EPA Chief Has Given More Interviews to Fox Than to All Other Major TV Networks Combined
By Kevin Kalhoefer
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Scott Pruitt has appeared on Fox News twice as often as on other cable and broadcast networks combined, and he has frequently granted interviews to right-wing talk radio shows and other climate-denying outlets, Media Matters has found.
Pruitt's media strategy is right in line with that of his boss. During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump eschewed mainstream media outlets; it's a pattern his administration has continued since the election, favoring conservative and right-wing media outlets that are friendly to President Trump's agenda. By following the same approach, Pruitt has been able to push misinformation, avoid tough questioning and appeal to the president's political base.
Pruitt Appeared on Fox News Twice as Often as He Did on CNN, MSNBC, ABC, CBS and NBC Combined
Scott Pruitt has been a guest on Fox News a total of 12 times since his confirmation. From February 17, when he was sworn in, to August 14, Pruitt made twice as many appearances on Fox News (12) as he did on CNN, MSNBC, ABC, CBS and NBC combined (6).* With the exception of two appearances on Fox News Sunday, Pruitt rarely faced tough questions on Fox News and was able to use the network as a platform for pushing misleading talking points without rebuttal. Pruitt appeared most frequently on Fox & Friends, Trump's favorite show, which some journalists have criticized as "state TV" and "a daily infomercial for the Trump presidency" for its sycophantic coverage of the president and his administration. Pruitt made the following appearances on Fox News:
- One appearance on Hannity on March 28.
- One appearance on The Story with Martha MacCallum on June 5.
- One appearance on America's Newsroom on June 30.
By comparison, Pruitt made only six appearances on the other major cable and broadcast television networks combined. From the time Pruitt took the helm at the EPA through August 14, he was a guest just six times total on CNN, MSNBC, ABC and NBC, and he made no appearances at all on CBS. On each of these non-Fox programs, Pruitt faced questions either about whether Trump still believes climate change is a hoax or about Pruitt's own views on climate change. In response, Pruitt either avoided answering the question or repeated his "lukewarmer" stance that climate change is happening but we don't know how much is human-caused. In all but one of these appearances, Pruitt repeated false or misleading talking points about the Paris climate agreement. Here are Pruitt's guest appearances on cable news and broadcast networks other than Fox:
- One appearance on CNN's The Situation Room on February 28.
- One appearance on CNN's The Lead with Jake Tapper on June 1.
- One appearance on MSNBC's Morning Joe on June 6.
- One appearance on NBC's Meet the Press on June 4.
*Pruitt's appearance on Meet the Press aired on both NBC and MSNBC, but for the purposes of this study, we only counted it as an NBC appearance.
Pruitt Has Been a Frequent Guest on National Right-Wing Talk Radio Shows
Pruitt has also been a frequent guest on nationally broadcast right-wing talk radio shows since his confirmation, Media Matters found. We examined the top 10 shows listed on Talkers.com's Top Talk Audiences list, as well as numerous shows broadcast on the SiriusXM Patriot channel and found the following:
- One appearance on SiriusXM Patriot's David Webb Show on April 26.
- One appearance on SiriusXM Patriot's Breitbart News Daily on June 5.
- One appearance on Westwood One's The Savage Nation on June 1.
All of these hosts or outlets have denied climate change:
- Hugh Hewitt has a years-long record of climate denial: He wrote in a 2011 blog post that "we don't know" how much humans contribute to global warming, adding "if it will be harmful or if there's anything we can do about it." Hewitt also downplayed the threat of climate change in a September 2016 episode of his show in which he said that warming might be "a real problem over 500 years."
- Brian Kilmeade has denied climate change, both as a host on his radio show and as a co-host on Fox & Friends. On a 2013 episode of his radio show (then called Kilmeade & Friends), Kilmeade suggested that only "corrupt" climatologists accept human-caused climate change. On the same day, Kilmeade disputed on Fox & Friends that it is "settled scientific collective thought" that human activity causes climate change.
- On the January 12 episode of the David Webb Show, Webb cast doubt on the scientific consensus around climate change, arguing that it's not significant that the vast majority of climate scientists publishing peer-reviewed research agree on the human causes of warming: "You can have 99 percent of peer-reviewed, but it doesn't mean that the one percent like that guy named Copernicus won't be correct about the fact that the Earth was not flat and we were not the center of the universe."
- Breitbart.com has a long track record of pushing blatant climate science misinformation and attacking climate scientists and climate science, calling researchers "talentless low-lives" and "abject liars" and climate change a "hoax." Breitbart is also a go-to outlet for fossil fuel industry-funded academics who want to get publicity for their work.
