Reckless Coal Expansion Threatens South Africa's Water Supply
By Melita Steele
Water is the foundation of life: we’re unable to survive without it. But the problem is that water is scarce, and South Africa is running out of it.
More than 98 percent of South Africa’s water has already been allocated, and this country is facing a severe water crisis in the coming decade. We’re going to face skyrocketing water prices, droughts due to climate change and increasing competition over water—possibly leading to conflict. Already a lack of access to water is leading to service delivery protests around the country. This means that water is a critical constraint to development.
This week, Greenpeace Africa launched the report Water hungry coal: Burning South Africa’s water to produce electricity, which paints an ugly picture of how Eskom’s coal addiction and this country’s water shortages are linked. In this kind of context, the choices being made are crucial. But Eskom and the South African government are making a clear (but very risky) energy choice in favor of coal expansion, at the expense of access to scarce water resources, people’s health and affordable electricity.
Water insecurity is already a present reality and not a fiction of the future to come. If Eskom and the South African government continue to bet on coal, we will run out of water even more quickly than previously thought.
So, where is the water for Eskom’s new mega coal-fired power stations (Medupi and Kusile) going to come from? The utility’s reckless water-hungry coal expansion is a major threat to the country’s already stressed water resources, and further compromises water access for the poor.
The figures back up the severity of the situation: in one second Eskom uses the same amount of water as a single person would use within one year, based on access to the minimum 25 liters of water per day. What is scary is that as Eskom burns South Africa’s water to produce electricity, nearly a million households still don’t even have access to the minimum 25 liters of water per day, never mind the 600,000 liters Eskom uses every minute.
One doesn’t have to look hard to find out why Eskom is so water-intensive: 93 percent of South Africa’s electricity comes from coal. In fact, it is very likely that building more coal-fired power stations like Medupi and Kusile, and increasing coal mining to supply them, will essentially send South Africa into a water deficit, putting all South Africans at risk.
The coal mining and electricity industry obtain priority access to water, but every step in the coal chain requires direct use of substantial amounts of water, both using and polluting this scarce resource.
Unfortunately, there are more questions than answers when it comes to water. The people of South Africa have a right to know how water is allocated in this country, how it is managed and who is polluting it.
Currently, critical information on water allocation, management and pollution is classified as confidential, and decisions around it are not transparent. How can half the mines which supply Eskom with coal operate without valid water licenses? How can Kusile get the go-ahead without a serious assessment of its water use? How can we know for sure that South Africa's water resources have not already been over-allocated?
Water is not just an environmental issue. Water is key for future development, and it is a fundamental issue at the heart of justice, economics and human rights. Eskom and the South African government can no longer ignore this.
It is still possible to pull back from the brink of crisis. The alternative is already here: renewable energy. The South African government and Eskom must embrace this alternative, since there is simply no substitute for water.
It is time to end the era of coal in South Africa. There is no other alternative, and our ability to deal with a changing climate and future water crisis depends on it.
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They also encounter what some call an "infodemic," an outbreak of misinformation that's making it more difficult to treat patients.
When Leaders and Doctors Spread Misinformation<p>When people in charge of towns, cities, states, and countries spread misinformation, the potential for belief in misinformation to result in policies can have harmful effects.</p><p><a href="https://www.northwell.edu/find-care/find-a-doctor?q=Bruce+E.+Hirsch%2C+MD&insurance=&location=&query_type=provider&physician_partners=false&default_view=list&gender=&language=&sort=relevancy" target="_blank">Dr. Bruce E. Hirsch</a>, attending physician and assistant professor in the infectious disease division of Northwell Health in Manhasset, New York, says an example of this is when President Trump informed the public he was taking hydroxychloroquine as a preventive measure.</p><p>"To approach this enormous challenge, we need some intellectual honesty and clarity, and to disregard expertise and to make decisions and model decisions based on hunches is inviting us to handle challenges on the basis of rumor and uninformed opinion. The magnitude of that error is epic," Hirsch told Healthline.</p><p>Stukus agrees, noting that the harm of this proclamation is documented.</p><p>"Early on when the president touted the benefits of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, people started to hoard this medicine, and state boards had to shut it down because they were getting so many prescriptions for this unproven therapy that it was not available for those who truly needed it, such as those who have lupus and autoimmune conditions," Stukus said.</p><p>He adds that calls to poison control centers increased after the president suggested using disinfectant to prevent contracting the new coronavirus.</p>
Listen to Science, Even When it Changes<p>When recommendations change or evidence flip-flops, skepticism may arise. However, Stukus says change is the beauty of science.</p><p>"That shows us that we can evolve, and if the evidence shows that our prior thoughts were incorrect, we need to be able to change our recommendations and advice based upon the best quality of evidence at the time," he said.</p><p>Pierre agrees.</p><p>"Science is an iterative process, whereby we arrive at facts and truth through repeated and controlled observations. That means that it's inherently self-correcting as we revise conclusions based on ongoing research. Scientific facts aren't immutable dogma chiseled on a tablet. They change based on the best available evidence we have at a given point in time," he said.</p><p>Because research of COVID-19 has only been underway for 6 months, information is evolving rapidly, and new information may contradict old.</p><p>"There's still much we don't know about exactly how [COVID-19] spreads, what effects it has on the body, or how to best treat it. That means that the best available evidence is preliminary, but that doesn't mean that we should ignore it or turn to other sources of information or opinion as if they're just as valid," Pierre said.</p><p>He explains that conspiracy theories based on mistrust lead to vulnerability to misinformation.</p><p>If people mistrust science because it sometimes "changes its mind," Pierre said, "that shouldn't be used to embrace other opinions based on no evidence at all, which are typically selected based on confirmation bias: what we want to believe rather than what the objective evidence supports."</p>
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