Quantcast
Environmental News for a Healthier Planet and Life

Help Support EcoWatch

13 Nearly Complete Protein Sources for Vegetarians and Vegans

Health + Wellness
13 Nearly Complete Protein Sources for Vegetarians and Vegans
Pixabay

By Kelli McGrane, MS, RD

Despite what some people may think, there are many ways to get enough protein on a vegan or vegetarian diet.

However, not all plant-based proteins are complete proteins, meaning protein sources that contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids.


Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. While your body can make some of them, nine have to be obtained through your diet. These are referred to as essential amino acids and include:

  • histidine
  • isoleucine
  • leucine
  • lysine
  • methionine
  • phenylalanine
  • threonine
  • tryptophan
  • valine

Animal products like beef, fish, dairy, and eggs contain enough of every one of these essential amino acids. Thus, they're considered complete proteins.

However, many plant sources of protein are too low in or missing one or more of these essential amino acids. They're considered incomplete protein sources.

Still, given that plant foods contain varying amounts of amino acids, you can manage to get enough of each essential amino acid throughout the day by eating a varied diet and combining complementary plant proteins.

For example, grains like rice are too low in lysine to be considered a complete source of protein. Yet, by also eating lentils or beans, which are higher in lysine, throughout the day, you can be sure to obtain all nine essential amino acids.

Nevertheless, some people like knowing they're getting complete proteins in a particular meal.

Fortunately for vegans and vegetarians, several plant-based foods and combos contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids.

Here are 13 nearly complete protein sources for vegetarians and vegans.

1. Quinoa 

Quinoa is an ancient grain that looks similar to couscous but has a crunchy texture and nutty flavor.

As it doesn't grow from grasses like other cereals and grains, it's technically considered a pseudocereal and naturally gluten-free.

One cup (185 grams) of cooked quinoa provides approximately 8 grams of protein.

In addition to being a complete protein, quinoa provides more magnesium, iron, fiber, and zinc than many common grains.

You can use quinoa in place of rice in most recipes. It can also be simmered in a plant source milk for a creamy, protein-rich breakfast porridge.

Though most supermarkets have quinoa in stock, buying it online may offer you a wider selection and possibly better prices.

Summary

Quinoa is a gluten-free grain that contains 8 grams of protein per 1 cooked cup (185 grams). It's also a good source of several minerals, including magnesium, iron, and zinc.

2. Tofu, Tempeh, and Edamame 

Tofu, tempeh, and edamame are all made from soybeans and make for excellent plant-based protein sources.

Tofu is made from coagulated soy milk that's pressed into white blocks and comes in a variety of textures, including silken, firm, and extra-firm. As it's quite bland, tofu tends to take on the flavor of the foods with which it's cooked.

A 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of tofu provides approximately 8 grams of protein. It also offers 15% of the Daily Value (DV) for calcium, as well as smaller amounts of potassium and iron.

Tempeh is much chewier and nuttier than tofu and made from fermented soybeans, which are often combined with other seeds and grains to form a firm, dense cake.

Meanwhile, edamame beans are whole, immature soybeans that are green and have a slightly sweet, grassy flavor. They're usually steamed or boiled and can be enjoyed on their own as a snack. Alternatively, they can be added to salads, soups, or grain bowls.

Three ounces (85 grams) of tempeh contain 11 grams of protein. This serving is also a good source of fiber and iron and contains potassium and calcium.

A 1/2 cup (85 grams) of whole edamame provides 8 grams of protein along with a good amount of fiber, calcium, iron, and vitamin C.

Summary

Tofu, tempeh, and edamame are all derived from whole soybeans and excellent sources of complete protein. A 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of edamame or tofu provides 8 grams of protein, while the same serving of tempeh has 11 grams.

3. Amaranth 

Amaranth is another pseudocereal that's a complete source of protein.

Once considered a staple food in Incan, Mayan, and Aztec cultures, it has become a popular gluten-free grain alternative.

Amaranth is a versatile grain that can be boiled for a side dish or porridge, or popped in a skillet to add texture to granola bars or salads. Similarly to quinoa, it has a delicate, nutty taste and retains its crunch even when cooked.

