America Needs a Plastics Intervention. Now’s the Time.
By Jeff Turrentine
Deep in our hearts, we know that the global addiction to plastic is wholly unsustainable. It's why so many of us make a real effort to significantly curtail our use of plastic bottles and bags, clamshell packaging, straws, disposable utensils and the like.
In addition, it's why so many of us support larger and more concerted policies to remove plastic from the waste stream. And finally, it's why we recycle, a laudable activity that we nevertheless recognize as being utterly insufficient to make up for our plastics addiction. According to one recent study, of the 6.3 billion metric tons of plastic waste that the world has generated since the middle of the last century, we've managed to recycle only about 9 percent of it. The rest of it gets trashed and ultimately ends up in our landfills or our oceans. Every year, we throw enough plastic away to circle the Earth four times.
Now comes news that should drive home an obvious point: As worthwhile as recycling efforts are, and as much as we need to support them with our local ordinances and individual actions, we simply can't expect recycling to get us out of this mess. On Jan. 1, China, the world's largest importer of international plastic waste, stopped accepting shipments. After decades of purchasing the detritus of our disposable culture, the Chinese have determined that the environmental costs of storing and processing seven million metric tons of trash annually from other countries simply outweigh the benefits.
In past years, nearly one-third of the recyclable plastic in North America went to China for processing. No more. While the news of China's decision sent shock waves through the plastics and recycling sectors, it has yet to penetrate the public consciousness inside the U.S., where Americans go through 100 billion plastic shopping bags every year and discard 2.5 million plastic bottles every hour.
But it needs to sink in. Americans are very good at hiding—or, in this case, exporting—what we throw away. For all our concerns about landfills and what goes into them, I'd wager that very few of us have ever visited one; the thought of witnessing our own contributions to the waste stream makes us profoundly uneasy. Now that we can no longer rely on China to accept ton after metric ton of our cheaply made and casually discarded plastic, we may be headed for a long-overdue moment of reckoning: a sober acknowledgement that the ultimate solutions here aren't, in the end, going to be technological or economic in nature. They're going to be attitudinal and societal.
And as clichéd as it may sound, the solutions really are going to start with you and me—and the myriad little choices that we make every day. I don't just mean bringing your own canvas shopping bags to the grocery store, or buying food in bulk to avoid plastic packaging, or swearing off plastic forks and knives. All those choices are good ones, and if more of us made them, the aggregate effects would be tremendous. But there are also other choices to be made, choices that, taken together, constitute the kind of cultural and societal pressure that pushes upward from the grass roots and effects change at a much larger scale.
What's called for now is a second industrial revolution in which speed and efficiency, the motors of the first industrial revolution, are replaced by a dedication to sustainability and social responsibility. Product designers, marketers, industry heads, trade groups and—most important—consumers need to work together to create demand for new packaging solutions that use materials more planet-friendly than plastic. Once demand enters the equation in a serious way, interesting things start to happen. Creativity flourishes. Opportunities for companies to increase sales and rebrand themselves open up.
Were we to put our collective thought and effort into it, we really could make plastic packaging the new smoking—redefining its culturally approved image, cutting into its social license, and making companies clamor and compete for sustainable alternatives. It's not pie-in-the-sky idealism. Industry standards change; the status quo gets disrupted all the time. But it typically happens only when manufacturers begin to feel self-conscious about being out of date, out of style, or out of touch with public demand.
China's decision to stop taking our plastic waste should be a wake-up call. The image of a trash-filled boat making its way halfway across the Pacific Ocean—and then turning around and heading back to the States with nowhere else to dock—should be in our heads as we try to figure out where to go from here. Our days of offloading our garbage are coming to an end. It's time to start making less of it.
Reposted with permission from our media associate onEarth.
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Where Does the Deficiency Begin?<p>Nobody knows exactly how much vitamin D a person actually needs. The question of when a deficiency starts is correspondingly controversial. However, vitamin D is becoming increasingly popular.Not only is the pseudo-scientific literature on the "sun vitamin" experiencing an upswing, but the number of published studies has also increased enormously in recent years. For example, in 2019 <a href="https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/40/4/1109/5126915" target="_blank">a study found that</a> Vitamin D is responsible for keeping the skeleton functional and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and various types of cancer. <br></p>
An All-Rounder<p>Vitamin D levels in the body rise and fall according to sun exposure. If sufficient UV rays reach the skin, the body is able to produce the vitamin itself. However, the human body only derives an estimated 10 to 20 percent of its daily requirement from food.</p><p>The vitamin D that we synthesize from sunlight or food is not biologically active at first. Before the kidneys can produce the biologically active form of the vitamin, known as calcitriol, and release it into the blood, some metabolic processes must take place beforehand.</p><p>In addition, many organs have receptors to which the precursor of calcitriol binds. Further, this substance is also present in blood.</p><p>From this precursor, the organs then produce calcitriol themselves, which the body then uses for countless other processes in the body. This form of vitamin D thus regulates insulin secretion, inhibits tumor growth, and promotes the formation of red blood cells as well as the survival and activity of macrophages, which are important for the <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2502/htm" target="_blank">immune system.</a></p>
Low Vitamin D, Severe COVID-19 Disease?<p>A research study carried out <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352364620300067?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">at the University of Hohenheim</a> has now established a link between vitamin D deficiency, certain previous diseases, and severe cases of COVID-19.</p><p>According to the study, "there is a lot of evidence that several non-communicable diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome) are associated with low vitamin D plasma levels. These comorbidities, together with the often accompanying vitamin D deficiency, increase the risk of severe COVID-19 events."</p><p>"This statement is completely correct," said Martin Fassnacht, head of endocrinology at the University Hospital of Würzburg. However, he qualifies that it is a pure association, "i.e. a mere observation that these events occur together.</p><p>Dr. Fassnacht is very critical of the hype surrounding vitamin D, but not because he denies the vitamin serves important functions. However, studies on humans have not been able to show that vitamin D has the healing powers many often propagate.</p><p>Fassnacht says, "If you take a closer look, the hopes that the administration of vitamin D has a healing effect have not been confirmed so far."</p>
Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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