America Needs a Plastics Intervention. Now’s the Time.
By Jeff Turrentine
Deep in our hearts, we know that the global addiction to plastic is wholly unsustainable. It's why so many of us make a real effort to significantly curtail our use of plastic bottles and bags, clamshell packaging, straws, disposable utensils and the like.
In addition, it's why so many of us support larger and more concerted policies to remove plastic from the waste stream. And finally, it's why we recycle, a laudable activity that we nevertheless recognize as being utterly insufficient to make up for our plastics addiction. According to one recent study, of the 6.3 billion metric tons of plastic waste that the world has generated since the middle of the last century, we've managed to recycle only about 9 percent of it. The rest of it gets trashed and ultimately ends up in our landfills or our oceans. Every year, we throw enough plastic away to circle the Earth four times.
Now comes news that should drive home an obvious point: As worthwhile as recycling efforts are, and as much as we need to support them with our local ordinances and individual actions, we simply can't expect recycling to get us out of this mess. On Jan. 1, China, the world's largest importer of international plastic waste, stopped accepting shipments. After decades of purchasing the detritus of our disposable culture, the Chinese have determined that the environmental costs of storing and processing seven million metric tons of trash annually from other countries simply outweigh the benefits.
In past years, nearly one-third of the recyclable plastic in North America went to China for processing. No more. While the news of China's decision sent shock waves through the plastics and recycling sectors, it has yet to penetrate the public consciousness inside the U.S., where Americans go through 100 billion plastic shopping bags every year and discard 2.5 million plastic bottles every hour.
But it needs to sink in. Americans are very good at hiding—or, in this case, exporting—what we throw away. For all our concerns about landfills and what goes into them, I'd wager that very few of us have ever visited one; the thought of witnessing our own contributions to the waste stream makes us profoundly uneasy. Now that we can no longer rely on China to accept ton after metric ton of our cheaply made and casually discarded plastic, we may be headed for a long-overdue moment of reckoning: a sober acknowledgement that the ultimate solutions here aren't, in the end, going to be technological or economic in nature. They're going to be attitudinal and societal.
And as clichéd as it may sound, the solutions really are going to start with you and me—and the myriad little choices that we make every day. I don't just mean bringing your own canvas shopping bags to the grocery store, or buying food in bulk to avoid plastic packaging, or swearing off plastic forks and knives. All those choices are good ones, and if more of us made them, the aggregate effects would be tremendous. But there are also other choices to be made, choices that, taken together, constitute the kind of cultural and societal pressure that pushes upward from the grass roots and effects change at a much larger scale.
What's called for now is a second industrial revolution in which speed and efficiency, the motors of the first industrial revolution, are replaced by a dedication to sustainability and social responsibility. Product designers, marketers, industry heads, trade groups and—most important—consumers need to work together to create demand for new packaging solutions that use materials more planet-friendly than plastic. Once demand enters the equation in a serious way, interesting things start to happen. Creativity flourishes. Opportunities for companies to increase sales and rebrand themselves open up.
Were we to put our collective thought and effort into it, we really could make plastic packaging the new smoking—redefining its culturally approved image, cutting into its social license, and making companies clamor and compete for sustainable alternatives. It's not pie-in-the-sky idealism. Industry standards change; the status quo gets disrupted all the time. But it typically happens only when manufacturers begin to feel self-conscious about being out of date, out of style, or out of touch with public demand.
China's decision to stop taking our plastic waste should be a wake-up call. The image of a trash-filled boat making its way halfway across the Pacific Ocean—and then turning around and heading back to the States with nowhere else to dock—should be in our heads as we try to figure out where to go from here. Our days of offloading our garbage are coming to an end. It's time to start making less of it.
Reposted with permission from our media associate onEarth.
Yet another former Trump administration staffer has come out with an endorsement for former Vice President Joe Biden, this time in response to President Donald Trump's handling of the coronavirus pandemic.
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By D. André Green II
One of nature's epic events is underway: Monarch butterflies' fall migration. Departing from all across the United States and Canada, the butterflies travel up to 2,500 miles to cluster at the same locations in Mexico or along the Pacific Coast where their great-grandparents spent the previous winter.