When ground into a flour, amaranth can also be used in gluten-free baking.

One cup (246 grams) of cooked amaranth provides approximately 9 grams of protein. It's also an excellent source of manganese, magnesium phosphorus, and iron.

In fact, 1 cup (246 grams) of cooked amaranth provides more than 100% of the DV for manganese, an essential mineral that's important for brain health.

If you can't find amaranth locally, you can buy it online.

Summary

Amaranth is a gluten-free pseudocereal that provides 9 grams of protein per 1 cooked cup (246 grams). It also provides more than 100% of the DV for manganese.

4. Buckwheat 

While it's not as high in protein as quinoa or amaranth, buckwheat is another pseudocereal that's a plant-based source of complete protein.

Nutty in flavor, the hulled kernels, or groats, can be cooked similarly to oatmeal or ground into a flour and used in baking. In Japanese cooking, buckwheat is most commonly consumed in the form of noodles, which are called soba.

One cup (168 grams) of cooked buckwheat groats provides approximately 6 grams of protein.

This pseudocereal is also a good source of many essential minerals, including phosphorus, manganese, copper, magnesium, and iron.

You can buy buckwheat in specialty stores or online.

Summary

Buckwheat is another gluten-free grain that's a source of complete protein, with 6 grams of protein per 1 cooked cup (168 grams).

5. Ezekiel Bread

Ezekiel bread is made from sprouted whole grains and legumes, including barley, soybeans, wheat, lentils, millet, and spelt.

Two slices (68 grams) of the bread contain 8 grams of protein.

Unlike most breads, the combination of whole grains and legumes in Ezekiel bread provides all nine essential amino acids.

Plus, studies suggest that sprouting grains and legumes increases their amino acid content, especially their content of the amino acid lysine.

For an extra protein boost, use Ezekiel bread to make a vegan BLT sandwich with tempeh instead of bacon, or toast the bread and top it with peanut butter and chia seeds.

You can look for Ezekiel bread at your local supermarket or shop for it online.

Summary

Ezekiel bread is made from sprouted whole grains and legumes and contains all nine essential amino acids. Just two slices (68 grams) provide 8 grams of filling protein.

6. Spirulina 

Spirulina is a type of blue-green algae that's a popular supplement among those on vegan and vegetarian diets.

While it can be purchased as tablets, the powdered form of spirulina can be easily added to smoothies, granola bars, soups, and salads for a boost of nutrition.

Just 1 tablespoon (7 grams) of dried spirulina provides 4 grams of protein.

In addition to being a source of complete protein, spirulina is rich in antioxidants and a good source of several B vitamins, copper, and iron.

If you would like to give spirulina a try, you can find it in specialty stores or online.

Summary

Spirulina, a supplement made from blue-green algae, is a source of complete protein. One tablespoon (7 grams) provides 4 grams of protein, as well as good amounts of B vitamins, copper, and iron.

7. Hemp Seeds

Coming from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, hemp seeds are members of the same species as marijuana, but they contain only trace amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana.

As a result, hemp seeds are unlikely to contain enough THC to cause a high feeling or any of the other psychoactive effects that are associated with marijuana.

However, there is concern that hemp seeds could become contaminated with TCH from other parts of the plant during harvesting or storing. Therefore, it's important to purchase seeds from trusted brands that test for THC.

Technically a nut, the edible whites inside of hemp seeds are referred to as hemp hearts and incredibly nutritious.

In addition to being a source of complete protein, hemp hearts are particularly rich in the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).

Three tablespoons (30 grams) of raw, hulled hemp seeds boast an impressive 10 grams of protein and 15% of the DV for iron. They're also a good source of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and zinc.

Hemp hearts have a mild nutty flavor and can be sprinkled over yogurt or salads, added to smoothies, or included in homemade granola and energy bars.

These tasty seeds are widely available in stores and online.

Summary

Hemp seeds are often sold as hemp hearts and incredibly nutritious. In addition to providing 10 grams of protein in 3 tablespoons (30 grams), they're a good source of essential fatty acids, iron, potassium, and several other essential minerals.

