme of the recent Wild & Scenic Film Festival, an entirely virtual affair this year as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Doug Emhoff, U.S. Vice President-elect Kamala Harris, Jill Biden and President-elect Joe Biden wave as they arrive on the East Front of the U.S. Capitol for the inauguration on Jan. 20, 2021 in Washington, DC. Joe Raedle / Getty Images

By John R. Platt

The period of the 45th presidency will go down as dark days for the United States — not just for the violent insurgency and impeachment that capped off Donald Trump's four years in office, but for every regressive action that came before.

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2022 Florida Solar Tax Credits, Incentives & Rebates

See how you can save money on solar panels in Florida.

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Pitsanu Prom-or / iStock / Getty Images

Florida is well-known as the Sunshine State because of its year-round sunny weather that draws millions of tourists each year, but historically, Florida hasn't actually been a national leader when it comes to solar energy generation. That said, financial incentives like Florida solar tax credit and rebate opportunities have played a huge part in its rise to become one of the top states for solar energy.

To the glee of clean energy advocates across the state, various Florida solar incentives have succeeded in bringing solar power throughout the state. According to the Solar Energy Industries Association, in 2020, Florida ranked third in the nation for solar energy capacity, and it had the second-most installations during the second quarter of 2021.

This progress in the solar field comes from many different sources, not the least of which is Florida solar incentives. For any homes or businesses feeling left behind while the rest of the state goes solar, these types of solar tax credits are still widely available across Florida, which will be discussed in this article.

For most homeowners, the decision to go solar comes down to cost. To see how much you'd pay for a home solar system (and how much you can shave off that price with Florida solar tax credit and incentive opportunities), you can get a free quote from a top solar company near you by using this tool or filling out the form below.

Florida Solar Tax Credits and Solar Rebates

As much as transitioning to clean energy is the best thing for the environment and the fight against climate change, the reality has always been that such changes would be slow to happen (if they happened at all) unless they made sense financially. When solar energy systems are proven to save money for those who pay the high upfront costs to install them, those purchases are better considered a worthy investment.

As such, some of the most effective policies encouraging solar installations have been those making the decision a no-brainer from the budgetary perspective. Let's take a look at some of the top Florida solar incentives.

Florida Solar Incentive Program Overview
Florida Net Metering Programs Credits homeowners when their solar panels produce extra electricity and it is exported to the local power grid
Florida Tax Exemptions Property tax exemptions and sales tax exemptions for solar and other renewable energy equipment
Local Incentives Incentives, rebates and low-interest financing programs at the town, city, and county level that encourage local solar installations

Florida Net Metering Programs

Regardless of the state, one of the most critical types of energy policy for solar panels is known as net metering. Through net metering, homeowners can feed excess electricity produced by their solar panels into the power grid in exchange for utility credits. These credits can be used to pay for the energy a home uses when panels aren't producing (such as at night).

Net metering tends to be a state-by-state policy, as there is no federal policy regarding net metering. Florida is one of the states where there is, in fact, a statewide net metering program, applicable for homeowners regardless of which utility serves their area.

The specific net metering provision covers up to 2 megawatts (MW) of capacity for any customers who generate electricity with a renewable energy source. Florida Power & Light and Duke Energy have the largest net metering programs in the state.

The availability of such net metering serves as an incentive for Floridians to install solar panels on their property. Not only do they benefit by reducing their power bills from pulling energy from the grid less often, but they can even profit when the utility pays them for generating more power than they consume, bringing their solar payback period down.

Florida Solar Tax Exemptions

Another financial mechanism that the Florida state government offers to solar system owners is solar tax exemptions. To start, Florida doesn't want to make the upfront cost to purchase and install solar equipment to be any higher than the open market says it should be, so since 1997, all solar energy systems have been completely exempt from Florida's sales and use tax.

Once a solar photovoltaic system is purchased and installed, there is a statewide property tax abatement that further helps homeowners avoid paying taxes on it. Most home additions, such as a new shed or outdoor patio built in a home's backyard, would be appraised to determine the value it added to the property and thus increase the overall property tax. However, the added home value of solar panels is excluded from the property's taxable value.