Millions of People Care About Monarchs<p>I will never forget the sights and sounds the first time I visited monarchs' overwintering sites in Mexico. Our guide pointed in the distance to what looked like hanging branches covered with dead leaves. But then I saw the leaves flash orange every so often, revealing what were actually thousands of tightly packed butterflies. The monarchs made their most striking sounds in the Sun, when they burst from the trees in massive fluttering plumes or landed on the ground in the tussle of mating.</p><p>Decades of educational outreach by teachers, researchers and hobbyists has cultivated a generation of monarch admirers who want to help preserve this phenomenon. This global network has helped restore not only monarchs' summer breeding habitat by planting milkweed, but also general pollinator habitat by planting nectaring flowers across North America.</p><p>Scientists have calculated that restoring the monarch population to a stable level of about 120 million butterflies will require <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12198" target="_blank">planting 1.6 billion new milkweed stems</a>. And they need them fast. This is too large a target to achieve through grassroots efforts alone. A <a href="https://www.fws.gov/savethemonarch/CCAA.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">new plan</a>, announced in the spring of 2020, is designed to help fill the gap.</p>
Pros and Cons of Regulation<p>The top-down strategy for saving monarchs gained energy in 2014, when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service <a href="https://www.fws.gov/southeast/pdf/petition/monarch.pdf" target="_blank">proposed</a> listing them as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. A decision is expected in December 2020.</p><p>Listing a species as endangered or threatened <a href="https://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa-library/pdf/listing.pdf" target="_blank">triggers restrictions</a> on "taking" (hunting, collecting or killing), transporting or selling it, and on activities that negatively affect its habitat. Listing monarchs would impose restrictions on landowners in areas where monarchs are found, over vast swaths of land in the U.S.</p><p>In my opinion, this is not a reason to avoid a listing. However, a "threatened" listing might inadvertently threaten one of the best conservation tools that we have: public education.</p><p>It would severely restrict common practices, such as rearing monarchs in classrooms and back yards, as well as scientific research. Anyone who wants to take monarchs and milkweed for these purposes would have to apply for special permits. But these efforts have had a multigenerational educational impact, and they should be protected. Few public campaigns have been more successful at raising awareness of conservation issues.</p>
<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="91165203d4ec0efc30e4632a00fdf57d"><iframe lazy-loadable="true" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/KilPRvjbMrA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The Rescue Attempt<p>To preempt the need for this kind of regulation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service approved a <a href="https://www.fws.gov/savethemonarch/pdfs/Monarch%20CCAA-CCA%20Public%20Comment%20Documents/Monarch-Nationwide_CCAA-CCA_Draft.pdf" target="_blank">Nationwide Candidate Conservation Agreement for Monarch Butterflies</a>. Under this plan, "rights-of-way" landowners – energy and transportation companies and private owners – commit to restoring and creating millions of acres of pollinator habitat that have been decimated by land development and herbicide use in the past half-century.</p><p>The agreement was spearheaded by the <a href="http://rightofway.erc.uic.edu/" target="_blank">Rights-of-Way Habitat Working Group</a>, a collaboration between the University of Illinois Chicago's <a href="https://erc.uic.edu/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Energy Resources Center</a>, the Fish and Wildlife Service and over 40 organizations from the energy and transportation sectors. These sectors control "rights-of-way" corridors such as lands near power lines, oil pipelines, railroad tracks and interstates, all valuable to monarch habitat restoration.</p><p>Under the plan, partners voluntarily agree to commit a percentage of their land to host protected monarch habitat. In exchange, general operations on their land that might directly harm monarchs or destroy milkweed will not be subject to the enhanced regulation of the Endangered Species Act – protection that would last for 25 years if monarchs are listed as threatened. The agreement is expected to create up to 2.3 million acres of new protected habitat, which ideally would avoid the need for a "threatened" listing.</p>
A Model for Collaboration<p>This agreement could be one of the few specific interventions that is big enough to allow researchers to quantify its impact on the size of the monarch population. Even if the agreement produces only 20% of its 2.3 million acre goal, this would still yield nearly half a million acres of new protected habitat. This would provide a powerful test of the role of declining breeding and nectaring habitat compared to other challenges to monarchs, such as climate change or pollution.</p><p>Scientists hope that data from this agreement will be made publicly available, like projects in the <a href="https://www.fws.gov/savethemonarch/MCD.html" target="_blank">Monarch Conservation Database</a>, which has tracked smaller on-the-ground conservation efforts since 2014. With this information we can continue to develop powerful new models with better accuracy for determining how different habitat factors, such as the number of milkweed stems or nectaring flowers on a landscape scale, affect the monarch population.</p><p>North America's monarch butterfly migration is one of the most awe-inspiring feats in the natural world. If this rescue plan succeeds, it could become a model for bridging different interests to achieve a common conservation goal.</p>
The annual Ig Nobel prizes were awarded Thursday by the science humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research for scientific experiments that seem somewhat absurd, but are also thought-provoking. This was the 30th year the awards have been presented, but the first time they were not presented at Harvard University. Instead, they were delivered in a 75-minute pre-recorded ceremony.