8. Chia Seeds 

Chia seeds are tiny round seeds that are often black or white.

They're unique in that they can absorb liquid and form a gel-like substance. As a result, they can be used to make puddings and pectin-free jams. They're also commonly used as an egg substitute in vegan baking.

However, chia seeds can also be used raw as a topping for oatmeal or salads, mixed into baked goods, or added to smoothies.

Two tablespoons (28 grams) of chia seeds provide 4 grams of protein. They're also a good source of omega-3s, iron, calcium, magnesium, and selenium.

If you would like to give chia seeds a try, stock up at your local supermarket or online.

Summary

Chia seeds are tiny round seeds that contain all nine essential amino acids. Two tablespoons (28 grams) contain 4 grams of protein, as well as good amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and several essential minerals.

9. Nutritional Yeast 

Nutritional yeast is a deactivated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that's grown specifically to be a food product.

Commercially, nutritional yeast is sold as a yellow powder or flakes and has a distinctive umami flavor that can be used to add a cheese-like flavor to vegan dishes, such as popcorn, pasta, or mashed potatoes.

A 1/4-cup (15-gram) serving of nutritional yeast provides 8 grams of complete protein.

When fortified, nutritional yeast can also be an excellent source of zinc, magnesium, copper, manganese, and all the B vitamins, including B12.

You can shop for nutritional yeast locally or online.

Summary

Nutritional yeast is a deactivated strain of yeast that imparts a cheesy, umami flavor to vegan dishes. Just 1/4 cup (15 grams) provides 8 grams of protein.

10. Rice and Beans

Rice and beans are a classic pairing that's a source of complete protein.

Both brown and white rice are low in lysine but high in methionine. In contrast, beans are high in lysine but low in methionine. As such, combining them allows you to get enough of each, as well as the remaining seven essential amino acids, to count as a complete protein.

One cup (239 grams) of rice and beans provides 12 grams of protein and 10 grams of fiber.

While you can enjoy the mixture on its own, rice and beans can be topped with guacamole, salsa, and roasted vegetables for a simple, filling meal.

Summary

Together, rice and beans contain all nine essential amino acids to form a complete source of protein. Approximately 1 cup (239 grams) provides 12 grams of this nutrient.

11. Pita and Hummus 

A delicious Middle Eastern classic, pita and hummus are another combination that provides all nine essential amino acids.

Similarly to rice, the wheat used to make pita is too low in lysine to be considered a complete protein source. However, chickpeas — the main ingredient in hummus — are rich in lysine.

One medium-sized (57-gram) whole wheat pita with 2 tablespoons (30 grams) of hummus provides approximately 7 grams of protein.

In addition to serving as a snack, adding fried or baked ground chickpea balls known as falafel will further increase the protein content of your pita and hummus.

Summary

The combination of pita and hummus is another classic pairing that constitutes a complete protein source. One medium-sized (57-gram) pita with 2 tablespoons (30 grams) of hummus provides 7 grams of protein.

12. Peanut Butter Sandwich 

A lunch box staple, natural peanut butter sandwiched between whole grain bread is another common combination that results in a complete protein source.

As mentioned earlier, wheat is low in lysine while pulses like peanuts make up for it by being high in lysine.

Two slices (62 grams) of whole wheat sandwich bread with 2 tablespoons (32 grams) of peanut butter provide approximately 14 grams of protein.

However, the exact amount of protein may vary depending on the brand of bread you buy.

When choosing a peanut butter, aim for a product with minimal ingredients, ideally only peanuts and maybe a bit of salt.

Summary

Wheat bread is low in lysine, but when combined with lysine-rich peanut butter, it becomes a complete protein source. One peanut butter sandwich provides approximately 14 grams of protein.

13. Mycoprotein (Quorn) 

Mycoprotein is a meat substitute product that's marketed under the name Quorn.

Made from a naturally occurring fungus called Fusarium venenatum, it's sometimes mixed with eggs or milk protein before being shaped into patties, cutlets, or strips. As a result, not all mycoprotein products are vegan.

Both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency have determined that mycoprotein is safe enough to be sold to the public.