Local Incentives

Florida is also a large, diverse state, so in addition to the state solar incentives, many local jurisdictions enact their own policies to encourage and support installation of solar energy systems. At the town, city or county level, Floridians will commonly find low-interesting solar financing options, specific solar incentives or rebates, and more.

You can determine whether your locality offers such incentives by investigating your local government websites or talking to utility company representatives. When you do, you may come across such successful programs as Jacksonville's $2,000 rebate for solar battery installations, Boynton Beach's Energy Edge Rebate Program, or the Solar Energy Rebate Grant Program offered by Dunedin.

Federal Solar Tax Credit

Floridians, of course, can also benefit from all the tax incentives, rebates and credits that are offered at the federal level. Over the past two decades, the federal solar investment tax credit (ITC) has attributed largely to the rapid growth in solar energy across business sectors, geographies and customer types.

For systems installed and operational before the end of 2022, the federal solar tax credit is equal to 26% of the value of the installation, dropping to 22% for systems installed in 2023. It is currently set to expire afterward, though the idea of extending the ITC beyond its current expiration date, as has been done in the past, has been a part of active clean energy policy debates.

FAQ: Florida Solar Incentives

Does Florida have a solar tax credit?

State-wide, there is no specific Florida solar tax credit. However, all utilities in the state of Florida do offer customers the ability to utilize net metering, Florida solar homeowners are eligible for the federal solar tax credit, and some local jurisdictions in Florida may offer their own tax credits.

Is solar tax exempt in Florida?

In Florida, the purchase and installation of a home solar system is exempt from all sales tax, and the value of renewable systems are excluded from 100% of residential property taxes.

How much is the solar tax credit for 2022?

For any solar panel system installed before the end of 2022, the federal solar investment tax credit is equal to 26% of the value of the system.

Is Florida a good state for solar?

Florida is a great state for solar from the perspective of having year-round sunny weather, higher-than-average solar irradiance and a policy landscape conducive to solar installations. Because of these factors, Florida ranked third among all states in terms of solar capacity installed in 2020 (rising to second when looking at the third quarter of 2021), per the SEIA.

How much do solar panels cost in Florida?

Based on market research and data from top solar companies, we've found the average cost of solar panels in Florida is $2.53 per watt. However, this is only an average, and prices can vary widely depending on where you live, the number of solar panels you need and more.

To get a free estimate for your own home solar system, you can get connected with a pre-screened local installer by using this tool or entering your home's information below.

CBD, one of the many compounds found in the cannabis plant, has been getting a lot of attention recently. Some of it good and some of it bad. Increasingly, people in the UK are turning to CBD oils for help in relieving pain, anxiety, sleep and a host of other health issues. Find out which brands made our list of the best CBD oil in the U.K. below.

While CBD is gaining in popularity, and more products are becoming available on the high street and online, there is little scientific research to back the claims made by some CBD product manufacturers. That's why if you're going to buy CBD oil it is important to understand what you're purchasing and to choose products from brands that lab test their products and make the results available to customers.

To help you find the best CBD oil available in the UK, we've done all the hard work and created a list of the best CBD oil brands and products that are available online for you to choose from.

Our Top Picks for Best CBD Oils in the U.K.

Each product featured here has been independently selected by the writer. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.

How We Chose the Best CBD in the U.K

To create this list of CBD oil producers and sellers, we've:

  • Spoken with over 100 different producers
  • Tested over 50 products for potency, quality and accuracy of labelling
  • Tried every product on the list

We've tested CBD oils for taste, consistency, cannabinoid profile, value, and accuracy of lab test results to compile our list of the best CBD oils available online today.

Our readers also provide feedback on the brands they've tried and like or don't rate so much. We take our readers' feedback into consideration when we make our Buyer's Guides.