- Michael Savage has echoed Trump's position on climate change, calling it a "scam" and a "hoax," and has urged the president to continue denying that humans are the cause of global warming. During his June 1 interview with Scott Pruitt, Savage repeated the denier argument that human-made climate change is disproven by samples from the Vostok ice core in Antarctica and criticized Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) for promoting "fake science." In response, Pruitt appeared to endorse Savage's views and floated the idea of having a "red team" of skeptical scientists debate a "blue team" of mainstream climate scientists, a proposal Pruitt pushed again a few days later on Breitbart's radio program:
Michael Savage (Host): Please explain to me how come ancient core samples from the Antarctic show that there was climate change going on hundreds of thousands of years before man industrialized. [Whitehouse] would not have an answer for us, Mr. Pruitt. The science is fake science that they've been foisting upon a gullible public.
Scott Pruitt: You know what's interesting, Michael? There was a great article in The Wall Street Journal to your point, by Steven Koonin, a scientist at NYU, called "red team/blue team." I don't know if you saw it or not. But he proposed that we should have a red team/blue team approach with respect to CO2. We should have red team scientists and blue team scientists, in an open setting, debate, discuss, and have an open discussion about what do we know, what don't we know, and the American people deserve truth.
Savage: Amen to that, because we've had no debate whatsoever. All Obama told us was 98 percent of scientists agree. So what? There was a time when 100 percent of scientists said the Earth is flat. Did that make them right?
Pruitt: No, look, I mean the reason there's not consensus, through policy in Washington, DC, is because, truly, the American people don't trust what has happened in the past several years with respect to regulatory policy and this issue.
Pruitt's right-wing radio appearances have extended beyond nationally broadcast shows. E&E News reported in May that Pruitt appeared on "the local morning talk radio show of a North Dakota blogger who described the Obama administration's EPA as an enemy to the well-being of his state." ThinkProgress noted that during a "state listening tour" in North Dakota earlier this month, "Pruitt stopped by the conservative talk radio show What's On Your Mind to share his thoughts on a number of EPA-related issues." During that conversation, Pruitt referred to the "so-called settled science" of climate change.
And on August 10, Pruitt appeared on a Texas radio show, Politico reported, where he said his staff will assess the "accuracy" of a major federal climate report that's been drafted by scientists from 13 agencies. "Frankly this report ought to be subjected to peer-reviewed, objective-reviewed methodology and evaluation," he said, ignoring the fact that the report has already undergone extensive peer review. Pruitt also used his appearance on the show to cast doubt on climate science in general.
Pruitt Has Given Interviews to Other Climate-Denying Outlets, Including Online Publications and Cable Business Shows
In addition to his June interview on Breitbart's radio show, Pruitt granted the Breitbart website an interview in March.
Pruitt also sat for a lengthy video interview in July with the fossil fuel-funded Daily Caller, another denialist online outlet. And he gave an interview in May to The Daily Signal, an online news outlet run by the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank that casts doubt on climate change.
Besides his appearances on cable news shows, Pruitt also went on cable business shows and networks that serve as platforms for climate denial—most notably CNBC's Squawk Box, where he told climate-denying host Joe Kernen that he did not believe carbon dioxide is a primary contributor to global warming. Pruitt has also frequently given interviews on Fox Business Network, which mirrors Fox News' denialist stance on global warming. Pruitt made the following appearances on the Fox Business Network:
- One appearance on Cavuto: Coast to Coast on March 9.
- One appearance on The Intelligence Report with Trish Regan on April 12.
Pruitt's Courting of Conservative Media is "On an Entirely Different Level" from Predecessors
Scott Waldman of E&E News reported that after "weeks of blowback" from Pruitt's appearance on Squawk Box, the EPA chief "shifted his media appearances to friendlier venues," a move that "allowed him to tee off on a favorite series of talking points: Obama's energy policy was 'America second,' energy industry innovations have reduced the U.S. carbon footprint, the so-called war on coal is now over, EPA's job is to encourage business growth in concert with the environment, and the era of punitive action against energy companies is over." Waldman also noted that Pruitt's "courting of conservative media is on an entirely different level" from previous EPA administrators. From Waldman's article:
To be sure, all administrations seek out friendly press. President Obama talked about health care on the "Between Two Ferns" comedy program with Zach Galifianakis, which Republicans criticized as undignified. And former EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy granted exclusive interviews to left-leaning outlets like Mother Jones and Grist.
But critics say Pruitt's courting of conservative media is on an entirely different level.
Liz Purchia, a former EPA spokeswoman under the Obama administration, said it's extremely unusual to place an administrator only on partisan outlets. She noted that McCarthy regularly interacted with reporters from outlets that produced coverage EPA officials did not appreciate.
"Only talking to far right-wing media outlets, they are only talking to a small group of Americans that regularly follow them, and they are intentionally going to reporters who will only ask them questions they want to hear and aren't speaking to the broader American people about their actions," Purchia said.
In Mother Jones, Rebecca Leber also reported that "since taking office, Pruitt has almost exclusively relied on a small number of conservative media outlets to tell an upbeat version of his leadership at the EPA, with occasional detours into the Sunday news shows," creating "an echo chamber cheerleading the EPA's regulatory rollbacks, Trump's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement, and its newfound anti-science denial."