However, there are some concerns that the fungal ingredient in it can cause dangerous allergic reactions in some individuals.

Still, as it's a rich source of essential amino acids and low in sodium, sugar, and fat, it's a popular option for those looking for a plant-based alternative to chicken.

While the amount of protein varies by product, one 75-gram Quorn Chik'N patty contains 9 grams of protein.

If you want to give mycoprotein a try, you can find many Quorn products in stores and online.

Summary

Mycoprotein, a popular meat alternative, is sold under the brand name Quorn. While the amount of protein varies by product, one Quorn Chik'N patty provides about 9 grams of complete protein.

The Bottom Line

Despite some concerns over being able to get adequate protein on a vegan or vegetarian diet, many high protein, plant-based foods are available.

Furthermore, several of these foods even provide all nine essential amino acids and are therefore considered complete proteins.

To ensure you're meeting your amino acid needs on a vegan or vegetarian diet, try incorporating a variety of these complete protein sources or combinations of nearly complete choices into your plant-based diet.

Reposted with permission from Healthline. For detailed source information, please view the original article on Healthline.

Fish exposed to endocrine-disrupting compounds, like this inland silverside fish, can pass on health problems to future generations. Bill Stagnaro / Wikimedia Commons / CC by 3.0

By Brian Bienkowski

Fish exposed to endocrine-disrupting compounds pass on health problems to future generations, including deformities, reduced survival, and reproductive problems, according to a new study.

Read More Show Less

EcoWatch Daily Newsletter

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern declares victory during the Labor Party Election Night Function at Auckland Town Hall on Oct. 17, 2020 in Auckland, New Zealand. Hannah Peters / Getty Images

Jacinda Ardern, the New Zealand Prime Minister who has emerged as a leader on the climate crisis and the coronavirus pandemic, has won a second term in office.

Read More Show Less

Trending

Poor eating habits, lack of exercise, genetics, and a bunch of other things are known to be behind excessive weight gain. But, did you know that how much sleep you get each night can also determine how much weight you gain or lose?

Read More Show Less
A woman holds a handful of vitamin C. VO IMAGES / Getty Images

By Laura Beil

Consumers have long turned to vitamins and herbs to try to protect themselves from disease. This pandemic is no different — especially with headlines that scream "This supplement could save you from coronavirus."

Read More Show Less
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and Sir David Attenborough look at a piece of ice core from the Antarctic during a naming ceremony for the polar research ship the RSS Sir David Attenborough on Sept. 26, 2019 in Birkenhead, England. Asadour Guzelian - WPA Pool / Getty Images

By Elliot Douglas

In early October, Britain's Prince William teamed up with conservationist David Attenborough to launch the Earthshot Prize, a new award for environmentalist innovation. The Earthshot brands itself the "most prestigious global environment prize in history."

The world-famous wildlife broadcaster and his royal sidekick appear to have played an active role in the prize's inception, and media coverage has focused largely on them as the faces of the campaign.

But the pair are only the frontmen of a much larger movement which has been in development for several years. In addition to a panel of experts who will decide on the winners, the prize's formation took advice from the World Wildlife Fund, Greenpeace and the Jack Ma Foundation.

With more and more global attention on the climate crisis, celebrity endorsement of environmental causes has become more common. But why do environmental causes recruit famous faces for their campaigns? And what difference can it make?

'Count Me In'

"We need celebrities to reach those people who we cannot reach ourselves," says Sarah Marchildon from the United Nations Climate Change secretariat (UNFCCC) in Bonn, Germany.

Marchildon is a proponent of the use of celebrities to raise awareness of environmental causes. In addition to promoting a selection of climate ambassadors who represent the UN on sustainability issues, Marchildon's team has produced videos with well-known narrators from the entertainment world: among them, Morgan Freeman and Mark Ruffalo.

"We choose celebrities who have a lifestyle where they are already talking about these issues," Marchildon explains.

"Sometimes they reach out to us themselves, as David Attenborough did recently. And then they can promote the videos on their own social channels which reach more people than we do — for example, if they have 20 million followers and we have 750,000."