We also work directly with many of the leading CBD brands to bring you their latest offers and discounts, so it's worth checking back to see how you can continue to get the best value CBD oils for your money.

It is important to note that the details for the products listed here are not intended for diagnosing, treating, curing or preventing any particular disease. If you take prescription medicines you should speak to your GP or other healthcare professional before you take CBD oil about possible drug on drug interactions.

In this buyer's guide to CBD oils in the U.K., you'll find:

  • A list of the brands we trust most
  • A price comparison chart to help you find the best value CBD oil
  • The potential benefits that you can derive from CBD oil
  • CBD dosage recommendations
  • How to pick the best CBD oil for your needs

CBD oil works differently for everyone and just because something works well for a friend or colleague doesn't necessarily mean it'll be as effective for you. Fortunately, there are many options out there to choose from. The CBD market is growing fast, however, quality can vary between brands, which is why we have conducted our own research to compile a list of CBD products that we think are the best.

Evopure

Evopure CBD drops are independently tested and they offer a line of broad spectrum hemp oil in multiple concentrations. As a bonus, all of their oils are extracted from organically grown US hemp on farms that use sustainable farming practices. The Flow blend is best for stress and anxiety. Evopure also has a sleep blend available.

Why buy: Since these drops use broad spectrum CBD oil, they contain zero THC while still providing you with all of the other benefits of a full spectrum oil. They are also organic, vegan, and non-GMO.

Love Hemp

If you're looking for a tasty CBD oil, there are various flavours available at Love Hemp, including natural, peppermint, and orange. Their CBD products are also certified THC free, and have a precise amount of CBD for easy dosing.

Why buy: Love Hemp is the leading CBD brand in the UK and for good reason, we haven't found a better product for the price.

CBDistillery

CBDistillery offers a range of CBD products, including oil tinctures, softgels, gummies, and topicals. Their most popular product is the Relief + Relax CBD oil, made with full spectrum CBD in several different potencies.

Why buy: All products from CBDistillery use CBD sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown using natural farming methods in the U.S. The CBD oil they use is CO2 extracted and tested by independent third-party labs.

Aire

aire tinctures are natural, organic, and ethically sourced. The oils contain no THC and are tested by the Cannabis Trade Association approved testing laboratories. Each 10ml bottle contains 1500mg of CBD.

Why buy: Since this is a stronger blend, aire recommends the 015 bottle for more experienced CBD users.

Blessed CBD

As the most popular tincture from Blessed CBD, this 1,000mg formula is potent and full-spectrum, but still contains less than 0.2% THC. This family run business spent 12 months searching for the best hemp source, eventually settling on a hemp extract from organically grown, non-GMO, hemp plants in Colorado. This ensures that each drop of CBD oil contains rich cannabinoids and terpenes for enhanced effects.

Why buy: We didn't find a single negative review online, which speaks volumes for the quality and effectiveness of their products.

Eir

For a tincture with a high potency, the No. 30 CBD oil from Eir Health contains 3000mg of CBD in one 30mL bottle. This equates to 100mg per serving.

Why buy: This full spectrum oil is packed with cannabinoids and terpenes that come from organically grown European hemp plants.

Price Comparison

The key numbers to look at are the cost of CBD per mg (how much you're paying for your CBD) and the mg of CBD per mL (how much CBD you're getting per milligram). Where possible, compare each brand's 1,000mg product. It's worth bearing in mind that a higher strength bottle may be more cost effective in the long run.

For instance, Eir Health's 30ml 3,000mg bottle works out at £0.04 per milligram and delivers 100 milligrams per milliliter. So if you're looking for a higher strength bottle which will last you, paying slightly more initially would be beneficial. It's worth bearing in mind that a higher strength bottle may be more cost effective in the long run. For instance, Eir Health's 30ml 3,000mg bottle works out at £0.04 per milligram and delivers 100 milligrams per milliliter. So if you're looking for a higher strength bottle which will last you, paying slightly more initially would be beneficial.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD is short for cannabidiol and is a chemical compound found in all varieties of the cannabis plant. CBD oil has become popular in recent years due to changing worldwide legislation. In the UK specifically, there were several high-profile medical cases relating to medicinal cannabis and the treatment of children with epilepsy and other health conditions. CBD is the non-psychoactive component of cannabis and, it's thought, the primary cannabinoid that interacts with the body's endocannabinoid system. This system promotes homeostasis, or balance, and regulates physiological and cognitive functions such as mood, appetite, and how we feel pain caused by inflammation.

