Satellite Imagery Helps Detect Ocean Plastic Pollution
By Elizabeth Claire Alberts
In 2018, Lauren Biermann was scouring a satellite image of the ocean off the coast of the Isle of May, Scotland, searching for signs of floating seaweed for a project at her university. Her eyes were drawn to lines of white dots gently curving along an ocean front.
"It was weird because I was seeing floating things that didn't look like plants, and I didn't know what they could be," Biermann, an Earth observation scientist at Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the U.K., told Mongabay. She said she considered the fact that it could be plastic, but found it hard to believe that Scotland had patches of plastic off its coast. "I spent the first three months trying to prove that it wasn't plastic, so I went and made a library of all of the things floating, like foam and driftwood."
During her investigation, Biermann came across a project conducted by the University of the Aegean in Greece, in which a team of academic staff and students used drone and satellite image technology to identify "plastic targets," such as water bottles, plastic bags and fishing nets, on the sea surface. This data helped Biermann connect the dots in her own research.
"I went, yes, okay, this is plastic," Biermann said. "It was the first time I had … data to validate what I had seen in Scotland, and that's how I could build a spectral signature of plastic, and then go and apply it to other places."
More than 8.3 billion tons of plastic waste enter the oceans each year, equivalent to a garbage truck dumping its contents into the sea every minute of the day, according to a report by the World Economic Forum. Anything more than 5 millimeters in size, about a fifth of an inch, is generally considered to be "macroplastic," while anything below that size is "microplastic."
Biermann and a team of colleagues embarked on their own study of detecting ocean plastic through satellite imagery, and recently published their findings in Scientific Reports. First, they obtained high-resolution optical data from the European Space Agency (ESA), which is gathered by the Sentinel-2 Earth observation satellite. Second, they used the plastic target data from the University of the Aegean to help differentiate plastic debris from natural objects like driftwood and seaweed.
Then the researchers employed an algorithm to develop a "floating debris index" (FDI) that would identify macroplastics, like plastic water bottles and plastic bags, bobbing on the surface of the sea.
"I will read an article or a social media post about marine plastic pollution, and then go and look at that area, using Sentinel-2, and process the data using the floating debris index … and then extract those values and feed it into the machine learning algorithm," Biermann said.
Biermann and her colleagues have tested these methods on satellite imagery of coastal waters off Accra, Ghana; the San Juan Islands, U.S.; Da Nang, Vietnam; and east Scotland, reporting an 86% accuracy rate.
However, the process of identifying plastic isn't always straightforward. Cloud cover and rough seas can compromise the data, and macroplastics won't stay in one place for a long time, particularly in coastal zones, Biermann said. "Things change really quickly, so a Sentinel-2 image that I look at today would have been taken two days ago, and by then anything that I see is gone," she said.
While plastic tends to get pushed around in the ocean, winds and ocean currents will propel it into clusters that stay in one place. Biermann says she hopes that optical satellite data can help identify these aggregates, and that people and organizations can use this information to work on solutions.
"There will be cleanup operations like the Ocean Voyages Institute, which we'd like to work with. They would then go to where we spotted things, and they would be able to remove tons of plastic at a time," Biermann said. "This really is the first technical exercise, but we would then like to apply the method, far more broadly … to rivers and open waters."
Biermann makes an important clarification: this satellite data shouldn't be seen as a solution to the plastic pollution issue.
"On its own, it can't do anything to curb the plastic pollution problem," Biermann said. "The way to curb plastic pollution problem is to address the source. We know that the majority of plastics come from land, so it's not just addressing the source in terms of the industry, but also in terms of waste management practices on land."
She says she also hopes this data will help build awareness of the global plastic pollution issue, and inspire action on the issue.
"What I don't want to see is my work being used to greenwash the problem — now we can see it from space, so we know where to go and fetch it," she said. "That's not the case at all. And I think if anything, it's just to say there that there's enough of it now that it can be seen from space, [and we should] take that message to heart. The individual is not the problem here, and our individual behavior is not generating plastic on such a scale that it can be seen from space. Really, it is an industry problem."
Reposted with permission from Mongabay.
- 'Alarming' Report Uses NASA Satellite Data to Reveal World's Toxic ... ›
- House Democrats Introduce Ocean-Based Climate Solutions Act - EcoWatch ›
In a dramatic rescue captured on camera, a Florida man ran into a pond and pried open an alligator's mouth in order to rescue his beloved puppy, all without dropping his cigar.
- 'He had green eyes': Florida man will paint alligator that attacked him ›
- Florida alligator attack: A woman was attacked by a 10-foot alligator ... ›
- Weird presidential pets include alligator, tiger cub, dog named Satan ... ›
- Alligators make terrible pets: 'You're basically dealing with a dinosaur.' ›
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
Jean-Marc Neveu and Olivier Civil never expected to find themselves battling against disposable mask pollution.
When they founded their recycling start-up Plaxtil in 2017, it was textile waste they set their sights on. The project developed a process that turned fabrics into a new recyclable material they describe as "ecological plastic."