Environmental groups focused on their own domestic markets are also taking this approach. One Germany-based organization that uses celebrities in campaigns is the German Zero NGO. Set up in 2019, it advocates for a climate-neutral Germany by 2035.

German Zero produced a video in March 2020 introducing the campaign with "66 celebrities" that supported the campaign, among them Deutschland 83 actor Jonas Nay and former professional footballer Andre Schürrle. They solicit support as well as financial contributions from viewers.

"Count me in," they say, pointing toward the camera. "You too?"

"We are incredibly grateful for the VIPs in our videos," says German Zero spokeswoman Eva-Maria McCormack.

Assessing Success Is Complex

But quantifying the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement of campaigns is not a straightforward process.

"In order to measure effectiveness, first of all you need to define what is meant by success," says Alegria Olmedo, a researcher at the Zoology Department at the University of Oxford.

Olmedo is the author of a study looking at a range of campaigns concerning pangolin consumption, fronted by local and Western celebrities, in Vietnam and China. But she says her biggest stumbling block was knowing how to measure a campaign's success.

"You need a clear theory of change," explains Olmedo. "Have the celebrities actually helped in achieving the campaign's goals? And how do you quantify these goals? Maybe it is increased donations or higher engagement with a cause."

A popular campaign in China in recent years saw famous chefs Zhao Danian and Shu Yi pledge to abstain from cooking endangered wildlife. While the pledge achieved widespread recognition, both Olmedo and Marchildon say it's difficult to know whether it made any difference to people's actions.

"In life we see a thousand messages every day, and it is very hard to pinpoint whether one campaign has actually made a difference in people's behavior," she explains.

Awareness Is Not Enough

Many campaigns that feature celebrities focus on raising awareness rather than on concrete action — which, for researcher Olmedo, raises a further problem in identifying effectiveness.

"Reach should never be a success outcome," she says. "Many campaigns say they reached a certain number of people on social media. But there has been a lot of research that shows that simply giving people information does not mean they are actually going to remember it or act upon it."

But anecdotal evidence from campaigns may suggest reach can make an active difference.

"Our VIP video is by far the most watched on our social media channels," McCormack from German Zero says. "People respond to it very directly. A lot of volunteers of all ages heard about us through that video."

However, some marketing studies have shown that celebrity endorsement of a cause or product can distract from the issue itself, as people only remember the person, not the content of what they were saying.

Choosing the Right Celebrity

Celebrity choice is also very important. Campaigns that use famous faces are often aiming to appeal to members of the public who do not necessarily follow green issues.

For certain campaigns with clear target audiences, choosing a climate scientist or well-known environmentalist rather than a celebrity could be more appealing — Attenborough is a classic example. For others, images and videos involving cute animals may be more likely to get a message heard than attaching a famous face.

"We choose celebrities who have a lifestyle where they are already talking about these issues," says Marchildon from the UN. "You need figures with credibility."

McCormack cites the example of Katharine Hayhoe, an environmental scientist who is also an evangelical Christian. In the southern United States, Hayhoe has become a celebrity in her own right, appealing to an audience that might not normally be interested in the messages of climate scientists.

But as soon as you get a celebrity involved, campaigns also put themselves at risk of the whims of that celebrity. Prince William and younger members of the royal family have come under fire in recent years for alleged hypocrisy for their backing of environmental campaigns while simultaneously using private jets to fly around the world.

But Does It Really Work?

While environmental campaigns hope that endorsement from well-known figures can boost a campaign, there is little research to back this up.

"The biggest finding [from my study] was that we were unable to produce any evidence that shows that celebrity endorsement of environmental causes makes any difference," says Olmedo.

This will come as a blow to many campaigns that have invested time and effort into relationships with celebrity ambassadors. But for many, the personal message that many celebrities offer in videos like that produced by German Zero and campaigns like the Earthshot Prize are what counts.

The research may not prove this conclusively — but if the public believes a person they respect deeply personally cares about an important issue, they are perhaps more likely to care too.

"I personally believe in the power this can have," says Marchildon. "And if having a celebrity involved can get a single 16-year-old future leader thinking about environmentalist issues — that is enough."

Reposted with permission from DW.

Support Ecowatch