CBD oil is produced using a range of extraction methods, including CO2 or ethanol extraction, and then added to a carrier oil, such as MCT coconut oil, to create a tincture with a broad range of possible health benefits. CBD oil is just one form that this cannabinoid can be found in and is different to hemp seed oil, which is generally used as a dietary supplement for the essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals it imparts. Hemp seed oil is produced by cold pressing hemp seeds and creating a dark coloured oil with the nutrient-rich composition described above. CBD, on the other hand, is extracted from the flower and leaves of hemp plants.

CBD is wildly popular for its potential therapeutic effects, which some clinical trials and animal studies have found to help with a number of symptoms and conditions that CBD may help alleviate, including:

Benefits of CBD Oil

  • Chronic pain
  • Nausea
  • Migraines
  • Appetite
  • Seizures
  • Psoriasis
  • Inflammation
  • Insomnia

The most common health and lifestyle issues that people turn to CBD oil for are:

  • Anxiety – CBD oil has been found to relieve symptoms of anxiety in people in several small studies. This is not restricted to one form of anxiety as social anxiety, generalised anxiety, panic attacks and some forms of depression have all been found to be relieved with CBD oil. It's thought that this is achieved by changing the way the brain reacts to anxiety.
  • Pain – CBD oil for pain is another area that anecdotal evidence and limited medical studies show people may find relief. CBD may help reduce inflammation in the body and therefore, relieve pain. Chronic pain, back pain and generalised pain have all been shown to be relieved with CBD oil.
  • Sleep – Falling asleep and staying asleep for longer periods may be enhanced with CBD oil. Both direct and indirect benefits for sleep can be derived from CBD oil. An oil or edible form of CBD can help to calm the mind (indirect) and in some cases, taking CBD can make the user drowsy (direct).

While there are a wide range of benefits that may be derived from CBD oil, the MHRA – which stands for the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency and is the equivalent to America's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – has taken the stance that unless a CBD product has been approved as a medication it cannot make any medical claims on its packaging or in its marketing. This means producers need to hold a product licence to legally sell, supply or advertise them as medicine in the UK. However, no licences for selling CBD oil as a medicine have been granted by the MHRA to date. The MHRA advises people to speak to their GP or other healthcare professional if they are considering taking CBD products.

Is CBD Oil Legal in the UK?

Yes, but there is some confusion. In the UK and EU, CBD products are completely legal, as long as they have been derived from industrial hemp and contain no more than 1mg of THC per product. But the general advice is that UK CBD oil should contain no more than 0.01% THC, as current testing standards may not be able to detect 1mg of THC.

It has been reported that CBD Oil in the UK with no more than 0.2% THC is legal but this only applies to the cultivation of hemp and not CBD oils, which are hemp derivatives. Also, any THC contained in CBD products must be difficult to separate from the rest of the product. There are two exceptions to this law; one for Sativex, a 50% CBD and 50% THC product approved by the MHRA as a medication for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms, and for the prescription of cannabis derived medicinal products by specialist clinicians. The second exception came into law in November of 2018 after several cases were brought to court requesting the use of medical cannabis products to alleviate severe epileptic symptoms in two children.

CBD Strength and Concentrations

Concentrations of CBD in oils vary from 1mg of CBD per millilitre to 50 or 400mg per millilitre.

If a bottle has 1000mg of CBD in a 10ml bottle, this means that 100mg of CBD is dissolved in every 1ml of liquid. You can work out the number of milligrams of CBD in each millilitre by dividing the milligrams (weight) of CBD by the millilitres (volume) of the bottle; for this example, that's 1000 divided by 10 which works out at 100mg per ml.