Leber also quoted Purchia remarking on how Pruitt's approach to media interviews "isolates him from most Americans and instead plays to Trump's base":
Liz Purchia, an Obama-era EPA communications staffer, says the EPA's attention to right-wing audiences resembles Trump's tactics at the White House. "They're tightly controlling [Pruitt's] public events and interviews, which isolates him from most Americans and instead plays to Trump's base," Purchia said in an email. "They're not trying to use communications tactics to reach a broad audience."
Media Matters searched the following terms in Nexis, iQ Media and TVEyes to find Scott Pruitt's on-air TV appearances from the date of his swearing in as EPA Administrator on February 17 to August 14: "Pruitt," "EPA administrator," "E.P.A. administrator," "EPA chief," "E.P.A. chief," "EPA head," "E.P.A. head," "head of the EPA," "head of the E.P.A.," "head of the Environmental Protection Agency," "Environmental Protection Agency Administrator," or "Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency." We did not count instances of networks airing Pruitt's appearance at the White House's June 2 press briefing.
For radio appearances, Matters Matters searched the same terms in Veritone for the top 10 programs in Talkers.com's Top Talk Audiences list and the following programs that air on SiriusXM Patriot: Breitbart News Daily, David Webb Show, Brian Kilmeade Show and The Wilkow Majority.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Media Matters for America.
- Redwoods are the world's tallest trees.
- Now scientists have discovered they are even bigger than we thought.
- Using laser technology they map the 80-meter giants.
- Trees are a key plank in the fight against climate change.
They are among the largest trees in the world, descendants of forests where dinosaurs roamed.
Pixabay / Simi Luft<p><span>Until recently, measuring these trees meant scaling their 80 meter high trunks with a tape measure. Now, a team of scientists from University College London and the University of Maryland uses advanced laser scanning, to create 3D maps and calculate the total mass.</span></p><p>The results are striking: suggesting the trees <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73733-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">may be as much as 30% larger than earlier measurements suggested.</a> Part of that could be due to the additional trunks the Redwoods can grow as they age, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73733-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">a process known as reiteration</a>.</p>
New 3D measurements of large redwood trees for biomass and structure. Nature / UCL<p>Measuring the trees more accurately is important because carbon capture will probably play a key role in the battle against climate change. Forest <a href="https://www.wri.org/blog/2020/09/carbon-sequestration-natural-forest-regrowth" target="_blank">growth could absorb billions of tons</a> of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere each year.</p><p>"The importance of big trees is widely-recognised in terms of carbon storage, demographics and impact on their surrounding ecosystems," the authors wrote<a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73733-6" target="_blank"> in the journal Nature</a>. "Unfortunately the importance of big trees is in direct proportion to the difficulty of measuring them."</p><p>Redwoods are so long lived because of their ability to <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73733-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">cope with climate change, resist disease and even survive fire damage</a>, the scientists say. Almost a fifth of their volume may be bark, which helps protect them.</p>
Carbon Capture Champions<p><span>Earlier research by scientists at Humboldt University and the University of Washington found that </span><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112716302584" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Redwood forests store almost 2,600 tonnes of carbon per hectare</a><span>, their bark alone containing more carbon than any other neighboring species.</span></p><p>While the importance of trees in fighting climate change is widely accepted, not all species enjoy the same protection as California's coastal Redwoods. In 2019 the world lost the equivalent of <a href="https://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation-and-forest-degradation" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">30 soccer fields of forest cover every minute</a>, due to agricultural expansion, logging and fires, according to The Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF).</p>
Pixabay<p>Although <a href="https://c402277.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/publications/1420/files/original/Deforestation_fronts_-_drivers_and_responses_in_a_changing_world_-_full_report_%281%29.pdf?1610810475" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">the rate of loss is reported to have slowed in recent years</a>, reforesting the world to help stem climate change is a massive task.</p><p><span>That's why the World Economic Forum launched the Trillion Trees Challenge (</span><a href="https://www.1t.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">1t.org</a><span>) and is engaging organizations and individuals across the globe through its </span><a href="https://uplink.weforum.org/uplink/s/uplink-issue/a002o00000vOf09AAC/trillion-trees" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Uplink innovation crowdsourcing platform</a><span> to support the project.</span></p><p>That's backed up by research led by ETH Zurich/Crowther Lab showing there's potential to restore tree coverage across 2.2 billion acres of degraded land.</p><p>"Forests are critical to the health of the planet," according to <a href="https://www.1t.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">1t.org</a>. "They sequester carbon, regulate global temperatures and freshwater flows, recharge groundwater, anchor fertile soil and act as flood barriers."</p><p><em data-redactor-tag="em" data-verified="redactor">Reposted with permission from the </em><span><em data-redactor-tag="em" data-verified="redactor"><a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/03/redwoods-store-more-co2-and-are-more-enormous-than-we-thought/" target="_blank">World Economic Forum</a>.</em></span></p>
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