Mounting Piles of Waste<p>It is not only the streets of Chatellerault where pandemic pollution is piling-up, but also the world's beaches and oceans. Once there, they can take up to 450 years to degrade and disappear.</p><p>Esther Röling, co-organizer of the annual Adventure Clean Up Challenge held on Hong Kong Island, has seen this waste firsthand. In October the sports challenge pitted teams against one another in a competition to remove trash from 13 hard-to-reach coastal areas around the city.</p><p>They find tons of both disposable and reusable masks, said Röling. "You wonder how it ended up there. Was it just thrown on the ground? Or was it in a garbage bag that broke open?"</p><p>Almost 10,000 kilometers away in Antibes on the sunny French Riviera, it's a similar picture. For the past few months, divers and clean-up volunteers working with an ocean clean-up non-profit called Operation Mer Propre have been collecting an increasing number of masks found on land and in the sea.</p><p>"Since the beginning of the lockdown when we started to count, we've reached 800, 900, [and now in total] 1000 masks," said co-founder Joko Peltier. </p><p>According to <a href="https://unctad.org/news/growing-plastic-pollution-wake-covid-19-how-trade-policy-can-help" target="_blank">UN estimates</a>, up to 75% of all coronavirus-related plastic could end up as waste in oceans and landfills.</p>
The Limits of Recycling<p>Yet not all are convinced the recycling of this waste is possible on a global scale. </p><p>"What those citizen groups are doing is really beneficial but once they collect it, it should just go to a landfill or an incinerator. They shouldn't necessarily expect it to get recycled," said Jonathan Krones, an industrial ecologist and visiting assistant professor of environmental studies at Boston College.</p><p>That's because mask recycling programs like Plaxtil are few and far between and most don't have the benefit of a readily adaptable production process. </p><p>Even in countries with solid recycling infrastructure, he says, the system is designed to separate out specific types of waste like bottles or cardboard.</p><p>"I imagine that it would be technically feasible to develop a separation process to filter out masks, but there simply aren't enough of them to make that economical," he said.</p><p>Collection is a big hurdle, he adds. Since each mask only weighs a fraction of a gram and they're scattered on roads or mixed with other trash, it is difficult and costly. </p><p>"You need a lot of raw material of the right quality to make investing in the recycling technology and the recycling system worthwhile," he said.<span></span><br></p>
Hemp, Sugar Cane and Sustainable Alternatives<p>Some projects are instead addressing the material used to make masks.</p><p>French company Geochanvre have created a mask made primarily from hemp, while in Australia, researchers at the Queensland University of Technology are experimenting with a disposable product made from agricultural waste. </p><p>Biodegradable options are exciting alternatives to reduce the fossil fuels needed for the creation of plastic-based masks, said Krones, but they don't absolve the wearer from the responsibility of what happens afterwards. </p><p>Bio-based masks often need their own composing solutions, he explains, because in landfill they can produce high amounts of the greenhouse gas methane when anaerobic bacteria feeds on the organic material. Methane is known to be significantly more potent than carbon dioxide.</p><p>"I think as long as we have in our mind that we want to have disposability, we're going to have to wrestle with a variety of different sorts of environmental tradeoffs," he said, adding that reusable, fabric masks are the best option available to most people.</p><p>Precimask is developing a clear face covering with an optional visor made from hard plastic, designed to be long-lasting.<br></p><p>Air enters either side of the cheeks through a technology normally found in pool filters and car exhaust systems, said company spokeswoman Juliette Chambet.</p><p>"We wanted to make ceramic-based filters that would be washable and cleanable, which would allow them to be reused as many times as desired without having to buy a new consumable or produce waste," she said. </p><p>Ultimately, encouraging mask wearers to think about the entire lifecycle of a mask is key, explains Neveu. </p><p>"We want people who put on the masks to realize that they are also responsible for the waste, he said. "It's not inevitable that this [pandemic] will become an environmental catastrophe.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/covid-19-recycling-pollution-trash-pandemic/a-55707817" target="_blank">Deutsche Welle</a>.</em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649032193#/" target="_self"></a></p>
- Coronavirus Plastic Waste Polluting the Environment - EcoWatch ›
- Scuba Divers Make Face Masks out of Recycled Ocean Plastic ... ›
By Bret Wilkins
In a year in which the United States has already suffered 16 climate-driven extreme weather events causing more than $1 billion in economic damages, and as millions of American workers face loss of essential unemployment benefits due to congressional inaction, a report published Monday reveals the Trump administration has given fossil fuel companies as much as $15.2 billion in direct relief — and tens of billions more indirectly — through federal COVID-19 recovery programs since March.
- 'We Need People's Bailout, Not Polluters' Bailout': Climate Groups ... ›
- Corporate Polluters Have Received Tens of Millions in PPP Loans ... ›
- Trump Bails Out Oil Industry, Not U.S. Families, as Coronavirus ... ›
- Former Federal Reserve Governor Rebukes Fed for Fossil Fuel Bail ... ›
By Ashia Aubourg
As Thanksgiving approaches, some Indigenous organizations and activists caution against perpetuating further injustices towards Native communities. Indigenous activist Mariah Gladstone, for example, encourages eaters to celebrate the harvest time in ways that do not involve stereotypes and pilgrim stories.
- Why Face Masks Belong at Your Thanksgiving Gathering + 7 Things ... ›
- Reasons to Be Thankful — 8 Food and Farm 'Good News' Stories ... ›
- Why I'm Going to Standing Rock for Thanksgiving - EcoWatch ›
By Alex Middleton
Losing weight and reducing fat is a hard battle to fight. Thankfully, there are fat burner supplements that help you gain your target body and goal. However, how would you know which supplement is right for you?