Many UK-based brands highlight the percentage of CBD in their products, such as 5% or 10% CBD. This simply refers to the weight of the drug by volume measured in grams in 100 millilitres. Using the example above, we need to convert 1,000 milligrams to grams, which is 1 gram of CBD, that's our weight. And as the bottle is 10ml, we divide 1 gram by 10 millilitres, and multiply by 100 to get our percentage, which is 10%.

How to Dose with CBD Oil

Advice on how much CBD oil you should take varies. It's almost impossible to find a definitive answer based on clinical guidance so people need to experiment in order to find out what works best for them. It's wise to start with a low dose and work your way up to find a dosage that works for you. Understanding different product types and labelling will help you to properly measure the amount of CBD to take.

Because dose guidelines are limited, it's best to start low and work your way up to a dose of CBD oil that works for you. One resource we've found suggests starting at 1 – 6mg of CBD per 10lbs of body weight. This would mean an average UK woman weighing 11 stone, could take anywhere between 15 – 92mg of CBD per dose. This could be broken into smaller doses throughout the day instead of taking all in one go.

Typically, 10ml works out to approximately 200 drops. Using the same example above, we know 1ml contains 100mg of CBD. That would mean to take 100mg of CBD you would need 20 drops of the CBD Oil. We got to that number by dividing 200 by 10. To get 15mg of CBD you would need to take only 3 drops.

What is the Correct CBD Oil Dosage?

How to take CBD and the concentrations for each does will vary depending on the condition you are looking to find relief from. For example, if you're taking CBD oil for anxiety, regular, lower doses seems to be appropriate. CBD oil for sleep calls for a single, higher dose no more than an hour before bed. That's not medical advice, that's what we've gleaned from people who use CBD products.

Dosing is the most common question people have about CBD oil and other products. It's also the question we're most often asked. We cannot overstate the fact that there is no one definitive answer.

With that being said, here is a typical dosing guide to help you get started:

CBD Oil Dosing Guide

Symptom Severity

25-50lbs

50-85lbs

85-150lbs

150-240lbs

240+lbs

Mild

6mg

9mg

12mg

18mg

22mg

Medium

9mg

12mg

15mg

22mg

30mg

Severe

12mg

15mg

18mg

27mg

45mg

How your body reacts to CBD is different to everyone else. The reason to take CBD is also personal to you – some people want to feel relaxed, others are thinking of a daily supplement to boost their health. CBD oil capsules can give your body a steady supply of cannabinoids to absorb over the course of the day. Oils will have you feeling the effects faster, but they still take time a small amount of time to work their way into your system (usually somewhere between 5 and 20 minutes). If you don't feel the effects immediately, don't take more. CBD can have an accumulative effect so wait a while before re-dosing.

Use Your Head

If you want to take 50mg of CBD and buy gummies containing 10mg each, consider the amount of sugar you'll also consume to get your CBD dose. Remember you're looking for a supplement, not a sugary snack. Choose the product that makes the most sense in regard to the dose of CBD you wish to take.

It's also worth considering price. If you find oils that declare 500mg of CBD for £15, yet everywhere else is selling the same for £50, ask yourself a few questions. Is it likely that the cheaper brand has found a way to lower the cost of growing, extracting and packaging their CBD that the others haven't? It's more likely that the cheaper brand is making bogus claims or misleading you in regards to the quality of CBD in their product? Check online guides, research brands, read a comparison list, and do your homework so you are sure you are purchasing the best CBD products for your individual circumstances.

How to Buy the Right CBD Oil Online

Consider How Much You Want to Spend

Before you purchase CBD oil online, you should consider how much you're comfortable spending. Products can be expensive, so setting an upward limit can help you narrow down the selection and find something that works for you, without breaking your budget.

Check the Test Results

The best CBD products and brands show third-party test results on their websites, or sometimes send them to you if requested. There are a few points you should look out for when viewing test results that can help you decide which brand is best for you.

  • Batch numbers – Some brands are fastidious about testing and you can check individual batch numbers for products. This lets you follow a crop from soil, to lab, to bottle. Test results should be recent, within the last quarter is good, within the past year is acceptable, anything more is less helpful.
  • Cannabinoid strength, potency and terpene levels – A recent UK study by the Centre for Medical Cannabis found 62% of UK CBD mislabelled. Checking on test results can help you confirm the CBD, THC and other terpene levels found in products.
  • Heavy metals and pesticides – Hemp sucks up whatever is in the soil. This can compromise the quality of CBD products and is why we like established brands that use land free from pesticides and heavy metals, as opposed to pop-up brands that may source their product from growers using unproven ground. Test results should show the heavy metal content of CBD products is below the safe threshold.
  • Solvents and bacteria – All CBD products should be free from solvents and manufactured in clean facilities that are free from bacteria such as salmonella.

If you are making a purchase via the internet, always make sure to review recent Certificates of Analysis.

Check to See What Kind of CBD Extract is Used in the Product

CBD products in the UK fall into three different categories: Oils with THC, broad spectrum, and isolate. Full and Broad-spectrum CBD oils are thought to have greater therapeutic benefits as the multiple cannabinoids work together. This is known as the 'entourage effect'. Experts we have spoken to support the idea of 'whole-plant therapy'. Some people may prefer CBD isolate if they are subject to drug tests through work and so on.

Consider the Taste

Some people can stand the taste of hemp. The earthy green flavour can be a turn off. Some CBD oil products have milder hemp flavours or natural additives that mask the hemp flavour to make them more palatable.

Shop Around

While you need to be aware of scammers, there are a lot of great brands that care about their product and customers. In terms of taste and strength of product, you may find it helps to try a range of brands to find the one that suits your personal preferences best.

FAQs

Is CBD oil safe?

The World Health Organisation (WHO) released a report in 2017 stating that there was little potential for abuse of CBD. Furthermore, they recognised the potential therapeutic benefits that could be derived from CBD for treating a wide range of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, cancer and diabetic complications, along with general pain, anxiety and depression.

Does CBD get you stoned?

No. CBD is the non-psychoactive component of cannabis. THC is the compound that has a psychoactive effect when taken in large enough doses (more than the 0.2% found in CBD products). Someone would need to smoke a CBD joint the size of a telephone mast to feel any psychoactive effects. CBD products allow people to get beneficial cannabinoids into their system to help their body function better, without becoming 'high' or 'stoned'.

How long does CBD oil last?

This partly depends on how quickly your body processes CBD and also the kind of CBD product you use. 6 – 8 hours is generally the length of time CBD oils will provide a noticeable effect.

Some products, like capsules are considered a daily supplement that needs to be taken over a period of time for it to reach its potential. Other kinds of CBD are faster acting and stronger; these types of products are better for specific issues such as social anxiety, problems with public speaking, or irregular and unexpected pain or discomfort.

Can I take too much CBD Oil?

You need to be careful about taking anything that will affect your health and if you are taking other medication, you should definitely discuss how CBD might interact with them, with your GP or healthcare professional. That said, most experts agree it is impossible to overdoes on CBD and even the World Health Organisation has published a report stating CBD is non-toxic and safe to use.

If you do take a very high dose of CBD, you may experience dizziness, lethargy, nausea, dry mouth and diarrhoea, but this will pass as your body processes the dose you have taken.

Other Types of CBD Products

This page covers most of what you need to know about CBD oils. If you're in the states, we also have this helpful list of organic CBD oil brands. There are lots of CBD products on the market, and each have their pros and cons.

If you're interested in CBD gummies, topicals, capsules or anything else, check out our additional online guides to find out all about the CBD product that interests you most.

Melena Gurganus is passionate about health and wellness and her writing aims to help others find products they can trust. Her work has been featured in publications such as Health, Shape, Huffington Post, Cannabis Business Times, and Bustle.

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